Biology Exam Ch 18

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All animals

are heterotrophic

Typical animal embryos have ________, or external cell layer, and ________, which lines the digestive tract.

an ectoderm; an endoderm

Which of the following animals displays radial symmetry?

a sea anemone

Which of the following items demonstrates radial symmetry?

an apple pie

Organisms with true radial symmetry

do not have a distinct head region and tend to be sedentary or passive drifters.

Which of the following statements is true about anthropods?

Arthropods have an open circulatory system, while annelids have a closed circulatory system.

A dog’s head is at its ________ end, and its belly is its ________ surface.

anterior; ventral

In protostomes,

the opening formed during gastrulation becomes the mouth.

Which of the following statements about deuterostomes is true?

The opening that forms during deuterostome gastrulation becomes the anus.

Which of the following are not included among the eumetazoans that have true tissues?

sponges (Porifera)

Which of the following are not included among the bilateria, a clade of animals with bilateral symmetry at some stage of development?

sea anemones (Cnidaria)

The ________ is a flagellated cell that sweeps water through a sponge’s body.


A typical sponge is best described as

a sessile suspension feeder with no true tissues or body symmetry.

Which of the following statements regarding cnidarians is true?

The digestive and circulatory compartment of cnidarians is called the gastrovascular cavity.

Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are ________ and typically have ________.

bilaterally symmetrical; a gastrovascular cavity with one opening

A bilaterally symmetrical, wormlike animal that has a complete digestive tract and a cuticle could be a member of which of the following phyla?


Which of the following is a typical characteristic of molluscs?

a rasping organ called the radula

Which mollusc group includes primarily sedentary animals that use mucus-coated gills to trap fine food particles?


Which adaptation is a key characteristic of annelids that greatly increases their flexibility and mobility?


_______ are soil-dwellers; ________ are mostly marine; and ________ mostly inhabit fresh water.

Earthworms; polychaetes; leeches

You find a wormlike, soft-bodied adult animal in a mudflat. It is bilaterally symmetrical, is segmented, has a true coelom, and has a complete digestive tract. Based on these characteristics, what phylum does the animal represent?


Animals that are segmented and have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum


The most numerous, diverse, and widespread animals are the


While walking in your basement, you hear a crunching noise and notice that you have stepped on an organism. You look closely and see part of a segmented body and a few jointed appendages. What phylum does this animal represent?


Which of the following groups has a series of similar segments that make up most of the body?


Which of the following groups includes both spiders and horseshoe crabs?


Most adult insects have three major body parts or sections. They are the

head, thorax, and abdomen.

28. An organism that can fly and has an exoskeleton must be

an insect.

The traits that are unique to insects and have probably contributed to their diversity and success include

flight, short generation times, and complex life cycles including complete metamorphosis.

The symmetry of echinoderms generally includes

bilaterally symmetrical larvae and radially symmetrical adults.

Which of the following is a unique feature of echinoderms?

a water vascular system

Which of the following phyla is most closely related to echinoderms?


The flexible, longitudinal rod that is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called the


Which of the following features is unique to chordates?

a notochord

To be characterized as a chordate, an organism must

display each of the four key characteristics of the chordates at some point in the life cycle.

Which of the following statements about tunicates indicates that these animals are chordates?

Larvae have a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a post-anal tail, pharyngeal slits, and a notochord.

You find a small, elongated animal embedded in the sand with one end sticking out. Among other things, it has segmental musculature, a coelom, a notochord, and a complete digestive tract with an anus located partway down the body. This animal is

a chordate.

Traditional animal phylogenetic trees and the most recent molecular phylogenetic trees have many similarities. Which is a feature of the recent trees that was not present in the traditional phylogeny?

the grouping of nematodes and arthropods into a clade called the Ecdysozoa

Which of the following exhibits bilateral symmetry?

a butterfly

Which of the following correctly lists organisms from least complex in overall development to most complex?

sponges, hydras, clams, lobsters, tunicates

Which of the following statements about sponges is true?

Sponges have no true tissues and are filter feeders, while cnidarians have true tissues and a gastrovascular cavity.

Invertebrate diversity contributes to all of the following except


Complete the analogy: A cuticle is to a nematode as a/an ________ is to a/an ________.

raincoat; human

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