Blood

What is the average normal pH range of blood?

7.75-7.85
7.35-7.45
8.35-8.45
4.65-4.75

7.35 - 7.45

Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?

transport of metabolic wastes from cells
delivery of oxygen to body cells
transport of hormones to their target organs
transport of salts to maintain blood volume

transports of salts to maintain blood volume

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

maintenance of adequate fluid volume
maintenance of body temperature
maintenance of normal pH in body tissue
prevention of blood loss

prevention of blood loss

Embolus

Free floating thrombus in the bloodstream

Anemia

Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity

Thrombocytopenia

Platelet deficiency resulting in spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels

Polycythemia

Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity

Leukemia

Cancerous condition involving white blood cells

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

an increased number of RBCs
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
decreased tissue demand for oxygen
moving to a lower altitude

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.

eosinophils
basophils
monocytes
neutrophils

monocytes

Which of the following is not a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?

hemoglobin containing-sack
mitotically active
biconcave shape
produces energy anaerobically

mitotically active

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

aplastic anemia
pernicious anemia
polycythemia
sickle-cell anemia

pernicious anemia

Platelets ________.

have a life span of about 120 days
have multiple nuclei
stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
are the precursors of leukocytes

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Which of the following would not be a possible cause of sickling of red blood cells in someone with sickle-cell anemia?

sleeping in a well-ventilated room
vigorous exercise
travel at high altitude
malaria and travel at high altitude

sleeping in a well-ventilated room

Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.

suppressed immunity
impaired formation of all formed elements
increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss
bleeding disorders

increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney
liver
pancreas
brain

kidney

Which sequence is correct for the following events?

1. fibrinogen → fibrin
2. clot retraction
3. formation of thromboplastin
4. prothrombin → thrombin

3, 4, 1, 2
4, 3, 1, 2
3, 2, 1, 4
1, 2, 3, 4

3, 4, 1, 2

Why would there be cause for concern if a young pregnant mother is Rh-, her husband is Rh+, and this is their second child?

If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop hemolytic jaundice and die before birth.
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take immunosuppressants, there is a chance that the child will develop hemolytic jaundice and die before birth.
There should be no concern, as antibodies do not cross the placenta.
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take immunosuppressants, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.

If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.

An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.

donate to types A, B, and AB, but not to type O
receive types A, B, and AB, but not type O
donate to all blood types in moderate amounts
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

When neither anti-A serum nor anti-B serum cause clumping (agglutination) of donor cells on a slide, the blood type is ________.

AB
B
A
O

O

Fred's blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

His blood lacks Rh factor.
Antibodies to A and B are present in the red cells.
There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.
He can only receive blood from a donor who is AB positive.

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

if the child is Rh+
if the child is type O positive
if the father is Rh+
if the father is Rh-

if the father is Rh-

Athletes who choose to use industry-produced EPO as a performance-enhancing drug to increase the effects of their naturally-produced EPO, will experience ______.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys
decreased erythropoiesis
decreased reticulocyte counts
None of the listed responses is correct.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

True
False

false

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

True
False

false

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

True
False

false

Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.

True
False

false

Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.

True
False

true

Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.

True
False

true

All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes.

True
False

true

Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.

True
False

false

The __________ is the fluid portion of the blood.

buffy coat
plasma
hemoglobin
hematocrit

plasma

In a centrifuged sample of blood, what makes up the buffy coat?

white blood cells and platelets
red blood cells
platelets only
plasma

WBCs and platelets

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?

regulation
distribution
hormone production
protection

hormone production

The main protein in blood plasma is __________.

hemoglobin
albumin
plasmin
erythropoietin

albumin

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.

high hematocrit
increased blood volume
high blood pressure
low blood viscosity

low blood viscosity

In adults, red blood cell production occurs in __________.

the thymus
the liver
yellow bone marrow
red bone marrow

red bone marrow

Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?

hyperventilating
a drop in normal blood oxygen levels
erythropoietin
testosterone

Hyperventilating

Which of the following is correctly matched?

aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss
hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

pernicious anemia; results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

Which of the formed elements contains hemoglobin and transports respiratory gases?

erythrocytes
agranular leukocytes
granular leukocytes
platelets

erythrocytes

Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?

neutrophil
lymphocyte
eosinophil
basophil

neutrophil

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by __________.

the spleen
the kidneys
the liver
the pancreas

the liver

An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called __________.

thalassemia
sickle-cell anemia
polycythemia
leukocytosis

polycythemia

picture

...

A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type __________.

A
AB
B
O

O

Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?

O+ female pregnant with a B+ baby
AB- female pregnant with an AB- baby
A+ female pregnant with a B- baby
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby

B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby

What protein involved in coagulation provides the scaffolding for tissue repair?

fibrin
prothrombin activator
thrombin
fibrinogen

fibrin

Choose the compatible transfusion.

Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

donate type o blood to a recipient with type AB blood

Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal donor?

A
AB
O
B

o

Which of the following does NOT serve as a site for blood cell production in the developing fetus?

liver
spleen
intestines
red bone marrow

intestines

Which of these represents the majority of whole blood by volume?

platelets
plasma
erythrocytes
leukocytes

Plasma. Plasma typically constitutes 55% of whole blood, although this value can vary somewhat.

What is a hematocrit?

Hematocrit is the percentage of plasma in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of all formed elements in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of leukocytes and platelets in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample. Although the percent sign is usually omitted, the hematocrit, which in this figure is 45, is the percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood. The total height of material is divided by the height of the erythrocyte layer.

Which of these is true of the materials making up the buffy coat in centrifuged blood?

They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.
They are denser then plasma and erythrocytes.
They are denser than erythrocytes but less dense than plasma.
They are less dense than both erythrocytes and plasma.

They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma Centrifugation separates materials by density. Materials in the buffy coat are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.

Which of the following is NOT regulated by the blood?

fluid volume
nutrient levels
pH level
body temperature

Nutrient Levels The blood transports nutrients through the body. However, the mechanisms that regulate these nutrients are not a part of the function of the blood.

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?

protection
regulation
distribution
hormone production

hormone production The blood does not produce hormones.

Which of the following is NOT a formed element in whole blood?

platelets
albumin
erythrocytes
leukocytes

albumin Albumin is a protein that would be found in the plasma.

In a centrifuged sample of blood, what should NOT be in the plasma portion of the sample?

albumin
fibrinogen
electrolytes
platelets

platelets Platelets are dense enough that they should be in the buffy coat layer.

Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to clotting?

alpha globulins
fibrinogen
beta globulins
albumin

fibrinogen Fibrinogen comprises 4% of plasma and is an important component in the process of blood clotting.

Which of the formed elements is present in the greatest concentration?

platelets
granular leukocytes
agranular leukocytes
erythrocytes

erthrocytes The erythrocytes (red blood cells) make up about 45% of whole blood.

Which of the following is true of the structure of an erythrocyte?

Erythrocytes can bend and twist to fit through vessels.
Erythrocytes are larger than other cells in the blood.
Erythrocytes are cell fragments.
Erythrocytes are nucleated cells.

Erthrocytes can bend a twist to fit through vessels Erythrocytes are held in shape by flexible proteins that allow the cell to bend, twist, and cup, but that will return it to its normal shape. This facilitates the movement of erythrocytes through capillaries that are sometimes smaller than they are.

What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that transports respiratory gases?

albumin
antibodies
fibrinogen
hemoglobin

hemoglobin Other than water, hemoglobin makes up almost the entire contents of an erythrocyte. It can bind both oxygen and carbon dioxide

What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?

too many platelets
reduced availability of oxygen
a high hematocrit
excess oxygen in the bloodstream

a reduced availability of oxygen Reduced oxygen delivery to the kidneys will result in the release of erythropoietin (EPO), which in turn promotes the release of more erythrocytes from the bone marrow.

Which part of the hemoglobin molecule binds carbon dioxide for transport?

amino acids of the globin
iron
spectrin
heme group

amino acids of the globin The heme groups and iron ions are binding points for oxygen, while carbon dioxide binds to and is carried by the globin polypeptides. The combined form is called carbaminohemoglobin.

How many oxygen molecules can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule?

four
eight
two

four Each Fe2+ ion can bind to a single oxygen molecule.

What is the complete hemoglobin molecule composed of?

heme groups and polypeptide chains (globins)
heme groups and iron ions
polypeptide chains (globins), heme groups, and iron ions
iron ions and polypeptide chains (globins)

polypeptide chains (globins), heme groups, and iron ions The complete hemoglobin molecule is composed of four globin polypeptides (2 alpha and 2 beta chains), four heme groups, and four Fe2+ ions.

What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis?

kidneys
bone marrow
lungs
liver

Bone marrow The bone marrow, specifically red marrow, is the site of blood cell production and is stimulated by erythropoieti

What part of the hemoglobin molecule is eventually metabolized to stercobilin in the feces?

iron
transferrin
globin
a portion of the heme group

a portion of the heme group The heme group has its iron removed and recycled, while the remainder is converted to bilirubin and makes its way to the liver, where it is passed to the intestine in bile. Bacteria metabolize the bilirubin into stercobilin.

What erythrocyte production disorder results from an autoimmune disease associated with vitamin B12 absorption?

hemorrhagic anemia
pernicious anemia
aplastic anemia
renal anemia

pernicious anemia A glycoprotein called intrinsic factor, produced by the stomach, is required to absorb adequate vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia results when the stomach does not produce adequate intrinsic factor, often because the cells that produce it are attacked by the body's immune system.

Suppose that an individual injects himself with erythropoietin in order to raise his level of endurance, an act that is usually illegal in competitive sports. Which of the following could result?

decreased blood viscosity
reduced tendency for blood to clot
polycythemia
a lower hematocrit

polycythemia Erythropoietin causes an increase in release of erythrocytes, which, unless regulated, can induce polycythemia. EPO increases the hematocrit and the red cell mass and can lead to increased viscosity of the blood and an increased tendency to form clots.

Mature erythrocytes lack a nucleus.

True
False

True One of the structural characteristics of erythrocytes is the lack of a nucleus. This leads to a biconcave disk shape in the cell that increases the surface area to volume ratio. Additionally, RBCs lack mitochondria.

Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin.

When hemoglobin is not bound to oxygen, it appears blue.
It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.
It can bind a maximum of three oxygen molecules.
It is found in the plasma portion of blood.

It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups

Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?

erythropoietin
a drop in normal blood oxygen levels
hyperventilating
testosterone

hyperventilating Hyperventilating leads to an above-normal level of oxygen in the blood, which would not stimulate RBC production.

Bilirubin is created when red blood cells are recycled. How is it removed from the blood stream?

the kidneys
the liver
the spleen
the pancreas

The liver As RBCs are broken down, their hemoglobin is recycled. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that results from the degradation of the heme groups and is released to the blood. The liver cells pick up the bilirubin and secrete it in bile. Once bile is secreted into the intestine, the bilirubin is converted to urobilinogen and is excreted with the feces.

Which of the following is correctly matched?

pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss

pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency Pernicious anemia does result from a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Abnormally low levels of erythrocytes are called __________.

sickle-cell anemia
polycythemia
hemorrhagic anemia
thalassemia

hemorrhagic anemia Hemorrhage leads to anemia because of a reduction of red bloods cells.

Athletes who choose to use industry-produced EPO as a performance-enhancing drug to increase the effects of their naturally-produced EPO, will experience ______.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys
decreased erythropoiesis
decreased reticulocyte counts
None of the listed responses is correct.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys EPO (erythropoietin) is a powerful hormone secreted by the kidney. Its synthesis is activated by renal tissue hypoxia and inhibited by normal tissue oxygenation.

When a person has an acute bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis or appendicitis, which type of leukocyte increases in number?

basophils
neutrophils
lymphocytes
eosinophils

neutrophils Neutrophils tend to increase in number in bacterial infections.

Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

lymphocytes
eosinophils
monocytes
basophils

lymphocytes B lymphocytes, which mature in the bone marrow and do not require exposure to thymosin in the thymus as T lymphocytes do, produce antibodies

All lymphocytes are also leukocytes.

True
False

True Lymphocytes are specialized leukocytes. Lymphocytes include T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells.

Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes?

diapedesis
leukocytosis
amoeboid motion
positive chemotaxis

leukocytosis Leukocytosis refers to an excessive number of white blood cells.

Which leukocyte might you expect to find in higher quantities in a person experiencing allergies?

eosinophil
neutrophil
lymphocyte
basophil

eosinophil Eosinophils have a role in causing allergies.

Which of the following leukocyte is NOT correctly matched with its function?

lymphocytes: immune response against viral infections
basophils: inflammation
monocytes: macrophage
eosinophil: bacterial macrophage

eosinophil: bacterial macrophage Eosinophils play a role in defense against parasites.

What part of the pathway to produce platelets is shared with other formed elements?

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)
reticulocyte
lymphoid stem cell
megakaryoblast

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) The hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) is the stem cell for all blood-formed elements.

Which formed element can be described as cytoplasmic fragments?

erythrocytes
platelets
lymphocytes
monocytes

platelets Platelets can be referred to as cytoplasmic fragments because they form as packets of cytoplasm are pinched off the megakaryocyte.

What factor stimulates platelet formation?

erythropoietin
plasmin
thrombopoietin
interleukin 2

thrombopoietin Platelet formation is stimulated by thrombopoietin.

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the role of platelets in hemostatic reactions?

Platelets release the only chemical factors that can initiate coagulation.
Platelets release chemicals that attract and bind other platelets.
Platelets adhere to exposed collagen fibers.
Platelets do not stick to intact endothelial cells.

Platelets release the only chemical factors that can initiate coagulation Platelet chemicals initiate the intrinsic pathway, but tissue factors released from damaged endothelium start the extrinsic pathway for coagulation in motion.

During which event of hemostasis do clotting factors (procoagulants) assist with the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel?

A
B
C
D

picture D The gelling of blood due to formation of insoluble fibrin occurs during the coagulation stage.

Which of the following would NOT lead to a bleeding disorder?

excess calcium in the diet
impaired liver function
thrombocytopenia
vitamin K deficiency

excess calcium in the diet calcium is essential for clotting pathways; a deficiency (not an excess) of calcium could lead to a bleeding disorder

A person who lacks agglutinogen A but has agglutinogen B would have blood type __________.

B
AB
O
A

B Someone with type B blood only has agglutinogen B on their erythrocyte

AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type's lack of agglutinogens.

True
False

False AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type's lack of antibodies.

Choose the incompatible transfusion.

Donate type B blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood A person with type B blood can only give blood to people of type AB and B blood.

During erythroblastosis fetalis, a Rh- mother's anti-Rh antibodies that have crossed the placenta will cause agglutination of the fetus's Rh+ RBCs. However, the reverse problem never happens when a Rh+ mother is pregnant with a Rh- fetus, that is, antibodies produced by the fetus cannot cause agglutination of the mother's Rh+ RBCs. This is true because ______.

agglutinins are physically too large to pass across the placenta
fetal antibodies are immature and non-functional
antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus
the placenta is a barrier that prevents the passage of all antigens

antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus The fetus does not produce antibodies because the immune system is immature.

Which statement is true?

Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood.
A person with type AB blood does produce agglutinins.
Type AB is the universal donor.
Type O is the universal recipient.

Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood People with type B blood produce antibodies against A type blood, this transfusion would cause a cross reaction.

Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal recipient?

B
O
A
AB

AB Type AB is considered to be the universal recipient.

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Blood - Subjecto.com

Blood

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What is the average normal pH range of blood?

7.75-7.85
7.35-7.45
8.35-8.45
4.65-4.75

7.35 – 7.45

Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?

transport of metabolic wastes from cells
delivery of oxygen to body cells
transport of hormones to their target organs
transport of salts to maintain blood volume

transports of salts to maintain blood volume

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

maintenance of adequate fluid volume
maintenance of body temperature
maintenance of normal pH in body tissue
prevention of blood loss

prevention of blood loss

Embolus

Free floating thrombus in the bloodstream

Anemia

Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity

Thrombocytopenia

Platelet deficiency resulting in spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels

Polycythemia

Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity

Leukemia

Cancerous condition involving white blood cells

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

an increased number of RBCs
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
decreased tissue demand for oxygen
moving to a lower altitude

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.

eosinophils
basophils
monocytes
neutrophils

monocytes

Which of the following is not a structural characteristic that contributes to erythrocyte gas transport functions?

hemoglobin containing-sack
mitotically active
biconcave shape
produces energy anaerobically

mitotically active

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and causing an appearance of large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

aplastic anemia
pernicious anemia
polycythemia
sickle-cell anemia

pernicious anemia

Platelets ________.

have a life span of about 120 days
have multiple nuclei
stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
are the precursors of leukocytes

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Which of the following would not be a possible cause of sickling of red blood cells in someone with sickle-cell anemia?

sleeping in a well-ventilated room
vigorous exercise
travel at high altitude
malaria and travel at high altitude

sleeping in a well-ventilated room

Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.

suppressed immunity
impaired formation of all formed elements
increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss
bleeding disorders

increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney
liver
pancreas
brain

kidney

Which sequence is correct for the following events?

1. fibrinogen → fibrin
2. clot retraction
3. formation of thromboplastin
4. prothrombin → thrombin

3, 4, 1, 2
4, 3, 1, 2
3, 2, 1, 4
1, 2, 3, 4

3, 4, 1, 2

Why would there be cause for concern if a young pregnant mother is Rh-, her husband is Rh+, and this is their second child?

If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop hemolytic jaundice and die before birth.
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take immunosuppressants, there is a chance that the child will develop hemolytic jaundice and die before birth.
There should be no concern, as antibodies do not cross the placenta.
If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take immunosuppressants, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.

If the second child is Rh+ and the mother did not take RhoGAM, there is a chance that the child will develop erythroblastosis fetalis and die before birth.

An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.

donate to types A, B, and AB, but not to type O
receive types A, B, and AB, but not type O
donate to all blood types in moderate amounts
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

When neither anti-A serum nor anti-B serum cause clumping (agglutination) of donor cells on a slide, the blood type is ________.

AB
B
A
O

O

Fred’s blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

His blood lacks Rh factor.
Antibodies to A and B are present in the red cells.
There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.
He can only receive blood from a donor who is AB positive.

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

if the child is Rh+
if the child is type O positive
if the father is Rh+
if the father is Rh-

if the father is Rh-

Athletes who choose to use industry-produced EPO as a performance-enhancing drug to increase the effects of their naturally-produced EPO, will experience ______.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys
decreased erythropoiesis
decreased reticulocyte counts
None of the listed responses is correct.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

True
False

false

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

True
False

false

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

True
False

false

Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.

True
False

false

Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.

True
False

true

Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.

True
False

true

All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes.

True
False

true

Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.

True
False

false

The __________ is the fluid portion of the blood.

buffy coat
plasma
hemoglobin
hematocrit

plasma

In a centrifuged sample of blood, what makes up the buffy coat?

white blood cells and platelets
red blood cells
platelets only
plasma

WBCs and platelets

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?

regulation
distribution
hormone production
protection

hormone production

The main protein in blood plasma is __________.

hemoglobin
albumin
plasmin
erythropoietin

albumin

All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.

high hematocrit
increased blood volume
high blood pressure
low blood viscosity

low blood viscosity

In adults, red blood cell production occurs in __________.

the thymus
the liver
yellow bone marrow
red bone marrow

red bone marrow

Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?

hyperventilating
a drop in normal blood oxygen levels
erythropoietin
testosterone

Hyperventilating

Which of the following is correctly matched?

aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss
hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

pernicious anemia; results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

Which of the formed elements contains hemoglobin and transports respiratory gases?

erythrocytes
agranular leukocytes
granular leukocytes
platelets

erythrocytes

Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?

neutrophil
lymphocyte
eosinophil
basophil

neutrophil

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by __________.

the spleen
the kidneys
the liver
the pancreas

the liver

An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called __________.

thalassemia
sickle-cell anemia
polycythemia
leukocytosis

polycythemia

picture

A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type __________.

A
AB
B
O

O

Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?

O+ female pregnant with a B+ baby
AB- female pregnant with an AB- baby
A+ female pregnant with a B- baby
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby

B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby

What protein involved in coagulation provides the scaffolding for tissue repair?

fibrin
prothrombin activator
thrombin
fibrinogen

fibrin

Choose the compatible transfusion.

Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

donate type o blood to a recipient with type AB blood

Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal donor?

A
AB
O
B

o

Which of the following does NOT serve as a site for blood cell production in the developing fetus?

liver
spleen
intestines
red bone marrow

intestines

Which of these represents the majority of whole blood by volume?

platelets
plasma
erythrocytes
leukocytes

Plasma. Plasma typically constitutes 55% of whole blood, although this value can vary somewhat.

What is a hematocrit?

Hematocrit is the percentage of plasma in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of all formed elements in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of leukocytes and platelets in a whole blood sample.
Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample. Although the percent sign is usually omitted, the hematocrit, which in this figure is 45, is the percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood. The total height of material is divided by the height of the erythrocyte layer.

Which of these is true of the materials making up the buffy coat in centrifuged blood?

They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.
They are denser then plasma and erythrocytes.
They are denser than erythrocytes but less dense than plasma.
They are less dense than both erythrocytes and plasma.

They are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma Centrifugation separates materials by density. Materials in the buffy coat are intermediate in density between erythrocytes and plasma.

Which of the following is NOT regulated by the blood?

fluid volume
nutrient levels
pH level
body temperature

Nutrient Levels The blood transports nutrients through the body. However, the mechanisms that regulate these nutrients are not a part of the function of the blood.

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?

protection
regulation
distribution
hormone production

hormone production The blood does not produce hormones.

Which of the following is NOT a formed element in whole blood?

platelets
albumin
erythrocytes
leukocytes

albumin Albumin is a protein that would be found in the plasma.

In a centrifuged sample of blood, what should NOT be in the plasma portion of the sample?

albumin
fibrinogen
electrolytes
platelets

platelets Platelets are dense enough that they should be in the buffy coat layer.

Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to clotting?

alpha globulins
fibrinogen
beta globulins
albumin

fibrinogen Fibrinogen comprises 4% of plasma and is an important component in the process of blood clotting.

Which of the formed elements is present in the greatest concentration?

platelets
granular leukocytes
agranular leukocytes
erythrocytes

erthrocytes The erythrocytes (red blood cells) make up about 45% of whole blood.

Which of the following is true of the structure of an erythrocyte?

Erythrocytes can bend and twist to fit through vessels.
Erythrocytes are larger than other cells in the blood.
Erythrocytes are cell fragments.
Erythrocytes are nucleated cells.

Erthrocytes can bend a twist to fit through vessels Erythrocytes are held in shape by flexible proteins that allow the cell to bend, twist, and cup, but that will return it to its normal shape. This facilitates the movement of erythrocytes through capillaries that are sometimes smaller than they are.

What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that transports respiratory gases?

albumin
antibodies
fibrinogen
hemoglobin

hemoglobin Other than water, hemoglobin makes up almost the entire contents of an erythrocyte. It can bind both oxygen and carbon dioxide

What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?

too many platelets
reduced availability of oxygen
a high hematocrit
excess oxygen in the bloodstream

a reduced availability of oxygen Reduced oxygen delivery to the kidneys will result in the release of erythropoietin (EPO), which in turn promotes the release of more erythrocytes from the bone marrow.

Which part of the hemoglobin molecule binds carbon dioxide for transport?

amino acids of the globin
iron
spectrin
heme group

amino acids of the globin The heme groups and iron ions are binding points for oxygen, while carbon dioxide binds to and is carried by the globin polypeptides. The combined form is called carbaminohemoglobin.

How many oxygen molecules can be transported by one hemoglobin molecule?

four
eight
two

four Each Fe2+ ion can bind to a single oxygen molecule.

What is the complete hemoglobin molecule composed of?

heme groups and polypeptide chains (globins)
heme groups and iron ions
polypeptide chains (globins), heme groups, and iron ions
iron ions and polypeptide chains (globins)

polypeptide chains (globins), heme groups, and iron ions The complete hemoglobin molecule is composed of four globin polypeptides (2 alpha and 2 beta chains), four heme groups, and four Fe2+ ions.

What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis?

kidneys
bone marrow
lungs
liver

Bone marrow The bone marrow, specifically red marrow, is the site of blood cell production and is stimulated by erythropoieti

What part of the hemoglobin molecule is eventually metabolized to stercobilin in the feces?

iron
transferrin
globin
a portion of the heme group

a portion of the heme group The heme group has its iron removed and recycled, while the remainder is converted to bilirubin and makes its way to the liver, where it is passed to the intestine in bile. Bacteria metabolize the bilirubin into stercobilin.

What erythrocyte production disorder results from an autoimmune disease associated with vitamin B12 absorption?

hemorrhagic anemia
pernicious anemia
aplastic anemia
renal anemia

pernicious anemia A glycoprotein called intrinsic factor, produced by the stomach, is required to absorb adequate vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia results when the stomach does not produce adequate intrinsic factor, often because the cells that produce it are attacked by the body’s immune system.

Suppose that an individual injects himself with erythropoietin in order to raise his level of endurance, an act that is usually illegal in competitive sports. Which of the following could result?

decreased blood viscosity
reduced tendency for blood to clot
polycythemia
a lower hematocrit

polycythemia Erythropoietin causes an increase in release of erythrocytes, which, unless regulated, can induce polycythemia. EPO increases the hematocrit and the red cell mass and can lead to increased viscosity of the blood and an increased tendency to form clots.

Mature erythrocytes lack a nucleus.

True
False

True One of the structural characteristics of erythrocytes is the lack of a nucleus. This leads to a biconcave disk shape in the cell that increases the surface area to volume ratio. Additionally, RBCs lack mitochondria.

Choose the statement that is true concerning hemoglobin.

When hemoglobin is not bound to oxygen, it appears blue.
It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups.
It can bind a maximum of three oxygen molecules.
It is found in the plasma portion of blood.

It is composed of four protein chains and four heme groups

Which of the following does NOT stimulate erythrocyte production?

erythropoietin
a drop in normal blood oxygen levels
hyperventilating
testosterone

hyperventilating Hyperventilating leads to an above-normal level of oxygen in the blood, which would not stimulate RBC production.

Bilirubin is created when red blood cells are recycled. How is it removed from the blood stream?

the kidneys
the liver
the spleen
the pancreas

The liver As RBCs are broken down, their hemoglobin is recycled. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that results from the degradation of the heme groups and is released to the blood. The liver cells pick up the bilirubin and secrete it in bile. Once bile is secreted into the intestine, the bilirubin is converted to urobilinogen and is excreted with the feces.

Which of the following is correctly matched?

pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency
hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss

pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency Pernicious anemia does result from a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Abnormally low levels of erythrocytes are called __________.

sickle-cell anemia
polycythemia
hemorrhagic anemia
thalassemia

hemorrhagic anemia Hemorrhage leads to anemia because of a reduction of red bloods cells.

Athletes who choose to use industry-produced EPO as a performance-enhancing drug to increase the effects of their naturally-produced EPO, will experience ______.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys
decreased erythropoiesis
decreased reticulocyte counts
None of the listed responses is correct.

decreased production of EPO by their kidneys EPO (erythropoietin) is a powerful hormone secreted by the kidney. Its synthesis is activated by renal tissue hypoxia and inhibited by normal tissue oxygenation.

When a person has an acute bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis or appendicitis, which type of leukocyte increases in number?

basophils
neutrophils
lymphocytes
eosinophils

neutrophils Neutrophils tend to increase in number in bacterial infections.

Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

lymphocytes
eosinophils
monocytes
basophils

lymphocytes B lymphocytes, which mature in the bone marrow and do not require exposure to thymosin in the thymus as T lymphocytes do, produce antibodies

All lymphocytes are also leukocytes.

True
False

True Lymphocytes are specialized leukocytes. Lymphocytes include T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells.

Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes?

diapedesis
leukocytosis
amoeboid motion
positive chemotaxis

leukocytosis Leukocytosis refers to an excessive number of white blood cells.

Which leukocyte might you expect to find in higher quantities in a person experiencing allergies?

eosinophil
neutrophil
lymphocyte
basophil

eosinophil Eosinophils have a role in causing allergies.

Which of the following leukocyte is NOT correctly matched with its function?

lymphocytes: immune response against viral infections
basophils: inflammation
monocytes: macrophage
eosinophil: bacterial macrophage

eosinophil: bacterial macrophage Eosinophils play a role in defense against parasites.

What part of the pathway to produce platelets is shared with other formed elements?

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)
reticulocyte
lymphoid stem cell
megakaryoblast

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) The hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast) is the stem cell for all blood-formed elements.

Which formed element can be described as cytoplasmic fragments?

erythrocytes
platelets
lymphocytes
monocytes

platelets Platelets can be referred to as cytoplasmic fragments because they form as packets of cytoplasm are pinched off the megakaryocyte.

What factor stimulates platelet formation?

erythropoietin
plasmin
thrombopoietin
interleukin 2

thrombopoietin Platelet formation is stimulated by thrombopoietin.

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the role of platelets in hemostatic reactions?

Platelets release the only chemical factors that can initiate coagulation.
Platelets release chemicals that attract and bind other platelets.
Platelets adhere to exposed collagen fibers.
Platelets do not stick to intact endothelial cells.

Platelets release the only chemical factors that can initiate coagulation Platelet chemicals initiate the intrinsic pathway, but tissue factors released from damaged endothelium start the extrinsic pathway for coagulation in motion.

During which event of hemostasis do clotting factors (procoagulants) assist with the transformation of blood from a liquid to a gel?

A
B
C
D

picture D The gelling of blood due to formation of insoluble fibrin occurs during the coagulation stage.

Which of the following would NOT lead to a bleeding disorder?

excess calcium in the diet
impaired liver function
thrombocytopenia
vitamin K deficiency

excess calcium in the diet calcium is essential for clotting pathways; a deficiency (not an excess) of calcium could lead to a bleeding disorder

A person who lacks agglutinogen A but has agglutinogen B would have blood type __________.

B
AB
O
A

B Someone with type B blood only has agglutinogen B on their erythrocyte

AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type’s lack of agglutinogens.

True
False

False AB blood type is the universal blood recipient because of that type’s lack of antibodies.

Choose the incompatible transfusion.

Donate type B blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood A person with type B blood can only give blood to people of type AB and B blood.

During erythroblastosis fetalis, a Rh- mother’s anti-Rh antibodies that have crossed the placenta will cause agglutination of the fetus’s Rh+ RBCs. However, the reverse problem never happens when a Rh+ mother is pregnant with a Rh- fetus, that is, antibodies produced by the fetus cannot cause agglutination of the mother’s Rh+ RBCs. This is true because ______.

agglutinins are physically too large to pass across the placenta
fetal antibodies are immature and non-functional
antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus
the placenta is a barrier that prevents the passage of all antigens

antibodies that can cause this agglutination are not produced by a fetus The fetus does not produce antibodies because the immune system is immature.

Which statement is true?

Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood.
A person with type AB blood does produce agglutinins.
Type AB is the universal donor.
Type O is the universal recipient.

Type A blood cannot be given to people with type B blood People with type B blood produce antibodies against A type blood, this transfusion would cause a cross reaction.

Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal recipient?

B
O
A
AB

AB Type AB is considered to be the universal recipient.

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