Biology Exam 2

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What charterisitic is shared by algae and seed plants


The closest algal relatives of land plants are _____.


Which of the following traits was most important in enabling the first plants to move onto land?

the development of sporopollenin to prevent the desiccation of zygotes

Seedless plants include _____.

bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails

The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always _____.

produces spores

According to the fossil record, plants colonized terrestrial habitats _____.

in conjunction with fungi that helped provide them with nutrients from the soil

The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably _____.

green algae

What evidence do paleobotanists look for that indicates the movement of plants from water to land?

waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves

Why have biologists hypothesized that the first land plants had a low, sprawling growth habit?

The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lack the structural support to stand erect in air.

Spores and seeds have basically the same function-dispersal-but are vastly different because _____.

spores are unicellular; seeds are not

You find a green organism in a pond near your house and believe it is a plant, not an alga. The mystery organism is most likely a plant and not an alga if it _____.

is surrounded by a cuticle

Retaining the zygote on the living gametophyte of land plants _____.

allows it to be nourished by the parent plant

Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"?


Which of the following were probably factors that permitted early plants to successfully colonize land?
1. the relative number of potential predators (herbivores)
2. the relative number of competitors
3. the relative availability of symbiotic partners
4. air’s relative lack of support, compared to water’s support

1, 2, and 3

In moss, _____ produce sperm.


The sperm produced by mosses require _____ to reach an archegonium.


In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____.

mitosis … mitosis

Stomata _____.

open to allow gas exchange and close to decrease water loss

In seedless plants, a fertilized egg will develop into _____.

a sporophyte

Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are grouped together as the Bryophytes. Besides not having vascular tissue, what do they all have in common?

They require water for reproduction.

Most moss gametophytes do not have a cuticle and are 1-2 cells thick. What does this imply about moss gametophytes and their structure?

They can easily lose water to, and absorb water from, the atmosphere

As you stroll through a moist forest, you are most likely to see a _____.

gametophyte of a moss

Which of these are spore-producing structures?

sporophyte (capsule) of a moss

How are the bryophytes and seedless vascular plants alike?

In both groups, sperm swim from antheridia to archegonia

Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?

Male and female bryophytes each produce a type of gametangia.

At some time during their life cycles, bryophytes make _____.


In contrast to bryophytes, in vascular plants the dominant stage of the life cycle is the _____.


What evolutionary development allowed plants to grow tall?

lignified vascular tissue

During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of _____ produced vast quantities of organic matter, which was buried and later became coal.


Which set contains the most closely related terms?

megasporangium, megaspore, egg, ovule

How could you determine if a plant is heterosporous?

Male and female reproductive structures are located on separate plants.

A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely related to _____.


If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period (they were not), which plant types would have been suitable sources of logs?

ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes

Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive.
1. embryophytes
2. green plants
3. seedless vascular plants
4. ferns
5. tracheophytes

2, 1, 5, 3, 4

A biology student hiking in a forest happens upon an erect, 15-cm-tall plant that bears microphylls and a strobilus at its tallest point. When disturbed, the cone emits a dense cloud of brownish dust. A pocket magnifying glass reveals the dust to be composed of tiny spheres with a high oil content.

Besides oil, what other chemical should be detected in substantial amounts upon chemical analysis of these small spheres?


Big Bend National Park in Texas is mostly Chihuahuan desert, where rainfall averages about 10 inches per year. Yet, it is not uncommon when hiking in this bone-dry desert to encounter mosses and ferns. One such plant is called "flower of stone." It is not a flowering plant, nor does it produce seeds. Under arid conditions, its leaflike structures curl up. However, when it rains, it unfurls its leaves, which form a bright green rosette on the desert floor. Consequently, it is sometimes called the "resurrection plant." At first glance, it could be a fern, a true moss, or a spike moss.

What feature of both true mosses and ferns makes it most surprising that they can survive for many generations in dry deserts?

flagellated sperm

Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area of a leaf when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels decline is most analogous to a human _____.

putting more red blood cells into circulation when atmospheric oxygen levels decline

Microphylls are found in which plant group?


Select the correct statement contrasting gametophytes and sporophytes.

Sporophytes are diploid, whereas gametophytes are haploid.

When you look at a pine or maple tree, the plant you see is a _____.

diploid sporophyte

All seed plants _____

are heterosporous

The adaptation that made possible the colonization of dry land environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of _____.


Which of these is a major trend in land plant evolution?

the trend toward a sporophyte-dominated life cycle

Which of the following lines of evidence would best support your assertion that a particular plant is an angiosperm?

It lacks gametangia.

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics is unique to the seed-producing plants?


Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated.
1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence
2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence
3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence

3 → 1 → 2

In seed plants, which of the following is part of a pollen grain and has a function most like that of the seed coat?


In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a _____.

fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia

Which of the following sex and generation combinations directly produces the pollen tube of angiosperms?

male gametophyte

Gymnosperms were most abundant during the _____


In gymnosperms megaspores develop into _____ .

female gametophytes

In pine, the embryo develops within the _____.

female gametophyte

Conifers and pines both have needlelike leaves, with the adaptive advantage of _____.

decreased surface area, reducing water loss

Which of the following statements correctly describes a portion of the pine life cycle?

Female gametophytes use mitosis to produce eggs.

Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).
1. sporophyte
2. microspores
3. microsporangia
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei

1, 4, 3, 2, 5

Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the integument of a pine seed?

female sporophyte

Which feature of cycads distinguishes them from most other gymnosperms?
1. They have exposed ovules.
2. They have flagellated sperm.
3. They are pollinated by animals.

2 and 3

The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the _____.

presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovu

Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have _____.


Unlike most angiosperms, grasses are pollinated by wind. As a consequence, some unnecessary parts of grass flowers have almost disappeared. Which of the following parts would you expect to be most reduced in a grass flower?


Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are primarily adaptations that _____.

inhibit herbivory

The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. This cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells?


Stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales are all _____.

modified leaves

Harold and Kumar are pre-med and pre-pharmacy students, respectively. They complain to their biology professor that they should not have to study about plants because plants have little relevance to their chosen professions.

Which adaptations of land plants are likely to provide Harold with future patients?
I) sporophyte dominance
II) defenses against herbivory
III) adaptations related to wind dispersal of pollen

II and III

A fruit is most commonly

a mature ovary

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?

within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants?

alternation of generations

Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except


What are the products of meiosis in the life cycle of a seed plant?

Megaspores or microspores

Select the correct statement describing the life cycle of angiosperms.

Double fertilization in the life cycle of seed plants results in the production of a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm nucleus.

Root hairs are important to a plant because they _____.

increase the surface area for absorption

Which of the following is correctly matched with its tissue system?

cortex … ground tissue system

Other than the transport of materials, what is another function that vascular tissue performs in a leaf?

The tissue functions as a skeleton that reinforces the shape of the leaf.

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?

root hairs

What is the primary function of stems?

Maximization of photosynthesis by leaves

When you eat Brussels sprouts, you are eating _____.

large axillary buds

Some of the largest leaves in the world can be found on plants near the forest floor of dense tropical rain forests. Which of the following precursors for photosynthesis is most likely limited in these large leaves?


One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that _____.

a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots

Which of the following was a challenge to the survival of the first land plants?


Trichomes _____.

repel or trap insects

Which structure is correctly paired with its tissue system?

tracheid – vascular tissue

The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the _____.


The main source of water necessary for photosynthesis to occur in the leaf mesophyll is _____.

soil via the xylem

Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that support young, growing parts of the plant?

collenchyma cells

Which of the following is correctly paired with its structure and function?

sclerenchyma – supporting cells with thick secondary walls

Which of the following are water-conducting cells that are dead at functional maturity?

tracheids and vessel elements

How do cells in a meristem differ from cells in other types of plant tissue?

They continue to divide.

The primary growth of a plant adds _____ and secondary growth adds _____.

height … girth

Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?

sieve-tube elements

Plant meristematic cells _____

are undifferentiated cells that produce new cells

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