Boat Glossary

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Bow

front of a vessel

Stern

rear of a vessel

Starboard

right side of vessel

Port

left side of a vessel

Hull

body of a vessel

Gunwale ("gunnel")

upper edge of vessel’s side

Cleat

metal fitting on which a rope can be fastened

Propeller

rotates & powers a boat forward or backward

Beam

maximum width of a vessel

Freeboard

distance from water to lowest point of the boat where water could come on board

Draft

depth of water needed to float a vessel

Keel

main centerline (BACKBONE) of a vessel or the extension of HULL that increases stability in the water

Personal watercraft vessel

a small vessel that uses an inboard jet drive as it primary source of propulsion, & is designed to be operated by a person or persons sitting/standing/kneeling on the vessel rather that inside the vessel. * YOU NEED ENGINE POWER in order to STEER & CONTROL a PWC.

Displacement Mode

A planing hull, when operated at very low speeds, will cut through the waters like a displacement hull.

Plowing Mode

As speed increases, a planing hull will have a raised bow, reducing the operator’s vision and throwing a very large wake. Avoid maintaining a speed that puts your boat in lowing mode.

Planing Mode

Your boat is in planing when enough power is applied so that the hull glides on top of the water. Different boats reach planing mode at different speeds.

Planing Hulls

are designed to rise up and glide on top of the water when enough power is supplied. These boats may operate like displacement hulls when at rest or at low speeds but climb towards the surface of the water as they mover faster.

Length overall

length of the hull EXCLUDING any attachments (bow spirits, rudders, outboard motors, motor brackets, handles, other fittings, attachments, and extensions)

Rudder

steering device, usually a vertical blade attached to a post at, or near the stern (rear) of the boat

Class A

< 16ft

Class 1

16ft – < 26ft

Class 2

26ft – < 40ft

Class 3

40ft – < 65ft

Tiller

lever used to turn a rudder to steer a boat. Steering of OUTBOARD boats is controlled by a TILLER or steering wheel that swivels the entire engine to direct propeller thrust.

Transom

vertical surface at the back of the hull. An OUTBOARD is a portable, self contained package of an engine, gear case, and propeller that is attached to the TRANSOM of a boat.

Safety Ianyard

short cord for attaching the ignition safety switch to your wrist or life jacket

Intake Grate

screening cover over the intake, which prevents large debris from entering

Intake

opening in the hull that draws water toward the impeller

Drive Shaft

the long stem connection b/w the motor & the impeller

Impeller

device used to force water in a desired direction under pressure

Steering Nozzle

device used for directing the stream of water to the L or R at the stern (rear) of the PWC, which stress the PWC

Rigging (of a sailboat)

the rigging includes many parts of the sailboat, such as the lines (SHEETS & HALYARDS), MAINSAIL, HEADSAIL (JIB), BOOM & MAST

Keel (of a sailboat)

keel or centerboard is attached to the bottom of the hull and keeps the boat from sliding sideways through the water

Rudder (of a sailboat)

is used to steer the sailboat, turned by a TILLER or steering wheel.

Halyards (of a sailboat)

lines (ropes) used to raise and lower the sails

Sheets (of a sailboat)

lines (ropes) used to control the angle of the sails to the wind

Swamp

to fill w/ water

Bilge

interior of the hull below the floorboards; lowest part of a vessel’s interior where the sides of the vessel curve in to form the bottom

Coupler (of the trailer)

attaches to the ball hitch on a towing vehicle

Tongue Weight

the amount of the loaded trailer’s weight that presses down on the towing hitch. The tongue weight should be about 10% of the combined weight of the vessel and trailer ("Gross trailer weight" or GTW)

Bunks (of the trailer)

wooden supports on which the vessel rests while on the trailer

Vessel

every kind of watercraft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, including seaplanes

Power-driven vessel

any vessel propelled by machienery, including a sailboat using an engine

Sailing vessel

any vessel under sail and with no engine in use

Vessel engaged in fishing

any vessel fishing w/ nets, lines, trawls, or other fishing equipment that restricts maneuverability; however this does not include a vessel fishing w/ trolling lines or other fishing equiptment that does not restrict maneuverability

Underway

not anchored, tied to shore or aground

Risk of Collision

any situation when an approaching vessel continues on a collision course (the bearing of the approaching vessel does not change), or anytime you are approaching a very large vessel

Leeward (sailboats)

direction toward whch the wind is blowing, or DOWNWIND. Leeward vessels refers to the vessels that is downwind of the other. *When two sailing vessels are approaching one another w/ the wind on the same side, the LEEWARD sailing vessel is the STAND-ON VESSEL. *When two sailing vessels are approaching one another w/ the wind on different sides, the sailing vessel w/ the wind on its STARBOARD (right) is the STAND-ON VESSEl.

Windard (sailboats)

directon from which the wind is blowing, or UPWIND. Windward vessels refer to the vessel that is upwind of the other.

PWV: give-wav vessel vs. stand-on vessel

The vessel on the operator’s port (left) side is the give-way vessel. The vessel on the operator’s starboard (right) side is the stand-on vessel

Engaged in commercial fishing

Any vessel fishing with nets, lines, trawls, or other fishing equipment that restricts maneuverability; however, does not include a vessel fishing with trolling lines or other fishing equipment that do not restrict maneuverability

Restricted visibility

Any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms, or any other similar causes

Risk of collision

Any situation when an approaching vessel continues on a collision course (the bearing of the approaching vessel does not change), or when you are approaching a very large vessel

Sidelights
Power-Driven Vessel Encountering Other Vessels at Night:*When you see a green and a white light, you are the stand-on vessel. You should remain alert, however, in case the other vessel operator does not see you or does not know navigational rules

These red and green lights are called sidelights (also called combination lights) because they are visible to another vessel approaching from the side or head-on. The red light indicates a vessel’s port (left) side; the green indicates a vessel’s starboard (right) side.

Sternlight

This white light is seen only from behind or nearly behind the vessel

Masthead Light

This white light shines forward and to both sides and is required on all power-driven vessels. (On power-driven vessels less than 39.4 feet in length, the masthead light and sternlight may be combined into an all-round white light; power-driven vessels 39.4 feet in length or longer must have a separate masthead light.) A masthead light must be displayed by all vessels when under engine power. The absence of this light indicates a sailing vessel because sailboats under sail display only sidelights and a sternlight

All-Round White Light
*Use an all-round white light whenever the vessel is at anchor

On power-driven vessels less than 39.4 feet in length, this light may be used to combine a masthead light and sternlight into a single white light that can be seen by other vessels from any direction. This light serves as an anchor light when sidelights are extinguished.

Power-Driven Vessel Encountering Other Vessels at Night:When you see only a WHITE LGHT…

When you see only a white light, you are overtaking another vessel or it is anchored. It is the stand-on vessel, whether underway or anchored. You may go around it on either side

Power-Driven Vessel Encountering Other Vessels at Night: When you see a RED &amp; WHITE LIGHT….

When you see a red and a white light, you must give way to the other vessel! Slow down and allow the vessel to pass, or you may turn to the right and pass behind the other vessel.

Power-Driven Vessel Encountering Other Vessels at Night: When you see a RED, GREEN &amp; WHITE LIGHT…

When you see a red, a green, and a white light, you are approaching another power-driven vessel head-on and both vessels must give way.

Encountering a Sailing Vessel at Night:
When you see a RED &amp; GREEN LIGHT BUT NO WHITE LIGHT…..

When you see a red and a green light but no white light, you are approaching a sailing vessel head-on and you must give way.

Encountering a Sailing Vessel at Night:
When you see only a RED or GREEN LIGHT …..

When you see only a green light or only a red light, you may be approaching a sailing vessel and you must give way. A sailing vessel is always the stand-on vessel except when it is overtaking.

Sound signals are composed of short and prolonged blasts and must be audible for at least one-half mile

Short blast

about 1 second in duration

Prolonged blast

about 4-6 seconds in duration

One short blast

tells other boaters "I intend to pass you on my port (left) side."

Two short blasts

tells other boaters "I intend to pass you on my starboard (right) side."

Three short blasts

tell other boaters "I am backing up."

Sound signals let other boaters know where you are located:
One prolonged blast at intervals of not more than two minutes..

is the signal used by power-driven vessels when underway.

Sound signals let other boaters know where you are located:
One prolonged blast plus two short blasts at intervals of not more than two minutes..

is the signal used by sailing vessels.

Sound signals are used to warn other boaters or alert them to danger:
One Prolonged Blast…

is a warning signal (for example, used when coming around a blind bend or leaving the dock).

Sound signals are used to warn other boaters or alert them to danger:
Five (or more) short, rapid blasts

are used to signal danger or to signal that you do not understand or you disagree with the other boater’s intentions.

BUOYS:
Red Buoys

Red,Right, Returning – when you are heading AWAY from open water or Up stream and keep the red EVEN numbers on your right (the even numbers ascend) (and the Green Odd numbered boys will be on you left)

BUOYS:
Green Buoys

when you are heading Toward open water, green, odds on your right (red, evens on your left) and green odd numbers will be decreasing as you head out

Buoy #’s:

Numbers increase as you head away from open water. Numbers decrease as you head out towards open water

Buoy – Junction Buoy

marks the junction of 2 channels

Buoy – Junction Buoy:
If green is on top (of red)…
If red is on top (of green)…..

…the preferred channel is to the right …..the preferred channel is to the left

Upstream

In the direction that is against the current

Green Colors, Green Lights, and Odd Numbers

These mark the edge of the channel on your port (left) side as you enter from the open sea or head upstream. Numbers usually will increase consecutively as you return from the open sea or head upstream.

Red Colors, Red Lights, and Even Numbers

These mark the edge of the channel on your starboard (right) side as you enter from the open sea or head upstream. Numbers usually will increase consecutively as you return from the open sea or head upstream

Red and Green Colors and/or Lights

These are placed at the junction of two channels to indicate the preferred (primary) channel when a channel splits. If green is on top, the preferred channel is to the right. If red is on top, the preferred channel is to the left. These also are sometimes referred to as "junction buoys."

Can Buoys

These cylindrical-shaped buoys are always marked with green markings and odd numbers. They mark the edge of the channel on your port (left) side when entering from the open sea or heading upstream.

Nun Buoys

These cone-shaped buoys are always marked with red markings and even numbers. They mark the edge of the channel on your starboard (right) side when entering from the open sea or heading upstream.

Western Rivers System

On the Western Rivers System, this daymark indicates the right side of the channel as a boater heads upstream. The number below the marker indicates that the boater is 73.5 miles from the river’s mouth

Square

give directions and information. Squares provide information such as places to find food, supplies, and repairs; and they give directions, distances, and other non-regulatory information

Diamond
*Regulatory markers are white and use orange markings and black lettering. Exclusion area markers (with crossed diamonds) indicate areas off-limits to all boats such as swimming areas, dams, and spillways.

warn of hazards and obstructions. Diamonds warn of dangers such as rocks, shoals, construction, dams, or stumps. Always proceed with caution and keep a safe distance. Never assume that every hazard will be marked by a buoy

Circle

mark controlled areas. Circles indicate a controlled area such as "no wake," "idle speed," speed limit, or ski zone.

Crossed Diamond (diamond with a cross in it)

mark exclusion (closed) areas. Crossed diamonds indicate areas off-limits to all boats, such as swimming areas, dams, and spillways.

Safe Water Marker

These are white with red vertical stripes and indicate unobstructed water on all sides. They mark mid-channels or fairways and may be passed on either side

Mooring Buoy (white w/blue horizontal band)

These are white with a blue horizontal band. They usually are placed in marinas and other areas where boats are allowed to anchor. These are the only buoys you may tie up to legally.

Inland Waters Obstruction Markers

These are white with black vertical stripes and indicate an obstruction to navigation. You should not pass between these buoys and the nearest shore.

Anchors:
Plow-style anchor
*length of the line should be at least seven to ten times the depth of the water where you are setting anchor.
*us splices instead of knots

The plow-style anchor is good for most boats and gets its holding power by plowing into bottom sediment.

Anchors:
Fluke-style anchor
*length of the line should be at least seven to ten times the depth of the water where you are setting anchor.
*use splices instead of knots

The fluke-style anchor (commonly referred to as Danforth) is similar to the plow style but is more lightweight. It is also good for most boats and gets its holding power from its pointed flukes digging into bottom sediment.

Anchors:
Mushroom anchor
*length of the line should be at least seven to ten times the depth of the water where you are setting anchor.
*use splices instead of knots

The mushroom anchor gets its holding power by sinking into bottom sediment. It should not be used to anchor boats larger than a small canoe, rowboat, small sailboat, or inflatable boat since the holding power is weak. You should never depend on a mushroom anchor to hold your boat in rough water or weather.

Down current

in the direction the current is flowing

Down wind

in the direction the wind is blowing

Low-head dam: aka "drowning machine."
They may not be easily spotted because the top of a low-head dam can be several ft below the water’s surface. Bc of their small size &amp; drop, low-head dams do not appear to be dangerous. However, water going over a low-head dam creates a strong recirculating current or backroller aka "Boil" @ the base of the dam.

Even on small rivers, the force of the backroller can trap your boat against the face of the dam and pull you under the water—even while wearing life jacket. Be aware that on large rivers or during high water the backroller or "boil" may be located more than 100 ft downstream of the dam. Avoid low-head dams.

Locks

You can sound one prolonged blast followed by one short blast of your boat’s sound-producing device.

Fenders:
when using locks: Have fenders and at least 100 feet of rope to use in securing your boat inside the lock.

Cushioning device placed between vessels or between a vessel and a dock to prevent damage

Chart

map used for navigation. contain important information such as water depths & the locations of channels, sand bars, rocks, and vegetation. This is especially helpful when boating in bays or in large lakes. also can determine the most direct course possible for fuel conservation

Aground

touching or stuck on the bottom

Tides

Tides are created by the sun and moon exerting a pull on the earth.

Wake

Waves that a vessel leaves behind as it moves through the water

Lanyard

Short cord used for fastening something or securing rigging; on a PWC and most powerboats, it attaches the ignition safety switch to the operator’s wrist or life jacket

Gaurds

Devices that provide some type of physical barrier around the propeller. These include deflection devices, full cages, ring guards, ringed props, and "Kort Knozzles.

Propulsion

Devices other than a propeller such as jet drives and pump jets.

Which symbol on a regulatory marker is used to mark a swimming area?

Orange crossed diamonds. Regulatory markers are white and use orange markings and black lettering. Exclusion area markers (with crossed diamonds) indicate areas off-limits to all boats such as swimming areas, dams, and spillways.

Regulatory markers

Regulatory markers are white and use orange markings and black lettering.

Exclusion area marker

Exclusion area markers (with crossed diamonds) indicate areas off-limits to all boats such as swimming areas, dams, and spillways.

Aft

Close to or toward the stern

HIN: hull identification #

Hull Identification Number (HIN) left to right: ABC -MIC(manufacturer’s identification code). Hull serial #. B6 – date of manufacture.06 – model #.

Slow Speed/No Wake

The speed at which a motorized vessel moves through the water and is able to maintain minimum headway in relation to a vessel or structure being passed and produces the minimum wake possible.

Gunwale

Upper edge of vessel’s side (generally pronounced ‘gunnel’)

Moor

To keep a vessel in place by setting anchor or tying the vessel to a fixed object or buoy

Life Jackets (PFD):
Type I off shore life jackets

These vests are geared for rough or remote waters where rescue may take awhile. They provide the most buoyancy, are excellent for flotation, and will ***turn most unconscious persons face up in the water.

Life Jackets (PFD):
TYPE II: Near-Shore Vests

These vests are good for calm waters when quick assistance or rescue is likely. Type II vests will turn some unconscious wearers face up in the water, but the turning is not as pronounced as with a Type I.

Life Jackets (PFD):
TYPE III: Flotation Aids

These vests or full-sleeved jackets are good for calm waters when quick assistance or rescue is likely. They are not recommended for rough waters since they will not turn most unconscious persons face up. Type III PFDs are used for water sports such as water-skiing. Some Type III PFDs are designed to inflate when you enter the water.

Life Jackets (PFD):
TYPE IV: Throwable Devices (Not Wearable)

These cushions and ring buoys are designed to be thrown to someone in trouble. Since a Type IV PFD is not designed to be worn, it is neither for rough waters nor for persons who are unable to hold onto it.

TYPE V: Special-Use Devices

These vests, deck suits, hybrid PFDs, and others are designed for specific activities such as windsurfing, kayaking, or water-skiing. Some Type V PFDs are designed to inflate when you enter the water. To be acceptable, Type V PFDs must be worn and used in accordance with their label.

Fire Extinguishers:
Type A

Type A fires are of combustible solids like wood.

Fire Extinguishers:
Type B

Type B fires are of flammable liquids like gasoline or oil.

Fire Extinguishers:
Type C

Type C fires are electrical fires

Backfire

Explosion of prematurely ignited fuel or of unburned exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine

cowl

Hooded opening designed to scoop in air

Lights:
Lights Required for Power-Driven Vessels Less Than 65.6 Feet When Underway.
If less than 65.6 feet (20 meters) long, these vessels must exhibit…

Red & green sidelights visible from a distance of at least 2 miles away—or if < 39.4 ft (12 meters) long, at least one mile away—on a dark, clear night. An all-round white light (< 39.4 ft long) or both a masthead light & a sternlight. These lights must be visible from a distance of at least 2 miles away on a dark, clear night. The all-round white light (or the masthead light) must be at least 3.3 ft (1 meter) higher than the sidelights.

Lights:
Lights Required for Unpowered Vessels Less Than 65.6 Feet When Underway.
UNPOWERED VESSELS are sailing vessels or vessels that are paddled, poled, or rowed.
If less than 65.6 feet long, these vessels must exhibit….

Red & green sidelights visible from a distance of at least 2 miles away-or if < 39.4 feet long, at least 1 mile away-on a dark, clear night. A sternlight visible from a distance of at least two miles away. An alternative to the sidelights & sternlight is a combination red, green, & white light, which must be exhibited near the top of the mast.

Lights:
Lights Required for Unpowered Vessels Less Than 23 Feet When Underway.
If &lt; 23.0 ft (7 meters) long, these vessels should…

If practical, exhibit the same lights as required for unpowered vessels less than 65.6 feet in length. If not practical, have on hand at least one lantern or flashlight shining a white light.

Lights:
Lights Required for All Vessels When Not Underway.
All vessels are required to display a…

white light visible in all directions whenever they are moored or anchored outside a designated mooring area b/w sunset & sunrise.

Which Waters Are Federally Controlled?

Coastal waters, Great Lakes, Territorial seas & Bodies of water connected directly to one of the above, up to a point where the body of water is < 2 miles wide.

VDS (visual distress signals)
*If PYROTECHNIC VDSs are used, a minimum of 3 must be carried in the vessel.

visual distress signals

VDS (visual distress signals)
Exceptions to the requirement for day signals are…

Recreational vessels that are < 16 ft in length. Non-motorized open sailboats that are < 26 ft in length. Manually propelled vessels.

VDS:
Orange Flag Day Signal (non-pyrotechnic)

The distress flag is a day signal only. It must be at least 3×3 feet with a black square and ball on an orange background.

VDS:
The following combinations of signals are examples of VDSs that could be carried on board to satisfy U.S. Coast Guard requirements….

3 handheld red flares (day & night). 1 handheld red flare & 2 red meteors (day & night). 1 handheld orange smoke signal (day), 2 floating orange smoke signals (day), & 1 electric light (night only.

One short blast (when changing directions)

One short blast tells other boaters "I intend to pass you on my port (left) side."

Two short blasts (when changing directions)

tell other boaters "I intend to pass you on my starboard (right) side."

Three short blasts (when changing directions)

tell other boaters "I am backing up."

One prolonged blast (w/ restricted visibility)

One prolonged blast at intervals of not more than two minutes is the signal used by power-driven vessels when underway.

One prolonged blast + two short blasts (w/ restricted visibility)

One prolonged blast plus two short blasts at intervals of not more than two minutes is the signal used by sailing vessels.

One prolonged bast (for warning)

One prolonged blast is a warning signal (for example, used when coming around a blind bend or exiting a slip).

5 (or more) short, rapid blasts (for warning)

Five (or more) short, rapid blasts signal danger or signal that you do not understand or that you disagree with the other boater’s intentions.

Flags:
Divers Flag (rectangular red)

A rigid rectangular red flag, at least 14 x 16 inches, with a white diagonal stripe that is one-fifth the width of the flag must be mounted on a float or buoy.

Flags:
Alfa Flag (blue &amp; white)

A rigid replica of the International Code Flag A (or blue and white Alfa flag), @ least 3.3 ft (1 meter) high & visible from all directions, must be displayed on vessels on federally controlled waters. This flag indicates that the vessel is involved in a diving activity.

Flags: Orange Triangular shape flag:
Vessels towing people on water skies or other devices must displaya ski flag that is orange, triangular in shape, and at least 12 inch in any dimension.

The flag must be displayed at least 4 ft feet above the highest structure on the vessel while towing or retrieving a skier or when a skier or tow line (rope) is in the water. Tow ropes must be at least 35 ft and less than 75 feet in length

ignition safety switch

A safety device that is designed to shut the engine down if the operator is thrown from the proper operating position.

Minimum Headway Speed

The slowest speed at which it is still possible to maintain steering of the vessel.

MSD: marine sanitation device .
Vessels more than 65 feet in length must install a Type II or III MSD.

marine sanitation device (MSD)

MSD:
Type I &amp; II are usually found on large vessels.
Vessels 65 ft or less in length may use a I, II, or III Vessels more than 65 ft in length must install a II or III.

Waste is treated with special chemicals to kill bacteria before the waste is discharged. I & II w/"Y" valves that would direct the waste overboard must be secured so that the valve can’t be opened. This can be done by placing a lock or non-reusable seal on the "Y" valve or by taking the handle off the "Y" valve.

MSD:
Type III.
Vessels 65 ft or less in length may use a I, II, or III Vessels more than 65 ft in length must install a II or III.

III provide no treatment and are either holding tanks or portable toilets. Collected waste should be taken ashore and disposed of in a pump-out station or onshore toilet.

Discharge of Trash:
Garbage disposal placard if vessels is 26 ft +

If boating on federally controlled waters and your vessel is 26 feet or longer, you must display a Garbage Disposal Placard in a prominent location

Discharge of Trash:
U.S lakes, rivers, bays, sounds &amp; 3 miles from shore ILLEGAL TO DUMP:

plastic, paper, rags, glass, food, garbage, metal, crockery dunnage (lining & packing materials that float).

Discharge of Trash:
3 – 12 miles ILLEGAL TO DUMP:

plastic, dunnage (lining & packing materials that float). Also if not ground to < 1 inch: garbage, paper, rags, glass, metal, crockery, food.

Discharge of Trash:
12-25 miles ILLEGAL TO DUMP:

plastic,dunnage (lining & packing materials that float).

Discharge of Trash:
Outside 25 miles ILLEGAL TO DUMP:

plastic

Wast Management Plan

Ocean-going vessels that are 40 feet or more in length with cooking and sleeping facilities must have a written WMP.

Life Jackets (PFD):
5 types of PFD (life jackets)

Flotation aid, Offshore life jacket, Nearshore vest, Special-use device, Throwable ring or cushion.

Liefe Jackets (PFD):
These (blank) devices, &amp; most states require at least one of these to be on board vessels 16 ft in length of longer.

Type IV PFDs are throwable devices, & most …

Legal Boating Requirements – Turing of vessel’s blower.
It is recommended that you wait at least (blank) minutes after turning on your vessel’s blower (if so equipped) &amp; before starting your engine.

4 minutes

Lights:
What are the required navigation lights for an 18-foot powerboat?

red light (port) green light (starboard) & a white light

Canoe:
A 16 ft canoe from dock after dark must have on hand at least:

flash light or lantern.

VDSs (visual distress signals):
Name 2 VDS for use at night.

Red Meteor Red Flare Electric light

Discharge of Trash:
It is illegal to discharge (blank, blank or blank) into federally controlled or state waters.

waste, oil or trash

Fire Extinguishers:
All fire extinguishers are labeled w/a letter and a #.
What does the # indicate?

The relative size of the extinguisher. The letter indicates the type of fire it will extinguish.

CO:
Teak Surfing

Teak Surfing or dragging or water-skiing within 20 feet of a moving vessel can be fatal. If persons are using a swim platform or are close to the stern, all gasoline-powered generators with transom exhaust ports must be off.

CO:
Slow Speed or Idling

Slow Speed or Idling causes carbon monoxide to accumulate in the cabin, cockpit, and rear deck

CO:
Station Wagon Effect

causes CO to accumulate inside the cabin and cockpit if you are operating the vessel at a high bow angle, if there is an opening that draws in exhaust, or if protective coverings are used when the vessel is underway.

Injuries:
Shock

keeping the victim warm, still, and in a lying-down position until medical attention arrives. Elevate the feet several inches except in cases of head injury or hypothermia

Injuries:
Burns

the immediate goals are to relieve pain, prevent infection, and treat for shock. Immediately place minor burns in cold water and apply a dry bandage after the pain subsides. Seek medical attention for more severe burns.

Injuries:
Broken Bones

Seek medical assistance immediately for broken/dislocated bones. Apply temporary splints w/ care. An improper splint can result in lifelong disfigurement; lack of a splint can lead to hemorrhage, shock, or death

Injuries:
Head, Neck or Spinal

never move a victim more than is absolutely necessary. The water can provide excellent support until medical personnel arrive. If a victim must be moved, place them gently on a firm, full-length support.

Weather:
Barometer

Track changes in barometer readings. A rising barometer indicates fair weather. A falling barometer indicates foul weather is approaching.

Bailing

to remove water by scooping out with a bucket

Weather:
To determine the distance you are from an approaching thunderstorm..

Count the #of seconds b/w the flash of lightning and the clap of thunder. Divide the # of seconds by five which equals roughly the distance in miles you are from the storm.

Weather:
If on the open water during a storm…

Head the bow into the waves at a 45-degree angle.

Weather:
If the engine stops during a storm…

drop a "sea anchor" on a line off the bow to keep the bow headed into the wind and reduce drifting while you ride out the storm. In an emergency, a bucket will work as a sea anchor. W/out power, a powerboat usually will turn its stern to the waves and could be swamped more easily.

Weather:
If the sea anchor is not sufficient during the storm…

anchor using your conventional anchor to prevent your boat from drifting into dangerous areas.

Weather Warrant Display Signals:
Small craft advisory….
(red triangular flag)(red circle on top of white circle)

Winds in the range of 21 to 33 knots (24 to 38 mph) create conditions considered dangerous to small vessels.

Weather Warrant Display Signals:
Gale Warning..
(2 red triangular flags)(white circle on top of red circle)

Winds are in the range of 34 to 47 knots (39 to 54 mph).

Weather Warrant Display Signals:
Stom warning..
(red square flag w/red black colored in square inscribed) (red circle on top of red circle)

Winds are 48 knots (55 mph) and above. If winds are associated with a tropical cyclone, this warning signals winds of 48 to 63 knots.

Weather Warrant Display Signals:
Hurricane warming…
(2 red square flags w/red black colored in square inscribed) (red circle/white circle/red circle) 3 circles total

Winds are 64 knots (74 mph) and above. This warning is displayed only in connection with a hurricane.

VHF (very hight frequency):
Channel 6

Intership safety communications.

VHF(very high frequency):
Channel 9

Communications b/w vessels (commercial & recreational), and ship to coast (calling channel in designated USCG Districts).

VHF (very high frequency):
Channel 13

Strictly for navigational purposes by commercial, military, and recreational vessels at bridges, locks, and harbors.

VHF(very hight frequency):
Channel 16

Distress & safety calls to Coast Guard & others, & to initiate calls to other vessels; often called the "hailing" channel. (Some regions use other channels as the hailing channel. For ex, the Northeast uses Chan 9.) When hailing, contact the other vessel, quickly agree to another channel, & then switch to that channel to continue conversation.

VHF (very high frequency):
Channel 22

Communications b/w the Coast Guard & the maritime public, both recreational and commercial. Severe weather warnings, hazards to navigation, other safety warnings are broadcast on this channel.

VHF (very hight frequency:
Channels 24-28

Public telephone calls (to marine operator).

VHF (very high frequency):
Channels 68,69 &amp; 71:

Recreational vessel radio channels and ship to coast.

VHF (very high frequency):
Channel 70:

Digital selective calling "alert channel."

Fire:
4 things you should do if a fire erupts while underway are..

Stop the vessel & put on a PFD (life jacket). Keep fire downward. Shut off fuel supply. Aim extinguisher at base of flames.

HELP

Heat, Escape, Lessing, Posture.

Rivers:
Eddies

Eddies are created behind an obstruction as water fills in the void created by the obstruction. The current behind an eddy is actually moving upstream. Skilled paddlers use eddies as a place to stop and rest.

Rivers:
Strainers

Strainers: These river obstructions allow water to flow through but block vessels and could throw you overboard and damage or trap your craft. Strainers may include overhanging branches, logjams, or flooded islands. Strainers are also notorious for causing death by drowning.

What do to if capsize while paddling:

Float on the upstream side of your craft. You can be crushed on the downstream side if you run into an obstruction.

Furl

To roll up tightly and make secure

Sailboats w/ an engine: Lights

Remember that sailboats with an engine must have the red, green, and white navigation lights.

If you capsize in a canoe, kayak, or raft which side of the craft should you stay on?

Upstream.

Which river hazards should paddlers avoid or prepare for?

LOW-HEAD DAMS are difficult to see and can trap paddlers. STRAINERS are river obstructions which allow water to flow through but block vessels & could throw you overboard. When approaching RAPIDS, go ashore well upstream & check them out before continuing. Carry craft around them if seems dangerous.

When pickup up a skier, you should always keep them in view on which side of the vessel?

Operator’s side

Strainers
(when boating on a river, you may encounter strainers)

Obstructions that allow water to flow, but block small craft. Can trap boats & knock boaters overboard.

Sailboats:
Which statement is true of sailboats?

Sailboats are usually the stand-on boat in an encounter.

What is the skier hand signal for speed up?

holding one hand out w/ the thumb up

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