Biology Chapter 5 & 6

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The offspring produced via sexual reproduction are genetically ________ to the parents.


Recessive disorders related to genes found on the X chromosome but not on the Y are more common in ________.


Upon fertilization, the egg and sperm fuse to form a single cell called a(n) ________.


Dead or damaged cells are replaced by ________.


Assuming complete dominance, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the offspring following the cross of two heterozygotes?


Assuming incomplete dominance, if a homozygous red-flowered plant is crossed with a homozygous white-flowered plant, what will be the color of the offspring?


Assuming incomplete dominance, if a homozygous red-flowered plant is crossed with a homozygous white-flowered plant, what will be the color of the offspring?


Which type of gene expression typically generates a continuum (spectrum) of varying phenotypes?

Linked genes

Genes located near one another on the same chromosome are often inherited together. These are called ________.

Typically on the X chromosome

If genes are described as "sex linked," then they are ________.

Yes, viruses are not considered living things.

Many viruses use RNA, not DNA, as their genetic material. Is the statement "All life on Earth uses DNA as the genetic material" still accurate?


Human white blood cells are often multinucleated. How many chromosomes would be present in a white blood cell with two nuclei?


How much of your DNA is identical to that of another person of the same sex?

Number of genes

Of the choices listed, which is the best indicator of the complexity of the organism?


A single, continuous molecule of DNA plus its associated proteins is called a ________.

Sister chromatids

What are attached at the centromere?


How many chromosomes did you inherit from your father?

It no longer exists

Where is the original interphase cell that began mitosis once mitosis has been completed and the daughter cells have been formed?

Nuclear membrane dissolves, chromosomes line up, chromosomes split, nuclear membrane forms

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events during mitosis?


Which process specifically refers to a cell physically dividing into two cells?

A ring of contractile protein fibers pinches the cell in two.

What causes the furrow during cleavage?

At the completion of plant cell mitosis

When does the cell plate form during cell division?


By what means does a zygote divide?

diploid (2n)

Somatic cells are ________.


If a human diploid cell and a human haploid cell somehow managed to fuse together and not lose any of the chromosomes, how many sets of chromosomes would be inside the newly formed cell?


If a cell had 12 chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis II, how many would each daughter cell have after the completion of meiosis II?

Meiosis I

When does homologous recombination occur?

Meiosis I

When does crossing over occur?

Meiosis AND Mitosis

What involves a single duplication phase of its chromosomes?


What produces genetically unique daughter cells?


What produces four daughter cells?

Sex cells

If mitosis makes somatic cells, what does meiosis make?


How many chromosomes would a typical human cell have after mitosis but before cytokinesis?


During which phase of the cell cycle are the chromosomes duplicated?


How many chromosomes would be found in the karyotype of a Down syndrome female who also suffered from Turner syndrome?


Is an individual with the XXY combination of chromosomes anatomically male or female?

Klinefelter syndrome

What is the name of the syndrome that produces the XXY combination of sex chromosomes?


What leads to an individual having too many or two few chromosomes?


Would a human clone have a bellybutton?

Embryonic stem cells can grow into any other cell type, including a nerve cell.

How could an embryonic stem cell be used to repair a severed spine?

Cord blood contains stem cells that can be grown and differentiated into some cell types but not all cell types.

Certain cells taken from umbilical cord blood have the potential to treat illnesses such as lymphoma and leukemia. In what way are cord blood cells useful to treat these diseases?


What is the monomer of the DNA polymer?

Deoxyribonucleic acid

What do the letters D-N-A stand for?

Between the bases

Where does the bond form that binds one polynucleotide to the other polynucleotide?

The base

What is different from one DNA nucleotide to the next?

DNA polymerase

Which enzyme is responsible for adding complementary DNA bases to an exposed DNA strand?

Hydrogen bonds

DNA helicase breaks which type of bond in the DNA molecule?


According to the base pairing rules of DNA, if the sequence of bases on one strand was AGGCTTA, what would be the sequence of bases on the complementary strand?


What is the largest unit of DNA organization?


A sugar, a phosphate, and a base are the components of a __________.


A page is to a book as a ___________ is to the genome.


How many polynucleotides are found in one molecule of DNA?

Sugar and phosphate

Which of the following make up the backbone of a polynucleotide strand?

Where DNA has a phosphate group, RNA has a methyl group.

What is not a structural difference between DNA and RNA?


Which nucleic acid acts like an enzyme, stabilizing and orienting different molecules to facilitate the formation of bonds between them?

Nucleic acid and proteins

Ribosomes are made out of which macromolecule?


How many nucleotides in sequence are required to code for 10 amino acids?

Two ribosomal subunits bind to the mRNA transcript.

How is translation initiated?


If the codon is AAA, what is the complementary anticodon?

Amino acids

What does "transfer RNA" actually transfer?


If the base sequence of template strand reads GCCATTAC, what is the base sequence of the mRNA?

Promoter binding

Which is not a posttranscriptional modification to the mRNA?

All of these and more are part of the expanding definition of a gene.

What is a gene?

DNA cannot leave the nucleus.

Why does transcription occur in the nucleus and not in the cytoplasm?


If DNA directs the production of RNA, what does RNA make?

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