Biology Major Field Test Study Set

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"4 Biomolecules and Monomers

Protein (amino acids) Carbohydrates (simple sugars) Lipids (glycerol and fatty acids) Nuclei acids (nucleotides)"


two amino acids bonded together

what is the general fatty acid formula

CH3(CH2)nCOOH where n= an even number between 12 and 24

explain identifying saturated vs. unsaturated fats

saturated: only single bonds in hydrocarbon chain… unsaturated: one or more double bonds


glycerol and 3 fatty acids

Levels of Protein Structure

1. order of amino acids 2. alpha-helices or beta-pleated sheets 3. bonding b/w a.a. side chains 4. multi-subunit structure

nucleotide is composed of

phosphate group; sugar group; nitrogenous base


maximum reaction rate at which point substrate is saturated with enzyme

Feedback Inhibition

end-product of enzyme catalyzed rxn. blocks original enz.

Competitive Inhibition

molecules compete with substrate for enzyme’s active sites

irreversible inhibitors

chemically and covalently bind to active site; rendering it permanently inactive

psuedoirreversible inhibitors

extremely high affinities for active site; hard to displace

noncompetitive inhibitors

do not compete for active site but act elsewhere on enz.; altering 3D shape


anabolic process that converts sunlight into energy stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP, then more permanently stored in bonds of organic carbon compounds

electron transport chain

series of carrier molecules on the inner mitochondrial membrane which pass electrons through enzymes that pump protons to one side of the membrane, creating a proton gradient


the use of a gradient, such as a proton gradient, to generate energy. The ATP synthase enzyme uses the kinetic movement of protons down the gradient to store energy by converting ADP to ATP


Adenosine tri phosphate, a modified nucleotide that stores energy in it’s phosphate bonds.


glycolysis and the additional steps leading to the formation of ethanol or lactic acid, to make ATP. It does not include the Kreb’s cycle (producing CO2) or the ETC.

occluding/tight junctions

nothing can diffuse between cells or past junction

anchoring junctions

physical joining so cells do not shear away

communicating junctions

gap junctions are formed by proteins called connexins that allow for undisrupted and very fast signal transmission


plant cells’ equivalent of gap junctions


globular monomer


long filament


cellular conveyor belts

microtubule assoc. proteins

attach to tubulin on one end and cargo on the other dyneins: pull to center kinesins: outside"

9+2 structure

9 prs microtubules surrounding 2 central microtubules for stability (structure of cilia&flagella)

basal bodies

microtubule triplets; anchor cilia/flagella; foundation for new microtubules


anchor microtubules growing into mitotic spindle

intermediate filaments

thin fibers wound together in tight coils; membrane stability


normal genes involved in control of cell growth/division


mutations occur and no longer maintain control over a particular aspect of growth

density-dependent inhibition

normal cells able to suppress growth when near other cells


different forms of a gene


homo: 2 copies of same allele; hetero: one dom.; one rec.


only one dom. needed for phenotype to be present


2 alleles for given trait seperate during meiosis

independent assortment

genes for one trait separate independent of genes for another trait

incomplete dominance

single dom. allele cannot produce full phenotype; see blending


2 different alleles both show up in phenotype


second gene determines if first gene is expressed or not

mitochondrial inheritance

all genes present in mitochondria come from mother

genomic imprinting

certain alleles are encoded differently depended on which parent allele comes from

triple repeat extension

number of repeats increases with each generation


bacteria picks up free DNA


cytoplasmic extensions between bacterial cells allow movement of plasmids


viruses infect bacterial cells


spools of DNA wrapped around histone proteins


coding sequences of DNA


non-coding sequences of DNA


lg ribonucleotide that forms during excision of introns and splicing of exons


pieces of DNA that can move from place to place within organism’s genome


non-coding regions of DNA that influence the activation of genes


DNA is subject to addition of CH3 to nitrogenous bases; can’t be transcribed

pyrimidine bases

C and T; single rings of nitrogen and carbon

purine bases

G and A; two fused rings of nitrogen and carbon

Okasaki fragments

sm. fragments of DNA that lagging strand is built out of as enzyme has to jump ahead and work backwards to go in 5 to 3 direction


cleave out and replace damaged DNA in middle of strands

thymine dimers

adj. T molecules bond covalently due to UV energy


builds RNA primer for DNA replication


enzyme that unwinds DNA


regulate supercoiling of DNA into chromosomes

DNA ligase

connects Okasaki fragments left over from discont. syn. on lagging strand of DNA

temperate phage

bacteriophage that has been integrated into host DNA


viruslike particles composed of single molecule of circ. RNA


infectious pieces of protein


enz. that can destroy bacterial cell walls and some viral capsules (present in saliva; tears; mucous)


macrophages circ. in blood


antibodies that arise in natural course of fighting infection; produced by several diff clones of B cells and cover wide range of specicity


antibodies arising from a single clone (a single B cell that has rapidly divided into identical B cells)

lag period

period after exposure to antigen before helpful levels of antibodies are made by B cells

tissue-specific promoters

guarantee expression of particular gene in only one type of tissue

restriction enzymes

recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave them

Sanger method

DNA sequencing

Southern blot

used to probe DNA for certain sequences


restriction fragment length polymorphisms; diff in length of fragments made by restriction enz digestion of 2 DNA samples


variations in: enlarged multichambered stomachs; length of alimentary canal; shape of teeth


resp tubules that make up anthropod resp sys. open to outside through spiracles


opening found at tail end of reptiles used for excretion and resp


maintain nearly constant body temp even as surroundings change (endotherms)

air sacs

allow fresh air to flow through lungs even during exhalation; present in birds; even in bones for better flight


platelike structures on filaments of gill arches where O2 diffusion occurs in fish

countercurrent exchange

blood flows opposite of O2 source (fish)


gill coverings

Bohr Effect

O2 dissociation curve shifts right as pH drops; ev adaptation; hgb looses O2 more quickly in acidic environ. (to help O2 get into cells)


resp pigment found in muscle cells and where O2 used most quickly; higher O2 affinity


series of tubes in flatworms to tx excretory waste through; end in hollow bulbs (flame cells)


specialized tubes to excrete mineral salts and urea in annelid worms

Malphhigian tubes

outfoldings of digestive tract in the midgut of insects for absorption


coldblooded; not capable of maintaining constant int temp (reptiles; amphibians etc.)

established/innate reflex

unconditioned stim and response it naturally elicits

neutral stimulus

stim that will not by itself elicit a response


innate behavior that has evolved as a signal for comm b/w members of same sp.


monitor aspects of int environ


transmit info regarding position of body in space


sense things in ext environ


fluid that fills 3 semicirc canals of ear

motor end plate

special region where motor nerve synapses on a muscle

hydrostatic skeleton

fluid skeleton; fluid held under pressure within closed body cavity (earthworm)


hard shell or casing deposited on the surface of an organism (insects)


internal sys of bones and cartilage that support surrounding soft tissues (vertebrates)


movement in a direction based on a gradient of a diffusible chem that is sensed by smell (WBCs)

monozygotic twins

identical; single zygote splits into 2 embryos

dizygotic twins

two ova released in one ovarian cycle and are fertilized by 2 diff sperm

homeotic genes

remain capable of activation long after embryologic dev. ends

indeterminate cleavage

results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into complete organism

determinate cleavage

cells whose future differentiation pathways are det at an early dev stage


morula develops fluid filled cavity called blastocoel


blastopore=future anus (humans)


blastophore=future mouth


integument; eye lens; nervous sys


epi lining of digestive and resp tracts; parts of liver; pancreas; thyroid; bladder


musculoskeletal sys; circ sys; excretory sys; gonads; ct; digestive and resp organs


influence of specific grp of cells on differentiation of another grp of cells; most often mediated by chem substances

spongy layer

contains cholorplasts with air spaces around cells

palisade layer

densely packed elongated cells spread over lg surface area


self-renewing cell pop that divide and cause plant growth either in height or width

primary growth

occurs as a result of cell division within apical meristems

secondary growth

growth outward (forms tree rings)


growth of portions of plants towards or away from gravity (positive)


cytoplasmic compartment made cont by the presence of plasmodesmata in plant cell walls


membrane of the central vacuole; stores water and starch


biomolecules that make up majority of lipids; carbs; proteins and nucleic acids (c; h; n; o; p; s; ca; k; mg)


fe; cl; copper; manganese; zn; b; ni; molybdenum; used as cofactors for enzs

short-day plants

flower when exposed to daylight hrs shorter than threshold amt. (really long-night plants)

long-day plants

flower with days longer than a certain threshold (really short-night plants)


sm circ pieces of extrachromosomal DNA containing few genes

obligate anaerobes

cannot survive in presence of oxy

faculatative anaerobes

can survive with or without oxy

obligate aerobes

require oxy to survive


absorb nutrients from nonliving matter


fusion of cytoplasms of male and female gametangia


fusion of male and female nuclei

radially symmetric

bodies stretch out in equal dimensions from a central pt

bilaterally symmetric

organized along one vertical or horizontal axis and tend to be long or thin


having no body cavity between gut and outer wall


having a body cavity that is lined by muscles and bvs on the outside surface of cavity


having a body cavity lined by muscle tissue and bvs both on outer surface and inner surface; surrounding entire digestive tract

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem

gene frequencies remain constant if: no emigration/immigration; lg. pop. size; no net mutations; no nat. selection; random mating




jellyfish; corals; hydra


flatworms; tapeworms


roundworms; rotifers


earthworms; leachces


clams; oysters; snails


insects; crabs; shrimp


sea stars; sea urchins; sea cucumbers


sea squirts; lancelets; ALL vertebrates




layer of subsoil that never thaws (found on tundras)

primary succession

gradual change of new/lifeless ares of land into thriving ecosys

secondary succession

rebuilding of comm. after destruction

pioneer organisms

those that first take hold in barren habitat


conversion of ammonia to nitrate

competitive exclusion principle

2 sp. competing for same lim. resources will result in one of the sp. being driven to extinction

keystone specie

if removed; widespread havoc and destruction within comm.


numbers of individuals within a comm.

gross primary productivity

total chemical energy generated by produces in a given area

net primary productivity

total productivity with losses from resp and other energy use by plants subtracted

carrying capacity

max size at which pop can stably interact with environ for long period of time

density-dependent limiting factor

affect pop growth to a greater degree the lger the pop gets

density-independent limiting factor

likely affect a pop growth regardless of size of pop or how well pop adapted to environ

K-selected sp

produce few lg well dev young; parental care; slow growth; delayed mat; delayed repro; long gestation

r-selected sp

lots of offspring at once; little or no care; fast growth; repro relatively soon after birth; short gestation

gene translocation

moves a gene from one region of chromo neare to a more active promoter region


graded variation across a diversity of climates and other environmental conditions


locally adapted variants of an organism; differing genetically from other local forms

transplantation experiments

smaller; founder pop of a sp is moved to a new area where pop has not previously spread in order to see if org take hold


becoming polyploid by self fert


becoming polyploid by combining your chromo with another sp

inclusive fitness

grps overall fitness increased when some members behave in way that helps offspring survive/repro (kin selection)

adaptive radiation

emergence of many sp from a common ancestor after ancestral pop introduced into environ with diverse conditions/open niches


relationship of one sp to another


process of classifying organisms based on phylogeny


grouping of species determined to be related because of distinguishing novel feature

cell cycle

Gap 1 (growth & protein synthesis); S (DNA synthesis); Gap 2 (checking DNA for errors; M (mitosis); Cytokinesis (cells moving away from each other)


Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase


production of haploid gametes from a diploid cell. In a human with 46 chromosomes, meiosis produces an egg and a sperm, each with 23 chromosomes.


the exchange of segments of DNA between homologous chromosomes

cell organelles & functions
cell membrane
smooth ER
rough ER
Golgi apparatus

cell organelles & functions ribosome: protein synthesis cell membrane: selective permeability, communication smooth ER: lipid production rough ER: protein production Golgi apparatus: modifying, packaging, shipping nucleus: chromatin, transcription nucleolus: manufacture of rRNA mitochondria: aerobic respiration, contains own circular DNA, maternal inheritance peroxisomes: detoxifies peroxides lysosomes: contains enzymes for digestion in endocytosis

disruptive selection

favors extreme phenotypes

stabilizing selection

favors intermediate phenotypes, thought to be most common type. Classic example: baby birth weight (too big difficulty being born, too little health compromised)

directional selection

favors one extreme phenotype, usually when a population moves into a new environment (classic example of Darwin’s finches)


bacteria (no nucleus)


complex cells, including nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Plant cells include cellulose cell walls. Fungal cells include chitin cell walls.


infectious microbe that is not considered "alive" because it does not metabolize.


RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that uses the RNA template to make DNA


a chemical specifically targeted to inhibit the growth of bacteria


the "typical" carbohydrate, formula C6H12O6. is the building block of starch and cellulose, the prototypical substrate of glycolysis.


composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule.


molecule used for stored energy, especially in the liver.


an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from ATP to its substrate


an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from its substrate, using water and releasing the P as a phosphate ion.

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