Biology Chapter 11, 12, 13, 14

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

?

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

Intrasexual selection

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

Gene flow

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

Intersexual selection

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called

microevolution

What is a mutation?

A random change in an organism's DNA

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation

What is the result of natural selection?

a change in the gene pool of a population due to differential reproductive success

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

All of the choices are correct: similarities in protein structure, common development of pharyngeal pouches, homologous structures, the presence of similar genes

Which one of the following is false? Natural selection

Results from an organism's needs

Which one of the following is false?

All variation in a population is heritable

Natural selection is often described as "survival of the fittest" The best measure of an organism's fitness is

How many offspring it produces

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

All of the choices promote genetic variation in a population: balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection

Analogous structures found in two species are structures that have

Similar overall shape due to common function

Which one of the following was not a main idea that Darwin advanced in his works?

New species can form by inheritance of acquired characteristics

The term macroevolution refers to which one of the following

Grand scale of evolution over many geological time

The unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

Long-legged cheetahs are well adapted to catching prey. The ancestor of the cheetah is believed to have had relatively short legs. According to Darwinian views, the evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

Directional selection

A plant breeder has been trying to develop a strain of snap dragons with blue flowers from a population of snapdragons some of which have white flowers and some of which have blue flowers. He finds that no matter how careful he is to only select blue flowered snap dragons, when he plants them out side roughly 10% of the snapdragons have white flower and some plants have both blue and white flowers on the same plant. The most likely explanation is:

Selection can only act on heritable variation and the white flower is due to environment

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

All of the above

Which of the following assumptions was not part of Darwin's theory of natural selection?

Traits are inherited as discrete particles

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of its genes to the next generation

The disease phenylketonuria (PKU. is caused by a recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with the disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q2? (Fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth..

0.0001

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck

What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance?

Homologous

In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to __________ genetically different gametes

eight

A population is

the smallest unit that can evolve

Evolution

The core theme of biology is

Species are fixed (permanent) and perfect

Aristotle believed that

More than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Earth's surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting

Lyell's book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?

The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait

A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?

Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance

Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin's idea of natural selection?

Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

Wallace

Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's?

Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism's fitness

Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

The currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

Biogeography

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?

Homology

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species' early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

Relatively ancient common ancestors...relatively recent common ancestors

Deep branch points near the base, or truck, of an evolutionary tree represent ______, while branch points near the tips of the branches represent ______

A change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

Have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that

Polyploid

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be

10 to 20 billion years ago

The "big bang" that produced the universe is though to have occurred

Prokaryotes...3.5 billion

The earliest discovered fossils are of ______ dating back to ______ years ago.

The atmosphere was rich in gases released in volcanic eruptions; volcanic activity, lightning, and ultraviolet radiation were all much more intense than on today's Earth

When the Earth first solidified, what were conditions like?

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

A population is

A population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

Mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms)

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month's supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

A harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population

Which of the following would most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?

A northern landmass called Laurasia and a southern landmass called Gondwana

When the continent of Pangaea first split apart, it formed

Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to

Only within the domain Eukarya

In the three-domain system, the eukaryotes are represented

Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains

The three-domain system

Organisms have evolved over time...beginning with the formation of molecules...then the molecules formed organisms...and those organisms formed more complex organisms

There are numerous theories of evolution with the common thought

God is the creator of all

There are numerous theories of creation with the common thought

There is a higher, intelligent being that made all that we see today (Irreducible Complexity)

Another way of explaining our origin is intelligent design with the common thought

A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?

e. the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galápagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

B) more than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands.

Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's?

B) Wallace

During the 1950s, a scientist named Lysenko tried to solve the food shortages in the Soviet Union by breeding wheat that could grow in Siberia. He theorized that if individual wheat plants were exposed to cold, they would develop additional cold tolerance and pass it to their offspring. Based on the ideas of artificial and natural selection, do you think this project worked as planned?

C) No, because there was no process of selection based on inherited traits. Lysenko assumed that exposure could induce a plant to develop additional cold tolerance and that this tolerance would be passed to the plant's offspring.

Broccoli, cabbages, and brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by

B) artificial selection.

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

A) differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?

B) The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait

Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?

C) Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism's fitness.

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?

C) biogeography

Which of the following represents a pair of homologous structures?

B) the wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

A population is

A) a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

E) a population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations.

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

A) mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms).

Imagine that you are studying a very large population of moths that is isolated from gene flow. A single gene controls wing color. Half of the moths have white-spotted wings (genotype WW or Ww) and half of the moths have plain brown wings (ww). There are no new mutations, individuals mate randomly, and there is no natural selection on wing color. How will p, the frequency of the dominant allele, change over time?

B) p will neither increase nor decrease; it will remain more or less constant under the conditions described.

Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called

C) the bottleneck effect.

Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?

A) founder effect

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

A) gene flow

Which of the following will tend to produce adaptive changes in populations?

D) natural selection

A rabbit population consists of animals that are either very dark on top or very light on top. The color pattern is not related to sex. No rabbit shows intermediate coloration (medium darkness). This pattern might result from

A) disruptive selection

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

A) intersexual selection

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month's supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

e. She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant.

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

E) a change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population

A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that

E) have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.

The biological species concept is

D) difficult to put into practice even for present sexual organisms, and useless for asexual organisms and fossils.

Which provides the most general and correct description of the idea of a reproductive barrier?

B) a biological difference between two species that prevents them from successfully interbreeding

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two species of sea cucumbers, whose sperm and eggs often bump into each other but do not cross-fertilize because of incompatible proteins on their surfaces?

E) gametic isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of species that could interbreed except that one mates at dusk and the other at dawn?

A) temporal isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two flowering plant species that could interbreed except that one has a deep flower tube and is pollinated by bumblebees, whereas the other has a short, narrow flower tube and is pollinated by honeybees?

D) mechanical isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could interbreed except that the females' mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of the other species?

C) behavioral isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of insect species that could interbreed except that one mates on goldenrod flowers and the other on autumn daisies that both blossom at the same time?

B) habitat isolation

Two species that sometimes mate and produce vigorous but sterile offspring are separated by

C) reduced hybrid fertility

The likelihood of allopatric speciation increases when a splinter population is ________ and ________ the broader range of the species.

A) small . . . isolated from

Speciation without geographic isolation is called ________ speciation.

A) sympatric

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be

B) polyploid.

Sympatric speciation commonly occurs through ________ in plants, but is more likely to occur through ________ in animals.

A) polyploidy . . . habitat differentiation and sexual selection

In a hybrid zone, ________ can occur if the reproductive barrier between two species is weak, as seen among cichlids in the murky waters of modern Lake Victoria.

fusion

A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be __________ to transmit it to offspring.

heterozygous for the trait and able

monohybrid

a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait.

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck.

A rabbit population consists of animals that are either very dark on top or very light on top. When examining them closely, biologists were surprised to find no rabbit with a medium darkness, intermediate to the two extremes. This is an example of

disruptive selection

Alleles of a gene are found at __________ chromosomes.

the same locus on homologous

Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for __________ and __________ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities.

karyotyping . . . biochemical testing

An elk herd is observed over many generations. Most of the full-grown bull elk have antlers of nearly the same size, although a few have antlers that are significantly larger or smaller than this average size. The average antler size remains constant over the generations. Which of the following effects probably accounts for this situation?

stabilizing selection

Any gene located on a sex chromosome

is called a sex-linked gene.

Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple's first-born child is female and second-born child is male?

25%

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation.

Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

Given the sex determination system in bees, we can expect that

female bees produce eggs by meiosis, while male bees produce sperm by mitosis

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

intrasexual selection

Many genetic disorders of humans are caused by

recessive alleles

Mendel's law of independent assortment states that

each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation.

Natural selection and the ability to generate perfection are limited by all of the following except that

organisms with the greatest fitness often don't reproduce.

Research since Mendel's time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation

applies to all sexually reproducing organisms.

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage.

The degree of adaptation that can occur in a population is limited by

the amount and kind of genetic variation in a population.

The fossil record shows all of following except that

the first life forms were eukaryotes.

The genetic variation among individuals in a sexually reproducing population of a plant that does not self-pollinate is the result of

A) gene mutation. B) crossing over during meiosis. C) independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis. D) random fertilization.

The modern evolutionary synthesis

A) was first formed in the 1940s. B) focuses on populations as the units of evolution. C) includes the central role of natural selection. D) incorporates population genetics and ideas from paleontology, taxonomy, and biogeography

The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were

not affected at all by the disease.

Varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as

true-breeding

What is meant by the statement that "male bees are fatherless"?

Male bees develop from unfertilized eggs.

Which of the following best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders?

Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce.

Which of the following conditions would tend to make the Hardy-Weinberg equation more accurate for predicting the gene frequencies of future generations in a population of a sexually reproducing species?

little gene flow with surrounding populations

Which of the following is/are recessive sex-linked human conditions?

A) red-green color blindness B) muscular dystrophy C) hemophilia

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

A) heterozygote advantage B) frequency-dependent selection C) balancing selection

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

A) homologous structures B) the common development of pharyngeal pouches in an embryonic stage C) the presence of similar genes D) similarities in protein structure

Which one of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans?

hypercholesterolemia

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

More than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Lyell's book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?

Earth's surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting

Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin's idea of natural selection?

Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

The currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species' early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

homology

Deep branch points near the base, or truck, of an evolutionary tree represent ______, while branch points near the tips of the branches represent ______

Relatively ancient common ancestors...relatively recent common ancestors

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next

Which of the following would most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?

A harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population

Describe the adaptations of the blue-footed boobie

big webbed feet, streamlined shape, large tail, and specialized salt secreting glands

Describe the main ideas that Darwin advanced in his works

species change over time b. living species have arisen from earlier life forms

Describe the assumptions that were part of Darwin 's theory of natural selection.

1. individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproduceing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals. 2. this unequal production of offspring will cause favorable traits to accumulate in a population over time

The first life forms were prokaryotic or eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

How do fossils provide support for evolution?

Fossils show that life forms have changed over time, and radioactive dating shows the times at which the earlier forms lived

List the different types of evidence that modern species have evolved from prior species

a. molecular biology b. comparative anatomy c. comparative embryology d. biogeography

Be able to identify homologous structures (like the examples in your text)

arms, forelegs, flippers, and wings

What factors promote genetic variation in a population

migration of new individuals into the population mutation of alleles in the population genetic drift in the population due to random events

In a particular environment, there are no obvious fitness differences among individuals with dark hair and individuals with light hair. The term that best describes this situation is

disruptive selection

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of it's genes to the next generation

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be
A) haploid
B) polyploid
C) diploid
D) hybrids

polyploid

Under the biological species concept, a species is a group of organisms that
A) are physically similar
B) share a recent common ancestor
C) have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
D) live together in a location and carry out identical ecological roles

C) have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
a. informatics
b. schematic biology
c. taxonomy
d. genomics

taxonomy

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

?

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

Intrasexual selection

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

Gene flow

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

Intersexual selection

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called

microevolution

What is a mutation?

A random change in an organism's DNA

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation

What is the result of natural selection?

a change in the gene pool of a population due to differential reproductive success

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

All of the choices are correct: similarities in protein structure, common development of pharyngeal pouches, homologous structures, the presence of similar genes

Which one of the following is false? Natural selection

Results from an organism's needs

Which one of the following is false?

All variation in a population is heritable

Natural selection is often described as "survival of the fittest" The best measure of an organism's fitness is

How many offspring it produces

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

All of the choices promote genetic variation in a population: balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection

Analogous structures found in two species are structures that have

Similar overall shape due to common function

Which one of the following was not a main idea that Darwin advanced in his works?

New species can form by inheritance of acquired characteristics

The term macroevolution refers to which one of the following

Grand scale of evolution over many geological time

The unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

Long-legged cheetahs are well adapted to catching prey. The ancestor of the cheetah is believed to have had relatively short legs. According to Darwinian views, the evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

Directional selection

A plant breeder has been trying to develop a strain of snap dragons with blue flowers from a population of snapdragons some of which have white flowers and some of which have blue flowers. He finds that no matter how careful he is to only select blue flowered snap dragons, when he plants them out side roughly 10% of the snapdragons have white flower and some plants have both blue and white flowers on the same plant. The most likely explanation is:

Selection can only act on heritable variation and the white flower is due to environment

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

All of the above

Which of the following assumptions was not part of Darwin's theory of natural selection?

Traits are inherited as discrete particles

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of its genes to the next generation

The disease phenylketonuria (PKU. is caused by a recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with the disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q2? (Fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth..

0.0001

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck

What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance?

Homologous

In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to __________ genetically different gametes

eight

A population is

the smallest unit that can evolve

Evolution

The core theme of biology is

Species are fixed (permanent) and perfect

Aristotle believed that

More than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Earth's surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting

Lyell's book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?

The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait

A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?

Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance

Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin's idea of natural selection?

Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

Wallace

Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's?

Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism's fitness

Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

The currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

Biogeography

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?

Homology

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species' early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

Relatively ancient common ancestors...relatively recent common ancestors

Deep branch points near the base, or truck, of an evolutionary tree represent ______, while branch points near the tips of the branches represent ______

A change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

Have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that

Polyploid

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be

10 to 20 billion years ago

The "big bang" that produced the universe is though to have occurred

Prokaryotes...3.5 billion

The earliest discovered fossils are of ______ dating back to ______ years ago.

The atmosphere was rich in gases released in volcanic eruptions; volcanic activity, lightning, and ultraviolet radiation were all much more intense than on today's Earth

When the Earth first solidified, what were conditions like?

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

A population is

A population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

Mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms)

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month's supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

A harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population

Which of the following would most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?

A northern landmass called Laurasia and a southern landmass called Gondwana

When the continent of Pangaea first split apart, it formed

Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to

Only within the domain Eukarya

In the three-domain system, the eukaryotes are represented

Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains

The three-domain system

Organisms have evolved over time...beginning with the formation of molecules...then the molecules formed organisms...and those organisms formed more complex organisms

There are numerous theories of evolution with the common thought

God is the creator of all

There are numerous theories of creation with the common thought

There is a higher, intelligent being that made all that we see today (Irreducible Complexity)

Another way of explaining our origin is intelligent design with the common thought

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

?

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

Intrasexual selection

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

Gene flow

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

Intersexual selection

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called

microevolution

What is a mutation?

A random change in an organism's DNA

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation

What is the result of natural selection?

a change in the gene pool of a population due to differential reproductive success

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

All of the choices are correct: similarities in protein structure, common development of pharyngeal pouches, homologous structures, the presence of similar genes

Which one of the following is false? Natural selection

Results from an organism's needs

Which one of the following is false?

All variation in a population is heritable

Natural selection is often described as "survival of the fittest" The best measure of an organism's fitness is

How many offspring it produces

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

All of the choices promote genetic variation in a population: balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection

Analogous structures found in two species are structures that have

Similar overall shape due to common function

Which one of the following was not a main idea that Darwin advanced in his works?

New species can form by inheritance of acquired characteristics

The term macroevolution refers to which one of the following

Grand scale of evolution over many geological time

The unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

Long-legged cheetahs are well adapted to catching prey. The ancestor of the cheetah is believed to have had relatively short legs. According to Darwinian views, the evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

Directional selection

A plant breeder has been trying to develop a strain of snap dragons with blue flowers from a population of snapdragons some of which have white flowers and some of which have blue flowers. He finds that no matter how careful he is to only select blue flowered snap dragons, when he plants them out side roughly 10% of the snapdragons have white flower and some plants have both blue and white flowers on the same plant. The most likely explanation is:

Selection can only act on heritable variation and the white flower is due to environment

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

All of the above

Which of the following assumptions was not part of Darwin's theory of natural selection?

Traits are inherited as discrete particles

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of its genes to the next generation

The disease phenylketonuria (PKU. is caused by a recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with the disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q2? (Fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth..

0.0001

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck

What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance?

Homologous

In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to __________ genetically different gametes

eight

A population is

the smallest unit that can evolve

1) The term "gene expression" refers to the

D) process by which genetic information flows from genes to proteins.

2) A gene operon consists of

D) transcribed genes, an operator, and a promoter.

3) In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines

A) an operon.

4) The lac operon in E. coli

C) prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment.

5) Proteins that bind to DNA and turn on operons by making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter are called

D) activators.

6) The lac operon of E. coli is ________ when the repressor is bound to lactose.

A) active

7) The expression of the tryptophan operon is controlled by

D) a repressor that is active when it binds to tryptophan.

8) Which of the following is likely to occur in E. coli cells that are grown in skim milk?

D) The trp repressor is activated and the cells will produce lactose-utilizing enzymes.

9) A single cell, the zygote, can develop into an entirely new organism with many different specialized cells. Which of the following statements about this process is false?

B) Additional genetic information for the formation of specialized cells is passed on to the developing embryo via the placenta.

10) The basis of cellular differentiation is

A) selective gene expression.

11) The genes for the enzymes of glycolysis

A) are active in all metabolizing cells, but the genes for specialized proteins are expressed only in particular cell types.

12) Which of the following statements regarding DNA packing is false?

C) DNA packing tends to promote gene expression.

13) The relationship between DNA and chromosomes is most like

B) thread wrapped around a spool.

14) In female mammals, the inactive X chromosome in each cell

B) becomes a Barr body.

15) The tortoiseshell pattern on a cat

B) results from X chromosome inactivation.

16) Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells use ________ to turn certain genes on or off.

D) proteins

17) Enhancers are

A) DNA sequences to which activator proteins bind.

18) Silencers

C) bind to DNA sequences and inhibit the start of transcription.

19) RNA splicing involves the

A) removal of introns from the molecule.

20) The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called

B) exons.

21) Which of the following permits a single gene to code for more than one polypeptide?

C) alternative RNA splicing

22) Small pieces of RNA that can regulate translation of mRNA are called

B) microRNA.

23) miRNA can be used by

B) cells to prevent infections from double-stranded RNA viruses.

24) All of the following mechanisms are used to regulate protein production except

C) DNA editing.

25) Which of the following mechanisms of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus?

D) translation

26) Which of the following statements about fruit fly development is false?

D) The location of the head and tail ends of the egg is primarily determined by the location of sperm entry during fertilization.

27) A homeotic gene

A) serves as a master control gene that functions during embryonic development by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.

28) Which of the following statements about microarrays is false?

A) Microarrays use tiny portions of double-stranded RNA fragments from a large number of genes.

29) In multicellular organisms, the coordination of cellular activities relies on

A) cell-to-cell signaling and signal transduction pathways.

30) To initiate a signal transduction pathway, a signal binds to a receptor protein usually located in the

C) plasma membrane.

31) Transcription factors attach to

D) DNA.

32) A signal outside a cell triggers changes in the transcription and translation inside the cell through

B) signal transduction pathways.

33) Yeast are able to communicate with each other

B) through chemical signaling.

34) Signal transduction pathways

A) are mechanisms of communication that probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes.

35) In plants, most differentiated cells retain

C) a complete set of their genes, and retain the ability to express those genes under certain circumstances.

36) Why can some plants be cloned from a single cell?

D) Plant cells can dedifferentiate and give rise to all of the specialized cells required to produce an entire plant.

37) Which of the following processes occurs when a salamander regenerates a lost limb?

A) Certain cells in the limb dedifferentiate, divide, and then redifferentiate to form a new limb.

38) The cloning of Dolly the sheep

D) demonstrated that the nuclei from differentiated mammalian cells can retain their full genetic potential.

39) The use of cloning to produce special embryonic stem cells is called

B) therapeutic cloning.

40) Which of the following mammals has not yet been cloned and brought through the complete gestation cycle?

A) human

41) Which of the following possible uses of reproductive cloning is still considered by most to be an unresolved ethical issue?

A) the reproductive cloning of humans

42) Which of the following statements regarding stem cells is false?

B) Adult, but not embryonic, stem cells can be grown in laboratory culture.

43) Adult stem cells have limited therapeutic potential

B) because their developmental potential is limited to certain tissues.

44) A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n)

A) oncogene.

45) Which of the following statements about proto-oncogenes is false?

B) A mutation in a tumor-suppressor gene can stop cell division immediately.

46) Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to normal cells becoming cancerous?

D) one or more of the cell's genes being removed by a virus

47) Cancer of the colon is caused by

D) several somatic cell mutations.

48) The development of colon cancer occurs slowly, and colon cancer is more frequently seen in the elderly than the young. This is most likely because

C) four or more somatic mutations must occur to give rise to the cancer, which takes time.

49) Mutations in the proto-oncogene ras and the tumor suppressor gene p53

B) disrupt normal regulation of the cell cycle.

50) Mutations in the p53 gene can lead to cancer by

A) causing the production of a faulty protein that is no longer able to inhibit cell division.

51) The carcinogen known to cause the most cases and types of cancer is

A) tobacco.

52) Which of the following statements regarding cancer risk factors is false?

D) Mutagens are usually not carcinogens.

53) In this drawing of the lac operon, which molecule is an inactive repressor?

D) molecule D

54) Which structure in this figure shows one complete nucleosome?

D) structure D

55) Why don't the grafted hybrids produce apples with a blend of traits from the scion and the rootstock?

D) The rootstock regulates gene expression in the scion, but contributes no genetic information for fruit production.

56) Half the trees in an orchard were derived from rootstock "A" and half from rootstock "B," but all the
trees had the same scion. If the trees grafted onto rootstock "A" were infected by a parasite that
causes blossom rot, the trees grafted onto rootstock B

A) would be very likely to become infected, because the remaining scions are genetically identical to those that are already infected.

mRNA can be used by

Cells to prevent infections from double-stranded RNA viruses.

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli

When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known as

recombinant DNA

Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?

98.8%

The feature of "sticky ends" that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability to

form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA profiling

Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?

98.5%

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization

In the process of human gene cloning using recombinant plasmids, the bacterial plasmid

functions as a vector

During the process of electrophoresis, the _______ functions like a thick filter, separating the samples according to their size.

gel

Restriction enzymes

cut DNA at specific sites

When DNA fingerprinting was first used,

the two semen samples did not match the person who initially confessed

Restriction enzymes specifically recognize and cut short sequences of DNA called

restriction sites

The production of multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA defines

gene cloning

Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?

Scientists think that the typical human gene probably specifies just one polypeptide.

A collection of DNA fragments obtained from the genome of one organism, inserted by recombinant DNA techniques into the genome of a host organism (one fragment per host genome), and maintained there is called a

genomic library

Which step in this process requires use of restriction enzymes?

step B

In order to match the pilot's remains to the correct family using DNA profiling,

each of the 13 STR bands must match

Based on analysis of the STR sites shown, does the missing pilot belong to any of these three families?

Yes, family 3 matches.

DNA ligase binds

nucleotides together

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size

In order for gene therapy to be permanent,

the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply

If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by ______, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.

PCR

A nucleic acid probe is

a piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to locate a specific gene.

_________ are a major source of restriction enzymes.

Bacteria

DNA fragments that have matching sticky ends are joined by covalent bonds formed by the action of

DNA ligase

When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,

the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction than cow, pig or horse insulin.

A vaccine works by

stimulating the immune system.

Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?

a very close match in the DNA profile

The number of proteins in humans

is much greater than the number of genes

Decisions regarding the human genome are the responsibility of

society as a whole (individuals, doctors, scientists, government)

The electrical current in the electrophoresis chamber always runs

negative to positive

Remove the bacterial plasmid/cut using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Harvest/purify the insulin protein to be injected into patients

5th- e

Put the bacterial plasmid back into the bacterial cell where it can reproduce and synthesize the insulin protein

4th- d

Isolate in insulin gene in human DNA using the same restriction enzyme

2nd- b

Insert the insulin gene into the bacterial plasmid/Seal with ligase

3rd- c

Separate the fragments using electrophoresis

2nd- b

Compare the bands of DNA

3rd- c

Cut the DNA using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Analyze/Interpret the results

4th- d

Why is the whole-genome shotgun method currently the tool of choice for analyzing genomes?

It is fast and inexpensive

which of the following genetically modified organisms has not been developed by genetic engineers

Transgenic corn with the gene for human insulin

Which of the following has NOT been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified organisms?

The fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage.

golden rice is golden in color because it is rich in

BEta-carotene

which of the following statements regarding proteomics is correct?

Proteomics is the systemic study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.

the only recombinant cells that can correctly attach sugars on proteins to form glycoprotein products are

Mammalian cells

which of the following statements about dna technology is false

DNA technology is now used to create cells that can identify and kill cancer cells

genomic libraries can be constructed using either bacterial plasmids or what other vector

Bacteriophages

A transgenic animal is

An animal containing a gene from another organism, typically of another species.

which of the following statements regarding repetitive dna is false?

Repetitive DNA is identical in all humans

after dna fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

genome sequence analysis suggest that neanderthals

Atleast sometimes had pale skin and red hair

Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are called

Transposable elements

The ________ approach to gene cloning employs a mixture of fragments from the entire genome of an organism.

shotgun

Blue-footed boobies have webbed feet and are comically clumsy when they walk on land. Evolutionary scientists view these feet as

the outcome of a tradeoff: webbed feet perform poorly on land, but are very helpful in diving for food.

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by.

Artificial selection

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species: both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

homology

Darwin was the first person to draw an evolutionary tree, a diagram that represents

evidence- based hypotheses regarding our understanding of patterns of evolutionary descent.

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next.

An elk herd is observed over many generations. Most of the full-grown bull elk have antlers of nearly the same size. The average antler size remains constant over the generations. Which of the following effects probably accounts for the situation?

stabilizing selection

A women struggling with bacterial illness is prescribed a months supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about 2 weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two week supply or should she continue taking the drug?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

The sickle-cell allele produces a serious blood disease in homozygotes. Why doesn't natural selection eliminate this allele from all human populations?

In populations were endemic malaria is present, heterozygotes have an important advantage: They are resistant to malaria and therefore are more likely to survive and produce offspring that carry the allele.

Frequency-dependent selection, as seen in the case of the scale-eating fish in lake Tanganyika, tends to

maintain two phenotypes in a dynamic equilibrium in a population

During which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract

elimination

An alimentary canal is best defined as

a tube-shaped compartment for the transport, digestion, and absorption of food

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter?

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Digestion begins in the

oral cavity

The mucous-producing cells that line the stomach

lubricate and protect the stomach lining

In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

small intestine

organisms suffering from malnutrition may have a diet deficient in

one or more essential nutrients

which of the following is a hormone produced by adipose cells that help to control appetite?

leptin

Animals that maintain internal body temperature using heat generated by their own metabolism are called

endotherms

To enhance heat loss, humans sweat, an adaption known as

evaporative cooling

sweating commonly results in dehydration. Of the choices listed, which would be the best option for rehydration after intense exercise?

sports drink

mammals have evolved a sophisticated mechanism for eliminating nitrogenous wastes that involves

forming urea and storing it in concentrated solution

whats is the name of the functional unit of the kidneys

nephron

during production of urine, a major function of the kidney is

water conservation

what is the function of antidiurectic hormone?

to increase water reabsorption

when a salmon moves from the ocean to a freshwater environment, you would expect its urine volume to _______ and its rate of salt absorption to ______.

increases....increases

In a dialysis machine, wastes are removed from blood plasma by process of

diffusion

through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?

urethra

increased brain size had many benefits for early humans. one example is

complex social structure with the ability to adapt to changing environments

when comparing the differences between human and chimpanzee DNA

the differences are generally found in the gene switches that determine when and how genes are expressed.

walking upright has both pros and cons. some of the pros of walking upright include

looking large to predators, the ability to harvest more food, the ability to carry young.

homo erectus was the first early human to spend most of its time walking upright

true

tool use is uniquely human

False

chimpanzees are humans closest living relatives

True

lower back pain can be attributed to walking upright, which formed the curvature at the base of the spine

True

Humans and chimpanzees have 90% identical genome sequences

False

Darwins ideas about evolution were formed after observing marine iguanas on the galapagos islands

false

____ genes are responsible for coding for self-proteins.

MHC

A molecule that can elicit an adaptive immune response is called

an antigen

Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to

blood pH and CO2 concentration

which part of the diagram shows the alveoli?

Part D

Air leaving human lung during exhalation contains

carbon dioxide and unused oxygen

during gas exchange, body cells

release CO2 and take in O2

As blood moves away from the heart towards the tissues, the relative size of blood vessels _____, the blood pressure ______, and the velocity of blood flow _______.

decreases...drops....slows

which of the following is a function of the nasal cavities in humans?

warming inhaled air

arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except

the amount of oxygen present in the blood

The main function of the AV node is to

relay a signal for the ventricles to contract

The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the

vital capacity

Which of the following cell types is responsible for the cell-mediated immune response?

T cells

Natural Killer Cells

attack virus-infected cells by releasing chemicals that lead to the death of the cell

Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because

it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure

which of the following distingueshes the secondary immune response from the primary?

The secondary response is faster and stronger

which of the following choices best describes a plasma cell?

It is a differentiated B cell

Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the

pulmonary arteries

What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?

capillary

which of the following helps activate our nonspecific (innate) defense system?

inflammation

A primary immune response is

the immune response elicited by the first exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen

cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by an ____ each time it contracts

ventricle

Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?

helper T cells

The reason animals need continuous supply of oxygen is

obtain energy from their food

after binding to an infected cell, the cytotoxic T cell

releases a protein called perforin

what part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?

medulla oblongata

multipotent stem cells found in the red marrow inside bones

can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets

An adult humans red blood cells are formed in the

bone marrow

which blood vessels have the thinnest walls

capillaries

labored breathing, coughing, lung infections, and respiratory failure are characteristics defining

chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus

the stronger attraction that fetal hemoglobin has for oxygen when compared to adult hemoglobin

blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein

fibrinogen

which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false?

The left side of a mammals heart sends blood to the lungs

The liquid part of blood is called

plasma

what prompts a newborn baby to start to breather?

an increase in the concentration of oxygen in the baby's blood

which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body?

alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx

which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?

transporting nutrients to body cells

The oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells is

hemoglobin

which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid and consume any bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter?

macrophages

anaphylactic shock is an example of an

allergic response

which of the following cells are phagocytes?

monocytes and neutrophils

which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?

smoking

blood flow through capillaries is controlled by

precapillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles

what type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?

autoimmune

which of the following cell types is responsible for the humoral immune response?

B cells

The human lymphatic system consists of all of the following structures except the

pancreas

The basic function of the activated T cells is to battle

pathogens that have alreasy entered body cells

one kind of vaccine consists of

a harmless variant strain of a disease-causing microbe

cigarette smoke can affect the white blood cells that reside in our lungs, whose purpose is to

engulf foreign particles

which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?

Bear

Plasma proteins are involved in all of the following activities except

carrying oxygen

The autonomic nervous system

regulates the internal environment of the body

The central communication conduit between the brain and the rest of the body is the

spinal cord

functionally, the muscle fibers fundamental unit for contraction is the

sarcomere

muscles are connected to the bones by

tendons

a tennis player serving the ball uses fast muscle fibers. The ATP needed to accomplish this would come from

anaerobic fermentation

The signal that crosses a synapse is stopped when

the neurotransmitter is enzymatically broken down or transported back to the signaling cell

Bone is composed of

living cells that secrete a surrounding matrix

the neurotransmitter found at the synapse between nerves and human skeletal muscle cells is

acetylcholine

which division of the human nervous system carries signals to skeletal muscles?

motor system

action potentials normally travel along an axon

away from the cell body

According to the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, a sarcomere contracts when its

thin filaments slie towards each other across its thick filaments

skeletal muscles

work in antagonistic pairs

nervous system effector cells

include muscle cells and gland cells

which of the following statements regarding the brain is true

the blood-brain barrier helps to maintain a stable chemical environment for the brain

the gap between the transmitting and receiving neurons in a chemical synapse is known as the

synaptic cleft

The relationship between spinal nerves and the spinal cord is most like the relationship between

an interstate highway and the many roads that intersect with it via on- and off- ramps

which of the following structures constitutes part of the axial skeleton

skull

The calcium that triggers muscle contraction is stored in

the endoplasmic reticulum

which of the following statements regarding exercise is true

the main source of energy during aerobic exercise is ATP from aerobic respiration

Osteoporosis is characterized by

low bone mass and structural deterioration of the bone tissue.

what part of the neuron carries signals toward the part of the cell that houses the nucleus

dendrite

one neurotransmitter associated with sleep, mood, attention, and learning is

serotonin

Muscles that are constantly active, such as those maintaining our body posture, having a high proportion of

slow, fatigue-resistant fibers.

Parkinsons disease is associated with a deficiency in

dopamine

which of the following statements regarding the nervous system is true

motor neurons convey signals from the CNS to the effector cells

which of the following statements about resting potential is true

the sodium-potassium pump contributes to the resting membrane potential

changes occur within a sarcomere during muscle contraction. one change is that the

Z lines move closer together

The shoulder joint where the humerus meets the shoulder gridle is an example of

a ball and socket joint

a motor unit is

a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it controls

The speed of impulse conduction along an axon may be increase by

a myelin sheath

Neurotransmitters that open Na+ channels and trigger action potentials in receiving cells are called

excitatory

The enteric division of the autonomic nervous system consists of neurons in the digestive tract, the gallbladder and

the pancreas

a thick filament consists of

myosin

which of the following statements about locomotion is true

locomotion requires animals to overcome friction and gravity

multiple sclerosis results from an autoimmune disease that primarily involves

destruction of the myelin sheath

which of the following statements best describes the power stroke of muscle contraction?

the myosin head bends, pulling the thin filament toward the center of the sarcomere

which part of a bone contains mostly stored fat?

yellow bone marrow

during transmission across a typical chemical synapse

neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the receiving cells plasma membrane

the functional unit of the nervous system is the

neuron

in all vertebrates, the brain consists of the

forebrain, midbrain,hindbrain

the sequence of events that cause a muscle to contract can be summed up in the correct order as

detach, extend, attach, pull

the contacting surfaces of a moving joint, such as your hip joint, consist of

cartilage

action potentials relay different intensities of information due to the

frequency of action potentials relative to the strength of the stimulus

which of the following statements about skeletal muscle fibers is true

each muscle fiber contains actin and myosin

the two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system are the

central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

Which of the following statements regarding sexual reproduction is true?

Sexual reproduction generates greater genetic variation than asexual reproduction.

In which part of the human female reproductive system does fertilization normally take place?

oviduct

Human testes are positioned in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity

so the testes can be kept cooler than the body's interior.

Which of the following produces a thick fluid containing fructose, which is used for energy by sperm?

seminal vesicles

Which of the following statements comparing spermatogenesis and oogenesis is true?

Men, but not women, can produce gametes throughout their lives.

Which of the following STDs is caused by a virus that can also cause cancer?

genital warts

Sterilization, in which the sperm is surgically prevented from reaching the egg, is accomplished by

tubal ligation or vasectomy.

The function of a sperm cell's acrosome is to

carry enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg.

Which of the following serves as an impenetrable barrier that prevents more than one sperm from fertilizing an egg?

the vitelline layer

Which of the following occurs during the process of labor?

positive feedback involving oxytocin and prostaglandins

Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on

peas.

An insect that has the genotype EeGGcc will have the same phenotype as an insect with the genotype _____.

EEGgcc

In an individual of genotype Aa, where are the A and a alleles physically located?

One allele is on one chromosome, and the other is in the same position (locus) on the homologous chromosome.

The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be

9:3:3:1

Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision). We can conclude that

the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation.

Imagine that long fins in zebrafish is a dominant trait. A breeder wants to set up a breeding program beginning with homozygous dominant long-finned fish. If she obtains a handful of the long-finned fish, how can she tell which if any of these are homozygous for the trait?

Cross the long-finned fish with short-finned fish; if the offspring are all long-finned, the long-finned parent is homozygous.

Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be ________ to transmit it to offspring.

heterozygous for the trait and able

All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ________ to the allele for white flowers.

incompletely dominant

A woman has been trying to conceive for several years, unsuccessfully. At a fertility clinic, they discover that she has blocked fallopian tubes. Using modern technologies, some of her eggs are removed, fertilized with her husband's sperm, and implanted into her uterus. The procedure is successful, but the couple discovers that their new son is color-blind and has blood type O. The woman claims that the child can't be theirs since she has blood type A and her husband has type B. Also, neither parent is color-blind, although one grandparent (the woman's father) is also color-blind.

As a genetic counselor, you would explain to the parents that

it is possible for the baby to have type O blood, since type O is inherited through a dominant allele.

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization.

After DNA fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to cause harmful side effects than cow, pig, or horse insulin.

Which of the following has not been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified (GM) organisms?

the fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA fingerprinting

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size.

What is the current standard tool used for DNA profiling by forensic scientists?

STR analysis

Which of the following statements about genomics is false?

DNA technology limits genomic studies to prokaryotes.

In "Cracking Your Genetic Code," what type of cancer was being targeted with drugs based on the genome of the cancer cells?

melanoma

the type of repetitive dna composed of sequences of large repeated units is often associated with

Transposable elements

A cDNA library differs from a genomic library in that

cDNA libraries only contain information from genes that have been transcribed.

when genetic variation in one nucleotide is found in at least 1 of the population it is known as

A. single nucleotide polymorphism.

Which of the following statements about nucleic acid probes is false?

A nucleic acid probe is a double-stranded section of DNA.

"Sticky ends" are

DNA fragments with single-stranded ends.

The polymerase chain reaction relies upon unusual, heat-resistant ________ that were isolated from bacteria living in hot springs.

DNA polymerase molecules

Which of the following statements about genome sequencing is false?

Most of the genomes that have been sequenced to date are eukaryotes.

24. Genetically modifying ________ cells may directly affect future generations.

germ

What is the smallest number of cells needed to perform a successful DNA profile?

20

An advantage of using reverse transcriptase to prepare a gene for cloning is that

the resulting DNA strand will lack introns.

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli

When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known as

recombinant DNA

Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?

98.8%

The feature of "sticky ends" that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability to

form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA profiling

Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?

98.5%

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization

In the process of human gene cloning using recombinant plasmids, the bacterial plasmid

functions as a vector

During the process of electrophoresis, the _______ functions like a thick filter, separating the samples according to their size.

gel

Restriction enzymes

cut DNA at specific sites

When DNA fingerprinting was first used,

the two semen samples did not match the person who initially confessed

Restriction enzymes specifically recognize and cut short sequences of DNA called

restriction sites

The production of multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA defines

gene cloning

Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?

Scientists think that the typical human gene probably specifies just one polypeptide.

A collection of DNA fragments obtained from the genome of one organism, inserted by recombinant DNA techniques into the genome of a host organism (one fragment per host genome), and maintained there is called a

genomic library

Which step in this process requires use of restriction enzymes?

step B

In order to match the pilot's remains to the correct family using DNA profiling,

each of the 13 STR bands must match

Based on analysis of the STR sites shown, does the missing pilot belong to any of these three families?

Yes, family 3 matches.

DNA ligase binds

nucleotides together

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size

In order for gene therapy to be permanent,

the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply

If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by ______, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.

PCR

A nucleic acid probe is

a piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to locate a specific gene.

_________ are a major source of restriction enzymes.

Bacteria

DNA fragments that have matching sticky ends are joined by covalent bonds formed by the action of

DNA ligase

When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,

the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction than cow, pig or horse insulin.

A vaccine works by

stimulating the immune system.

Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?

a very close match in the DNA profile

The number of proteins in humans

is much greater than the number of genes

Decisions regarding the human genome are the responsibility of

society as a whole (individuals, doctors, scientists, government)

The electrical current in the electrophoresis chamber always runs

negative to positive

Remove the bacterial plasmid/cut using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Harvest/purify the insulin protein to be injected into patients

5th- e

Put the bacterial plasmid back into the bacterial cell where it can reproduce and synthesize the insulin protein

4th- d

Isolate in insulin gene in human DNA using the same restriction enzyme

2nd- b

Insert the insulin gene into the bacterial plasmid/Seal with ligase

3rd- c

Separate the fragments using electrophoresis

2nd- b

Compare the bands of DNA

3rd- c

Cut the DNA using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Analyze/Interpret the results

4th- d

Why is the whole-genome shotgun method currently the tool of choice for analyzing genomes?

It is fast and inexpensive

which of the following genetically modified organisms has not been developed by genetic engineers

Transgenic corn with the gene for human insulin

Which of the following has NOT been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified organisms?

The fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage.

golden rice is golden in color because it is rich in

BEta-carotene

which of the following statements regarding proteomics is correct?

Proteomics is the systemic study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.

the only recombinant cells that can correctly attach sugars on proteins to form glycoprotein products are

Mammalian cells

which of the following statements about dna technology is false

DNA technology is now used to create cells that can identify and kill cancer cells

genomic libraries can be constructed using either bacterial plasmids or what other vector

Bacteriophages

A transgenic animal is

An animal containing a gene from another organism, typically of another species.

which of the following statements regarding repetitive dna is false?

Repetitive DNA is identical in all humans

after dna fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

genome sequence analysis suggest that neanderthals

Atleast sometimes had pale skin and red hair

Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are called

Transposable elements

The ________ approach to gene cloning employs a mixture of fragments from the entire genome of an organism.

shotgun

Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?

A community

The tree in your backyard is home to 2 cardinals, a colony of ants, a wasp's nest, two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, all of these organisms represent

Sunlight

The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is

Has a membrane

Your instructor asks you to look into your microscope to see a prokaryotic cell. You will be looking for a cell that

Fungi

Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?

A hypothesis

You notice that over the past month, many students on campus have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself that perhaps the bookstore has recently started selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is an example of

Biosphere

The sum of all Earth's ecosystems is called the

Habitat

While on a walk through a forest, you notice birds in trees, earthworms in the soil, and fungi on plant litter on the forest floor. Based on your observations, ou concluded that each of these organisms occupies a different

Ecosystem

The level of ecologic organization that incorporates abiotic factors is the

environmental effects of pesticides

Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring, deals with the

Rises and cools, dropping rain

In terms of global air circulation, the tropics are in a region where air

Day length

If you travel from west to east through Ecuador, you will pass through tundra, taiga, temperate forest, and tropical rainforest. Which of the following climatic factors remains constant on such trip

scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared to the western flank.

When people speak of the "rain shadow" of the California /coast Range, they are reffering to the

Pelagic

A sperm whale in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is in which oceanic zone?

Sunlight

In many dense forests, plants living near the ground level engage in intense competition for

Estuary

Fresh water and sea water mix in a(n)

Tundra- very cold winters; only the upper layer of the soil thaws during summer

Whoch of the following opinions correctly pairs a biome and its characteristics?

Many desert aminals are nocturnal.

Which of the following statements about deserts and the organisms that live there is true?

The Mediterranean region

Chaparral vegetation occurs around much of the central valley of central and southern California. This biome is very similarto that found in

Many plantswith seeds that need fire to germinate.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the chaparral biome?

Temperate grasslands

In which of the following biomes would you expect to find the highest abundance of large, grazing mammals?

Oak, hickory, birch, beech, and maple are common trees in temperate broadleaf forests.

Which of the following statements about temperate broadleaf forests is true?

Coniferous forests

Which of the following biomes is dominated by coniferous trees adapted to surviving long, harsh winters, and short wet summers?

Proximate cause

Answers to questions about the immediate mechanisms for a behavior are called

Ultimate causrs

The evolutionary expectations for behavior are called

Innate behavior

When a nipple is placed in a newborn baby's mouth, the infant will immediately begin to suckle. This is an

Habituation

When you successfully study with music on in the background, you are demonstrating

Taxis

Agrayling butterfly will normally fly towards the sun. This is an example of

Trial-and-error learning

Squirrels on a bird feeder seem to be able to figure out how to steal seeds no matter what people do to prevent it. Yesterday, Jeremy hung out a new bird feeder design, and sure enough, by the end of the day the squirrels found a way to get to the seeds. The squirrels most likely figured out how to get the seeds through

Social learning

The baby bobcat watched as their mother stalked a rabbit and pounced, catching a meal that was shared by all. The next day,two of the young bobcats were stalking a field mouse, which quickly escaped the inexperienced hunters. The young bobcats were learning how to hunt by the process of

Imitation is not limited to a sensative period

A big difference between imitation (social learning) and imprinting is that

You think about what color clothing she wore, and look for that color.

You lose track of your friend in a store and start looking for her. Which of the following things that you could do represents the use of a search image

Communication

The sending of, reception of, and response to signals constitute animal

Smell and sound

Organisms that are nocturnal are more likely to communicate using

The individuals are fertile and of the opposite sex.

Which of the following is communicated by courtship displays

A dog raises its hackles, bares its teeth, and stands high to appear threatening

Which of the following would be an example of agonistic behavior

Is used to establish dominance hierarchies.

Agonistic behavior

Dominance heirarchy

Pecking order in chickens is an example of

Reciprocal altruism

An adult human jumps into a raging river to try to save a child who is drowning and is unrelated to the adult. This is an example of

You help your brother pay for his children's college tuition, even though he may not be able to pay you back.

Which of the following situations could represent kin selection in action

Elephants

A survivorship curve that involves producing very few offspring, each of which has a high probability of surviving to adulthood, is typical of

75%

In the 2000 years thats humans have lived on Madagascar, the island has lost approximately what percent of its native species.

Detritivores

The primary decomposers of a community are called

Producer

Within an ecosystem, a tree is a

DDT released into the environment

Large coastal dead zones depleted of oxygen are primarily caused by

Primary consumer

In a hypothetical food chain consisting of grass, grasshoppers,sparrows, and hawks, the grasshoppers are

Attempt to restore the natural wetlands associated with the Kissimmee River

The Kissimmee River Project is an

Greenhouse

Carbon dioxide traps heat and warms the atmosphere. This is known as the ______ effect.

Clumped

The pattern of distribution for a species of kelp is clumped. We would expect that the pattern of distribution for a population of snails that live on the kelp would be

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmosphereic nitrogen to ammonia.

Which of the following represents a step in the nitrogen cycle?

The nitrogen cycle requires different types of bacteria.

Which of the following statements about the nitrogen cycle is true?

Competition

An owl and a hawk both eat mice. Which of these terms describes the relationship between a hawk and an owl?

A polar bear producing one or two cubs every three years.

Which of the following organisms best illustrates K-selection?

Booby and noddy birds, primary consumers.

A hypothetical community on a barren mid-Atlantic island consists of two fish-eating seabirds (the booby and the noddy), the fungi and microorganisms that live on the birds dung, a tick that feeds on these two birds, a cactus, a moth that feeds on cast-off feathers, a beetle that lives on dung organisms, and spiders that eat the arthropods. There are no other plants and no lichen. Which of the following choices incorrectly pairs a member of the assemlage with its poition in the trophic structure?

Mutualism

When two different populations in a community benefit from their relationship with each other, the result is called

Fire ants

Which of the following is an introduced species in the United States

The movement from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates is calledd demographic transition.

Which of the following statements about human demographic trends is true?

Density

Assume that there are five alligators per acre in a swamp in northern Florida. This is a measure of the alligator population's

Potentially interacting populations of different kinds of organisms.

A community is composed of

Carrying capacity

The maximum number of individuals a habitat can support is called its

Population

A group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area defines a

Niche

The sum total of a population's use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its

Deplete to ozone layer.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)

Nitrates...nitrogen gas

Denitrifying bacteria convert ________ to ________.

Habitat destruction due to humans

Currently, the single greatest threat to biodiversity is

Elimination of flying insects

Which of the following is a likely consequence of the thinning of the ozone layer?

Parents providing extended care for their young.

A type 1 survivorship curve is the result of which of the following life history traits?

Camouflage

One mechanim that prey populations evolve to avoid predation is

Changes gradually because each species responds differently to the changing environment.

During ecological succession, the species composition of a plant community generally

Logistic

A newly mated queen ant establishes an ant nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, which of the following types of equation will best descibe its population growth?

Species richness

The number of species in a community is called the

Tertiary consumers

In a food chain consisting of phytoplankton -> zooplankton -> fish -> fishermen, the fishermen are

One species will take over most or all of the zone of overlap.

If an overlap develops between the ranges of two closely related species, and if the species occupy the same niche in the zone of overlap, what will probably happen in the zone of overlap?

About 1%

If there are 1,000 metric tons of producers in an ecosystem, about how much of the energy in those producers will be available to secondary consumers in this ecosystem?

Producers

You want to do al that you can to safeguard the environment by preserving energy. One simple thing that you can do is to eat a diet consisting only of organisms that are

Produce energy that is used by coral animals through photosynthesis.

Dinoflagellates are important to coral and coral-dwelling animals because they

A shortage of calcium in the soil.

It appears that forest plant growth at Hubbard Brook halted because of acid rain and snow that caused

Water runoff increased in the deforested areas.

In experimental studies conducted at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, it was found that

Take advantage of human activity, such as clearing woodlots.

The life history strategy of an r-selected species is to

The genetic diversity within and between populations of a species.

Biodiverity considers

The intentional release of a natural enemy of a pest population.

Biological control is defined as

Photosynthetic organisms

CO2 flooding into the atmosphere is absorbed by ________ and converted into biomass.

Rates decline and/ or death rates increase.

In the logistic growth model, as population size increases, birth rates

Uniform dispersion

You drive through Iowa in the spring, and notice that along a stretch of several kilometers, every thrid fence post has a male redwing blackbird perched on it defending its nesting territory. This is an example of

CO2 is converted in photosynthesis to carbohydrates.

Given that CO2 is produced by respiration, why does the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere remain relatively constant? ( When answering this question, exclude the impact of human activities on atmosphereic CO2

Secondary succession

When a New England farmer is abandoned, its formerly plowed fields first became weedy meadows, then shrubby areas, and finally forest. This sequence of plant communities is an example of

Through mutations or changes in the expression of one or a few "master control" genes that regulate development.

According to "evo-devo" thinking, an organism's body form can be substantially changed

Protobionts

________ are membranes containing concentrated organic molecules and have some lifelike properties, but are not alive.

Gametic isolation

Which of the following type of reproductive barriers separates two species of sea cucumbers, whose sperm and eggs often bump into each other but do not cross-fertilize because of incompatible proteins on their surfaces?

The Bottleneck effect

Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called

Sympatric

Speciation without geographic isolation is called ________ speciation.

0.60

You have sampled a population of shmoos in a deep cave isolated from sounds. You discover that in these shmoos, blue eye i a recessive allel, and the frequency of blue-eyed shmoos is 0.36. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the frequency of the blue eye allele?

Founder effect

Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark of this population?

Almost 12,000 years ago

You find the frozen remains of a wooly mammoth in an Alaskan glacier. You analyze a bit of the tusk and find that its 14C: 12C ratio is about one-fourth of the baseline level typically found in living organisms. Given that the half-life of 14C is 5730 years, when did the mammoth die?

Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

Have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.

A biological species is defined as a group of organsms that

Polypliod

Organisms that possess more than two complete stes of chromosomes are said to be

Reduced hybrid fertility

Two species that sometimes mate and produce vigorous but sterile offspring are separated by

Mechanical isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two flowering plants species that could interbreed except that one has a deep flower tube and is pollinated by bumblebees, whereas the other has a short, narrow flower tube and is pollinated by honeybees?

Mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms)

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi.

Which of the following would prevent an organism from becoming part of the fossil record when it dies?

Punctuated equilibrium

The emergence of a new plant species over a brief period of time, followed by a long period of little change, is consistent with which of the following theories?

First prokaryotes; photosynthesis; first eukaryotes; colonization of land by plants and fungi.

Which of the following options lists major events in the history of life on Earth in the proper order, from earliest to the most recent?

Earth's land masses have joined into a single continent and split back apart again on three occasion.

Geologists have evidence that over the past 1.5 billion years

Self-replicating RNA molecules aided by ribozymes.

A current leading hypothesis about the first system of inheritance in the earliest life forms involves

The collision of two continental plates.

The Himalayas are an example of a mountain range formed as a result of

The atmosphere was rich in gases released in volcanic eruptions; volcanic activity, lightening, and ultraviolet radiation were all much more intense than on today's Earth.

When the Earth first solidified, what were conditions like?

Artificial selection

Broccoli, cabbages, and brussels sprouts akk descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of aquired characteristics.

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

One-sixteenth of the original amount.

If an isotope has a half-life of 4 million years, and a fossil is 16 million years old, how much of the original isotope will be found in the fossil?

A population'a allele frequencies change over a span of generations.

Microevolution, or evolution in its smallest scale, occurs when

Allopatric

The geographic isolation of a population from other members of the species and the subsequent evolution of reproductive barriers between it and the parent species describes__________.

Behavioral...prezygotic

Frequency, a group of related species will each have a unique courtship ritual that must be performed correctly for both partners to be willing to mate. Such a ritual constitues a _________, _________reproductive barrier.

Little gene flow with surrounding population.

Which of the following conditons would tend to make the Hardy-Weinberg equation more accurate for predicting the genotype frequencies of the future generations in a population of a sexually reproducing species?

Prokaryotes....3.5 billion years ago.

The earliest discovered fossils are of ______, dating back to _______ years ago.

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale.

Which of the following represents a pair of homologous structures?

Temporal isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of species that could interbreed except that one mates at dusk and the other mates at dawn?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant.

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month's supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two weeks supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

0.02^2=0.0004

The recessive allele of a gene causes cycstic fibrosis. For this gene among Caucasians, p= 0.98. If a Caucasian population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to this gene, what proportion of babies is born homozygous recessive, and therefore suffers cystic fibrosis?

Natura selection

Which of the following will tend to produce adaptive changes in populations?

O2 (oxygen gas)

Which highly reactive gas was probably absent from the Earth's primative atmosphere?

Permian

During the _______, over 96% of marine species and many terrestrial species became extinct probably because intense volcanic activity warmed Earth's climate.

The mass extinction of dinosaurs, an event that opened up new ecological oppertunities.

Scientists believe that a major factor promoting the adaptive radiation of mammals was probably

Thomas Malthus

Which of the following thinkers argued that organisms tnd to produce many more offspring than the environment can support, leading to a struggle for existance, an argument the later influenced Charles Darwin's ideas of natural selection?

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next.

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

Complex organic molecules can be produced by physical processes from inorganic components.

Miller-Urey-type experiments have shown that

Oxygen gas tends to disrupt organic molecules, so its absence promoted the formation and stability of complex organic molecules on the early Earth.

Whar was the probable role of oxygen gas in the early stages of life's apperance on Earth?

An organism colonizes an isolated area that is habitable but relatively devoid of life.

Which of the following would tend to promote adaptive radiation?

Presence of flagellated sperm

Which of the following characteristics tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitat that are relatively moist?

From carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

Where do plants get most of their mass?

Ferns have well-developed vascular tissue, roots, and stems.

Which of the following statements regarding ferns is true?

White potatoes are modified plant roots.

Which of the following statements is false?

Peptidoglycan

Unlike archaean and eukaryote cell walls, bacterial cell walls contain a unique substance called

basidiomycetes (club fungi)

Most familiar types of mushrooms, along with puffballs andshelf fungi, are

Marine and freshwater algae that can produce harmful red tides.

Dinoflagellates are best described as

The pull on water from dry air

Which of the following produce the greatest amout of transpiration-cohesion-tension force?

Red algae

There is a good chance you will eat carrageenan today, and you will eat nori at some point in your life, if you haven't already. In either case, you will be eating a product of

The inner cell will differenciate into the xylem, and the outer cell will divide again.

A vascular cambrium cell divides to produce an inner and an outer daughter cell. Which of the following represents the probable fate of these cells?

Diploid sporophytes that produce spores by meiosis alternate with haploid gametophytes that produce gametes by mitosis.

Which of the following statements correctly decribes the alternation of generation in a plant life cycle?

Is an above-ground fruiting body connected to a mycelium.

A mushroom

Plant roots absorb carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis from the soil.

Which of the following statements is false about plant roots?

Increase the surface area for absorbsion of water and minerals.

The chief function of root hairs is to

Are similar to bacteria because fungi useextracellular digestion to obtain their nutrients.

Fungi

Carbon

Which of the following essential macronutrient for plants is obtained directly from the air?

Long-distance water conduction

Which of the following is a function of sclerenchyma cells?

Phloem

The type of plant vascular tissue specialized to conduct foods such as sugars is known as

A cellular slime mold

You collect a protist from a rotting log and grow it in a petri dish containing E coli, which it engulfs. For a while the protist multiplying as single cells. Then the E coli. run short, and the protist aggregate to form a clump, which rises up to become a stalked structure with a globular hear. What kind of protist have you got?

Lignin

Which of the following substances, by providing strength, allows some of a plant's vascular tissue to provide support and play a role analogous to that of an animal's skeleton?

Exotoxins....endotoxins

_______ are toxic proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria, whereas _______ are componentes of the outer membrane of gram-negative pathogens.

Angiosperms

Corn, rice, wheat, fleshy fruits such as apples and berries, and many species are all produced by

Giardia, a parasitic diplomonad

While on a camping trip, you drink untreated stream water. After a few days you develop severe diarrhea. Microscopic examination of a fecal sample from you is mot likely to reveal

A taproot system

Which of the following is a characteristic of eudicots?

Green algae similar to charophytes....coastal marshes or lake fringes

The ancestors of land plants were probably ______ that lived in _______.

Membrane-enclosed sacs under the plasma membrane.

Alveolates are characterized by

Plasmids

Prokaryote genomes ofter include a central ring of DNA plus small acessory rings of DNA that carry genes involved in "coningency" functions. These secondary rings of DNA are called

Casoarian Strip.

What is the physical barrier in the root that regulates the flow of water to xylem via cell walls?

Stamen

The male organ of a flower is the

Passing wastewater through a thick bed of rocks. Biofilms of bacteria and fungi on the rocks absorb and decompose organic material dissolved in wastewater.

The trickling filter at a sewage plant works by

Pushed through pholem and pulled through xylem.

Genreally speaking, fluids in plants are

Pili= help prokaryotes stick to each other and to surfaces

Which of the following options correctly pairs a structure with its function in prokaryote cells?

Pollen and seeds

Two characteristic shared by gymnosperms and angiosperms that are absent from earlier plant groups and represent key adaptations to life on dry land are

The loading of sugars into phloem at sources and removal of sugars at sinks.

The exisistance of a hydrostatic pressure gradient in phloem tubes can be accounted for by

Nitrogen is added to the soil by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Legumes are frequently grown in rotation with primary field crops. What is the benefit in this?

Ovaries

Flowers bear seeds that develop from ovules housed in protective chambers called

Cell elongation behind the apical meristem

The growth that pushes a root down through the soil takes place through

At the surface of plant organs

In general, plant dermal tissue is found

Lyme disease

A patient cpmes to the doctor with a large red rash, shaped like a bull's-eye with a clear patch in the center. Originally there wa a tick bite in the middle of the rash. The patient lives in a suburban area of the United States where deer are common. Which of the following diseases will the physician immediately suspect?

Clones

The genetically identical organisms that reult from asexual reproduction are called

Double fertilzation

In angiosprems, the process of________ ensures that the endosperm will develop only in ovules containing a fertilized egg.

Vessel elements

Which type of vascular tissue in a plant is dead at maturity?

An association between a fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae

What kind of entity is a lichen?

Ergots

Gangrene, hallucinations, temporary insanity, and even death can result when humans consume grain infested with

K+ enters the guard cells and water follows passively, making the cells turgid

Which of the following options best describes the mechanism that causes the stoma to open?

Amphibians.....lobe-finned fishes

The most ancesteral (ancient) extant (surviving) tetrapods are ______ derived from_______.

Australopithecus

______ were the first clearly bipedal hominids.

The need to block UV radiation that destroys folate and the need to synthesize Vitamin D.

Human skin color likely represent a locally adapted compromise between

Chelicerates

Which of the following groups includes both spiders and horseshoe crab?

Scales.....amniotic egg

Recall that cuticle seals plant surfaces and helps plants conserve water and that the seed helps derived plant groups to reproduce effectively on dry land. The analogous adaptations in reptiles are_____ (analogous to cuticle) and ______ (analogous to the seed)

Chimpanzees

________ are known to make and use simple tools.

5-7 million years ago

The last common ancestor shared by humans and chimpanzees lived about

Arthropoda

Walking in a basement you hear a crunching moise and notice that you have killed a small animal. You look closely ans see a few segmented, jointed appendages twitching around. Which phylum does this animal represent?

Choanocyte

The _______ is a flagellated cell that sweeps water through a sponge's body.

Kangaroo

Which of the following organisms is a marsupial?

Cnidaria

While wading in the ocean, you look down into the water and notice an umbrella-shaped translucent animal. It swims by pushing its body, and long tenticles trail behind it. One of them brushes your leg. Ouch! You feel a burning sensation where it touched you. To what phylum does this creature probably belong to?

Have hair and mammory glands

Mammals

Anterior.....ventral

A dog's hea is at it ________ end and its belly is its ______ surface.

Madagascar

Natural population of lemurs are currently found only in

And ectoderm....an endoderm

Typical animal embryos have______, or external cell layers, and ________, which lines the digestive tract.

Lay eggs

The duck-billed platypus and other monotremes differ from other mammals in that they

New world monkeys

Prehensile tails are found among

Africa

According to the fossil record, the genus homo first arose in

An insect

An organism that can fly and has an exoskeleton must be

A soda Straw

The digestive tract of a nematode is most like which of the following

Protists

Animals probably evolve from

Hagfish

The first vertebrate with a head and skull probably reembled a

The FOXP2 gene

______ is thought to have played a cuticle role in the evolution of human speech.

A group of feathered, endothermic dinosaurs that survived the Cretaceous mass extinction.

Which of the following statements best describes the current scientific view of birds?

Earthworms....polychaetes....leeches

________ and soil-dwellers; _____ are mostly marine; and ______ are mostly freshwater.

Two pairs of skeletal rods that supported gill slit near the mouth.

Jaws appear to have evolved from

Homo erectus

The earliest hominid to be found outside of Africa belongs to which species?

A rasoing organ called the radula.

Which of the following is a typical characteristic of molluscs?

Lancelets

Which of the following is an invertebrate chordate?

Some small dinosaurs

Which animals are or may have been endothermic?

A sea anemone

Which of the following animals displays radial symmetry?

An amniotic egg

Which of the following adaptations allowed reptiles to complete their life cycles on land?

A body cavity that is fully lined by tissue derived from the mesoderm.

A true coelom is best described as

An operculum

Unlike sharks and rays,ray-finned fishes have

Ectotherms obtain body heat from external sources, but endotherms use metabolic heat to maintain a warm, steady body temperature.

Which of the following statements best summarizes the differences between ectothermic and endothermic organisms?

The opening formed during gastulation became the mouth.

In protostomes,

A water balloon

Which of the following structures best represents a hydrostatic skeleton?

A skull

Craniates are chordates that all possess

Sahelanthropus, Australpithecus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens

Which of the following options lists the major groups or genera from the fossil record in the proper order from earliest to most recent?

Lack jaws and paired fins

Lampreys differ from fishes in that Lampreys

Apes

Which of the following animal groups is characterized by an absence of tails and forelimbs that are generally longer than their hind limbs?

Blue-footed boobies have webbed feet and are comically clumsy when they walk on land. Evolutionary scientists view these feet as

the outcome of a tradeoff: webbed feet perform poorly on land, but are very helpful in diving for food.

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by.

Artificial selection

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species: both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

homology

Darwin was the first person to draw an evolutionary tree, a diagram that represents

evidence- based hypotheses regarding our understanding of patterns of evolutionary descent.

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next.

An elk herd is observed over many generations. Most of the full-grown bull elk have antlers of nearly the same size. The average antler size remains constant over the generations. Which of the following effects probably accounts for the situation?

stabilizing selection

A women struggling with bacterial illness is prescribed a months supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about 2 weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two week supply or should she continue taking the drug?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

The sickle-cell allele produces a serious blood disease in homozygotes. Why doesn't natural selection eliminate this allele from all human populations?

In populations were endemic malaria is present, heterozygotes have an important advantage: They are resistant to malaria and therefore are more likely to survive and produce offspring that carry the allele.

Frequency-dependent selection, as seen in the case of the scale-eating fish in lake Tanganyika, tends to

maintain two phenotypes in a dynamic equilibrium in a population

During which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract

elimination

An alimentary canal is best defined as

a tube-shaped compartment for the transport, digestion, and absorption of food

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter?

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Digestion begins in the

oral cavity

The mucous-producing cells that line the stomach

lubricate and protect the stomach lining

In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

small intestine

organisms suffering from malnutrition may have a diet deficient in

one or more essential nutrients

which of the following is a hormone produced by adipose cells that help to control appetite?

leptin

Animals that maintain internal body temperature using heat generated by their own metabolism are called

endotherms

To enhance heat loss, humans sweat, an adaption known as

evaporative cooling

sweating commonly results in dehydration. Of the choices listed, which would be the best option for rehydration after intense exercise?

sports drink

mammals have evolved a sophisticated mechanism for eliminating nitrogenous wastes that involves

forming urea and storing it in concentrated solution

whats is the name of the functional unit of the kidneys

nephron

during production of urine, a major function of the kidney is

water conservation

what is the function of antidiurectic hormone?

to increase water reabsorption

when a salmon moves from the ocean to a freshwater environment, you would expect its urine volume to _______ and its rate of salt absorption to ______.

increases....increases

In a dialysis machine, wastes are removed from blood plasma by process of

diffusion

through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?

urethra

increased brain size had many benefits for early humans. one example is

complex social structure with the ability to adapt to changing environments

when comparing the differences between human and chimpanzee DNA

the differences are generally found in the gene switches that determine when and how genes are expressed.

walking upright has both pros and cons. some of the pros of walking upright include

looking large to predators, the ability to harvest more food, the ability to carry young.

homo erectus was the first early human to spend most of its time walking upright

true

tool use is uniquely human

False

chimpanzees are humans closest living relatives

True

lower back pain can be attributed to walking upright, which formed the curvature at the base of the spine

True

Humans and chimpanzees have 90% identical genome sequences

False

Darwins ideas about evolution were formed after observing marine iguanas on the galapagos islands

false

____ genes are responsible for coding for self-proteins.

MHC

A molecule that can elicit an adaptive immune response is called

an antigen

Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to

blood pH and CO2 concentration

which part of the diagram shows the alveoli?

Part D

Air leaving human lung during exhalation contains

carbon dioxide and unused oxygen

during gas exchange, body cells

release CO2 and take in O2

As blood moves away from the heart towards the tissues, the relative size of blood vessels _____, the blood pressure ______, and the velocity of blood flow _______.

decreases...drops....slows

which of the following is a function of the nasal cavities in humans?

warming inhaled air

arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except

the amount of oxygen present in the blood

The main function of the AV node is to

relay a signal for the ventricles to contract

The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the

vital capacity

Which of the following cell types is responsible for the cell-mediated immune response?

T cells

Natural Killer Cells

attack virus-infected cells by releasing chemicals that lead to the death of the cell

Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because

it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure

which of the following distingueshes the secondary immune response from the primary?

The secondary response is faster and stronger

which of the following choices best describes a plasma cell?

It is a differentiated B cell

Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the

pulmonary arteries

What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?

capillary

which of the following helps activate our nonspecific (innate) defense system?

inflammation

A primary immune response is

the immune response elicited by the first exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen

cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by an ____ each time it contracts

ventricle

Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?

helper T cells

The reason animals need continuous supply of oxygen is

obtain energy from their food

after binding to an infected cell, the cytotoxic T cell

releases a protein called perforin

what part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?

medulla oblongata

multipotent stem cells found in the red marrow inside bones

can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets

An adult humans red blood cells are formed in the

bone marrow

which blood vessels have the thinnest walls

capillaries

labored breathing, coughing, lung infections, and respiratory failure are characteristics defining

chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus

the stronger attraction that fetal hemoglobin has for oxygen when compared to adult hemoglobin

blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein

fibrinogen

which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false?

The left side of a mammals heart sends blood to the lungs

The liquid part of blood is called

plasma

what prompts a newborn baby to start to breather?

an increase in the concentration of oxygen in the baby's blood

which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body?

alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx

which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?

transporting nutrients to body cells

The oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells is

hemoglobin

which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid and consume any bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter?

macrophages

anaphylactic shock is an example of an

allergic response

which of the following cells are phagocytes?

monocytes and neutrophils

which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?

smoking

blood flow through capillaries is controlled by

precapillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles

what type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?

autoimmune

which of the following cell types is responsible for the humoral immune response?

B cells

The human lymphatic system consists of all of the following structures except the

pancreas

The basic function of the activated T cells is to battle

pathogens that have alreasy entered body cells

one kind of vaccine consists of

a harmless variant strain of a disease-causing microbe

cigarette smoke can affect the white blood cells that reside in our lungs, whose purpose is to

engulf foreign particles

which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?

Bear

Plasma proteins are involved in all of the following activities except

carrying oxygen

The autonomic nervous system

regulates the internal environment of the body

The central communication conduit between the brain and the rest of the body is the

spinal cord

functionally, the muscle fibers fundamental unit for contraction is the

sarcomere

muscles are connected to the bones by

tendons

a tennis player serving the ball uses fast muscle fibers. The ATP needed to accomplish this would come from

anaerobic fermentation

The signal that crosses a synapse is stopped when

the neurotransmitter is enzymatically broken down or transported back to the signaling cell

Bone is composed of

living cells that secrete a surrounding matrix

the neurotransmitter found at the synapse between nerves and human skeletal muscle cells is

acetylcholine

which division of the human nervous system carries signals to skeletal muscles?

motor system

action potentials normally travel along an axon

away from the cell body

According to the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, a sarcomere contracts when its

thin filaments slie towards each other across its thick filaments

skeletal muscles

work in antagonistic pairs

nervous system effector cells

include muscle cells and gland cells

which of the following statements regarding the brain is true

the blood-brain barrier helps to maintain a stable chemical environment for the brain

the gap between the transmitting and receiving neurons in a chemical synapse is known as the

synaptic cleft

The relationship between spinal nerves and the spinal cord is most like the relationship between

an interstate highway and the many roads that intersect with it via on- and off- ramps

which of the following structures constitutes part of the axial skeleton

skull

The calcium that triggers muscle contraction is stored in

the endoplasmic reticulum

which of the following statements regarding exercise is true

the main source of energy during aerobic exercise is ATP from aerobic respiration

Osteoporosis is characterized by

low bone mass and structural deterioration of the bone tissue.

what part of the neuron carries signals toward the part of the cell that houses the nucleus

dendrite

one neurotransmitter associated with sleep, mood, attention, and learning is

serotonin

Muscles that are constantly active, such as those maintaining our body posture, having a high proportion of

slow, fatigue-resistant fibers.

Parkinsons disease is associated with a deficiency in

dopamine

which of the following statements regarding the nervous system is true

motor neurons convey signals from the CNS to the effector cells

which of the following statements about resting potential is true

the sodium-potassium pump contributes to the resting membrane potential

changes occur within a sarcomere during muscle contraction. one change is that the

Z lines move closer together

The shoulder joint where the humerus meets the shoulder gridle is an example of

a ball and socket joint

a motor unit is

a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it controls

The speed of impulse conduction along an axon may be increase by

a myelin sheath

Neurotransmitters that open Na+ channels and trigger action potentials in receiving cells are called

excitatory

The enteric division of the autonomic nervous system consists of neurons in the digestive tract, the gallbladder and

the pancreas

a thick filament consists of

myosin

which of the following statements about locomotion is true

locomotion requires animals to overcome friction and gravity

multiple sclerosis results from an autoimmune disease that primarily involves

destruction of the myelin sheath

which of the following statements best describes the power stroke of muscle contraction?

the myosin head bends, pulling the thin filament toward the center of the sarcomere

which part of a bone contains mostly stored fat?

yellow bone marrow

during transmission across a typical chemical synapse

neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the receiving cells plasma membrane

the functional unit of the nervous system is the

neuron

in all vertebrates, the brain consists of the

forebrain, midbrain,hindbrain

the sequence of events that cause a muscle to contract can be summed up in the correct order as

detach, extend, attach, pull

the contacting surfaces of a moving joint, such as your hip joint, consist of

cartilage

action potentials relay different intensities of information due to the

frequency of action potentials relative to the strength of the stimulus

which of the following statements about skeletal muscle fibers is true

each muscle fiber contains actin and myosin

the two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system are the

central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

Which of the following statements regarding sexual reproduction is true?

Sexual reproduction generates greater genetic variation than asexual reproduction.

In which part of the human female reproductive system does fertilization normally take place?

oviduct

Human testes are positioned in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity

so the testes can be kept cooler than the body's interior.

Which of the following produces a thick fluid containing fructose, which is used for energy by sperm?

seminal vesicles

Which of the following statements comparing spermatogenesis and oogenesis is true?

Men, but not women, can produce gametes throughout their lives.

Which of the following STDs is caused by a virus that can also cause cancer?

genital warts

Sterilization, in which the sperm is surgically prevented from reaching the egg, is accomplished by

tubal ligation or vasectomy.

The function of a sperm cell's acrosome is to

carry enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg.

Which of the following serves as an impenetrable barrier that prevents more than one sperm from fertilizing an egg?

the vitelline layer

Which of the following occurs during the process of labor?

positive feedback involving oxytocin and prostaglandins

Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on

peas.

An insect that has the genotype EeGGcc will have the same phenotype as an insect with the genotype _____.

EEGgcc

In an individual of genotype Aa, where are the A and a alleles physically located?

One allele is on one chromosome, and the other is in the same position (locus) on the homologous chromosome.

The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be

9:3:3:1

Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision). We can conclude that

the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation.

Imagine that long fins in zebrafish is a dominant trait. A breeder wants to set up a breeding program beginning with homozygous dominant long-finned fish. If she obtains a handful of the long-finned fish, how can she tell which if any of these are homozygous for the trait?

Cross the long-finned fish with short-finned fish; if the offspring are all long-finned, the long-finned parent is homozygous.

Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be ________ to transmit it to offspring.

heterozygous for the trait and able

All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ________ to the allele for white flowers.

incompletely dominant

A woman has been trying to conceive for several years, unsuccessfully. At a fertility clinic, they discover that she has blocked fallopian tubes. Using modern technologies, some of her eggs are removed, fertilized with her husband's sperm, and implanted into her uterus. The procedure is successful, but the couple discovers that their new son is color-blind and has blood type O. The woman claims that the child can't be theirs since she has blood type A and her husband has type B. Also, neither parent is color-blind, although one grandparent (the woman's father) is also color-blind.

As a genetic counselor, you would explain to the parents that

it is possible for the baby to have type O blood, since type O is inherited through a dominant allele.

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization.

After DNA fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to cause harmful side effects than cow, pig, or horse insulin.

Which of the following has not been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified (GM) organisms?

the fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA fingerprinting

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size.

What is the current standard tool used for DNA profiling by forensic scientists?

STR analysis

Which of the following statements about genomics is false?

DNA technology limits genomic studies to prokaryotes.

In "Cracking Your Genetic Code," what type of cancer was being targeted with drugs based on the genome of the cancer cells?

melanoma

A lot of your DNA is inherited "junk": It doesn't code for any protein and has no known function in gene regulation. How do nucleotide sequences of "junk DNA" evolve?

They evolve through genetic drift and other chance processes.

After a copper smelter begins operation, local populations of plants downwind of the plant begin to adapt to the resulting air pollution. Scientists document, for example, that the acid tolerance of several plant species has increased significantly in polluted area. This is an example of a response to

Directional Selection

What evidence is used to determine the branching sequence of an evolutionary tree?

anatomical or molecular homologous structures

the frequency of homozygous dominant individuals in a population that is in hardy-weinberg equilibrium is equal to

p2

the frequency of homozygous dominant individuals in a population that is in hardy-weinberg equilibrium is equal to

2pq

in populations of the greater prairie chicken in Illinois, genetic diversity was.

Lost through genetic drift and restored by gene flow.

If you had to choose, where would you rather get infected with a serious bacterial disease.

In a remote, sparsely populated area where the bacteria have not been exposed to antibiotic drugs.

" Mothers and teachers have often said they need another pair of eyes on the backs of their heads. And another pair of hands would come in handy in many situations. You can imagine that these traits would have been advantageous to our early hunter-gatherer ancestors as well. According to sound evolutionary reasoning, what is the most likely explanation for why humans do not have these traits?"

Because these variations have probably never appeared in a healthy human. As tetrapods we are pretty much stuck with a four-limbed, two-eyed body plan; natural selection can only edit existing variations.

Biology Chapter 11, 12, 13, 14 - Subjecto.com

Biology Chapter 11, 12, 13, 14

Your page rank:

Total word count: 21465
Pages: 78

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

?

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

Intrasexual selection

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

Gene flow

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

Intersexual selection

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called

microevolution

What is a mutation?

A random change in an organism’s DNA

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation

What is the result of natural selection?

a change in the gene pool of a population due to differential reproductive success

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

All of the choices are correct: similarities in protein structure, common development of pharyngeal pouches, homologous structures, the presence of similar genes

Which one of the following is false? Natural selection

Results from an organism’s needs

Which one of the following is false?

All variation in a population is heritable

Natural selection is often described as "survival of the fittest" The best measure of an organism’s fitness is

How many offspring it produces

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

All of the choices promote genetic variation in a population: balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection

Analogous structures found in two species are structures that have

Similar overall shape due to common function

Which one of the following was not a main idea that Darwin advanced in his works?

New species can form by inheritance of acquired characteristics

The term macroevolution refers to which one of the following

Grand scale of evolution over many geological time

The unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

Long-legged cheetahs are well adapted to catching prey. The ancestor of the cheetah is believed to have had relatively short legs. According to Darwinian views, the evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

Directional selection

A plant breeder has been trying to develop a strain of snap dragons with blue flowers from a population of snapdragons some of which have white flowers and some of which have blue flowers. He finds that no matter how careful he is to only select blue flowered snap dragons, when he plants them out side roughly 10% of the snapdragons have white flower and some plants have both blue and white flowers on the same plant. The most likely explanation is:

Selection can only act on heritable variation and the white flower is due to environment

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

All of the above

Which of the following assumptions was not part of Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

Traits are inherited as discrete particles

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of its genes to the next generation

The disease phenylketonuria (PKU. is caused by a recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with the disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q2? (Fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth..

0.0001

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck

What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance?

Homologous

In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to __________ genetically different gametes

eight

A population is

the smallest unit that can evolve

Evolution

The core theme of biology is

Species are fixed (permanent) and perfect

Aristotle believed that

More than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Earth’s surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting

Lyell’s book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?

The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait

A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?

Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance

Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin’s idea of natural selection?

Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

Wallace

Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin’s?

Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism’s fitness

Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

The currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

Biogeography

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?

Homology

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species’ early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

Relatively ancient common ancestors…relatively recent common ancestors

Deep branch points near the base, or truck, of an evolutionary tree represent ______, while branch points near the tips of the branches represent ______

A change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

Have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that

Polyploid

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be

10 to 20 billion years ago

The "big bang" that produced the universe is though to have occurred

Prokaryotes…3.5 billion

The earliest discovered fossils are of ______ dating back to ______ years ago.

The atmosphere was rich in gases released in volcanic eruptions; volcanic activity, lightning, and ultraviolet radiation were all much more intense than on today’s Earth

When the Earth first solidified, what were conditions like?

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

A population is

A population’s allele frequencies change over a span of generations

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

Mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms)

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month’s supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

A harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population

Which of the following would most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?

A northern landmass called Laurasia and a southern landmass called Gondwana

When the continent of Pangaea first split apart, it formed

Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to

Only within the domain Eukarya

In the three-domain system, the eukaryotes are represented

Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains

The three-domain system

Organisms have evolved over time…beginning with the formation of molecules…then the molecules formed organisms…and those organisms formed more complex organisms

There are numerous theories of evolution with the common thought

God is the creator of all

There are numerous theories of creation with the common thought

There is a higher, intelligent being that made all that we see today (Irreducible Complexity)

Another way of explaining our origin is intelligent design with the common thought

A base substitution mutation in a gene does not always result in a different protein. Which of the following factors could account for this?

e. the fact that some amino acids are specified from more than one codon

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galápagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

B) more than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands.

Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin’s?

B) Wallace

During the 1950s, a scientist named Lysenko tried to solve the food shortages in the Soviet Union by breeding wheat that could grow in Siberia. He theorized that if individual wheat plants were exposed to cold, they would develop additional cold tolerance and pass it to their offspring. Based on the ideas of artificial and natural selection, do you think this project worked as planned?

C) No, because there was no process of selection based on inherited traits. Lysenko assumed that exposure could induce a plant to develop additional cold tolerance and that this tolerance would be passed to the plant’s offspring.

Broccoli, cabbages, and brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by

B) artificial selection.

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

A) differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?

B) The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait

Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?

C) Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism’s fitness.

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?

C) biogeography

Which of the following represents a pair of homologous structures?

B) the wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

A population is

A) a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

E) a population’s allele frequencies change over a span of generations.

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

A) mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms).

Imagine that you are studying a very large population of moths that is isolated from gene flow. A single gene controls wing color. Half of the moths have white-spotted wings (genotype WW or Ww) and half of the moths have plain brown wings (ww). There are no new mutations, individuals mate randomly, and there is no natural selection on wing color. How will p, the frequency of the dominant allele, change over time?

B) p will neither increase nor decrease; it will remain more or less constant under the conditions described.

Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called

C) the bottleneck effect.

Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?

A) founder effect

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

A) gene flow

Which of the following will tend to produce adaptive changes in populations?

D) natural selection

A rabbit population consists of animals that are either very dark on top or very light on top. The color pattern is not related to sex. No rabbit shows intermediate coloration (medium darkness). This pattern might result from

A) disruptive selection

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

A) intersexual selection

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month’s supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

e. She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant.

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

E) a change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population

A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that

E) have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring.

The biological species concept is

D) difficult to put into practice even for present sexual organisms, and useless for asexual organisms and fossils.

Which provides the most general and correct description of the idea of a reproductive barrier?

B) a biological difference between two species that prevents them from successfully interbreeding

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two species of sea cucumbers, whose sperm and eggs often bump into each other but do not cross-fertilize because of incompatible proteins on their surfaces?

E) gametic isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of species that could interbreed except that one mates at dusk and the other at dawn?

A) temporal isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates two flowering plant species that could interbreed except that one has a deep flower tube and is pollinated by bumblebees, whereas the other has a short, narrow flower tube and is pollinated by honeybees?

D) mechanical isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could interbreed except that the females’ mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of the other species?

C) behavioral isolation

Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of insect species that could interbreed except that one mates on goldenrod flowers and the other on autumn daisies that both blossom at the same time?

B) habitat isolation

Two species that sometimes mate and produce vigorous but sterile offspring are separated by

C) reduced hybrid fertility

The likelihood of allopatric speciation increases when a splinter population is ________ and ________ the broader range of the species.

A) small . . . isolated from

Speciation without geographic isolation is called ________ speciation.

A) sympatric

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be

B) polyploid.

Sympatric speciation commonly occurs through ________ in plants, but is more likely to occur through ________ in animals.

A) polyploidy . . . habitat differentiation and sexual selection

In a hybrid zone, ________ can occur if the reproductive barrier between two species is weak, as seen among cichlids in the murky waters of modern Lake Victoria.

fusion

A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be __________ to transmit it to offspring.

heterozygous for the trait and able

monohybrid

a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only one trait.

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck.

A rabbit population consists of animals that are either very dark on top or very light on top. When examining them closely, biologists were surprised to find no rabbit with a medium darkness, intermediate to the two extremes. This is an example of

disruptive selection

Alleles of a gene are found at __________ chromosomes.

the same locus on homologous

Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling allow for __________ and __________ of the fetus so that it can be tested for abnormalities.

karyotyping . . . biochemical testing

An elk herd is observed over many generations. Most of the full-grown bull elk have antlers of nearly the same size, although a few have antlers that are significantly larger or smaller than this average size. The average antler size remains constant over the generations. Which of the following effects probably accounts for this situation?

stabilizing selection

Any gene located on a sex chromosome

is called a sex-linked gene.

Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple’s first-born child is female and second-born child is male?

25%

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation.

Dr. Smith’s parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith’s parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

Given the sex determination system in bees, we can expect that

female bees produce eggs by meiosis, while male bees produce sperm by mitosis

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

intrasexual selection

Many genetic disorders of humans are caused by

recessive alleles

Mendel’s law of independent assortment states that

each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation.

Natural selection and the ability to generate perfection are limited by all of the following except that

organisms with the greatest fitness often don’t reproduce.

Research since Mendel’s time has established that the law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation

applies to all sexually reproducing organisms.

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage.

The degree of adaptation that can occur in a population is limited by

the amount and kind of genetic variation in a population.

The fossil record shows all of following except that

the first life forms were eukaryotes.

The genetic variation among individuals in a sexually reproducing population of a plant that does not self-pollinate is the result of

A) gene mutation. B) crossing over during meiosis. C) independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis. D) random fertilization.

The modern evolutionary synthesis

A) was first formed in the 1940s. B) focuses on populations as the units of evolution. C) includes the central role of natural selection. D) incorporates population genetics and ideas from paleontology, taxonomy, and biogeography

The vast majority of people afflicted with recessive disorders are born to parents who were

not affected at all by the disease.

Varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents are referred to as

true-breeding

What is meant by the statement that "male bees are fatherless"?

Male bees develop from unfertilized eggs.

Which of the following best explains why dominant alleles that cause lethal disorders are less common than recessive alleles that cause lethal disorders?

Most individuals carrying a lethal dominant allele have the disorder and die before they reproduce, whereas individuals carrying a lethal recessive allele are more likely to be healthy and reproduce.

Which of the following conditions would tend to make the Hardy-Weinberg equation more accurate for predicting the gene frequencies of future generations in a population of a sexually reproducing species?

little gene flow with surrounding populations

Which of the following is/are recessive sex-linked human conditions?

A) red-green color blindness B) muscular dystrophy C) hemophilia

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

A) heterozygote advantage B) frequency-dependent selection C) balancing selection

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

A) homologous structures B) the common development of pharyngeal pouches in an embryonic stage C) the presence of similar genes D) similarities in protein structure

Which one of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans?

hypercholesterolemia

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

More than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Lyell’s book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?

Earth’s surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting

Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin’s idea of natural selection?

Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

The currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species’ early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

homology

Deep branch points near the base, or truck, of an evolutionary tree represent ______, while branch points near the tips of the branches represent ______

Relatively ancient common ancestors…relatively recent common ancestors

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next

Which of the following would most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?

A harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population

Describe the adaptations of the blue-footed boobie

big webbed feet, streamlined shape, large tail, and specialized salt secreting glands

Describe the main ideas that Darwin advanced in his works

species change over time b. living species have arisen from earlier life forms

Describe the assumptions that were part of Darwin ‘s theory of natural selection.

1. individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproduceing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals. 2. this unequal production of offspring will cause favorable traits to accumulate in a population over time

The first life forms were prokaryotic or eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

How do fossils provide support for evolution?

Fossils show that life forms have changed over time, and radioactive dating shows the times at which the earlier forms lived

List the different types of evidence that modern species have evolved from prior species

a. molecular biology b. comparative anatomy c. comparative embryology d. biogeography

Be able to identify homologous structures (like the examples in your text)

arms, forelegs, flippers, and wings

What factors promote genetic variation in a population

migration of new individuals into the population mutation of alleles in the population genetic drift in the population due to random events

In a particular environment, there are no obvious fitness differences among individuals with dark hair and individuals with light hair. The term that best describes this situation is

disruptive selection

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of it’s genes to the next generation

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be
A) haploid
B) polyploid
C) diploid
D) hybrids

polyploid

Under the biological species concept, a species is a group of organisms that
A) are physically similar
B) share a recent common ancestor
C) have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
D) live together in a location and carry out identical ecological roles

C) have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
a. informatics
b. schematic biology
c. taxonomy
d. genomics

taxonomy

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

?

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

Intrasexual selection

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

Gene flow

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

Intersexual selection

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called

microevolution

What is a mutation?

A random change in an organism’s DNA

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation

What is the result of natural selection?

a change in the gene pool of a population due to differential reproductive success

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

All of the choices are correct: similarities in protein structure, common development of pharyngeal pouches, homologous structures, the presence of similar genes

Which one of the following is false? Natural selection

Results from an organism’s needs

Which one of the following is false?

All variation in a population is heritable

Natural selection is often described as "survival of the fittest" The best measure of an organism’s fitness is

How many offspring it produces

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

All of the choices promote genetic variation in a population: balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection

Analogous structures found in two species are structures that have

Similar overall shape due to common function

Which one of the following was not a main idea that Darwin advanced in his works?

New species can form by inheritance of acquired characteristics

The term macroevolution refers to which one of the following

Grand scale of evolution over many geological time

The unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

Long-legged cheetahs are well adapted to catching prey. The ancestor of the cheetah is believed to have had relatively short legs. According to Darwinian views, the evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

Directional selection

A plant breeder has been trying to develop a strain of snap dragons with blue flowers from a population of snapdragons some of which have white flowers and some of which have blue flowers. He finds that no matter how careful he is to only select blue flowered snap dragons, when he plants them out side roughly 10% of the snapdragons have white flower and some plants have both blue and white flowers on the same plant. The most likely explanation is:

Selection can only act on heritable variation and the white flower is due to environment

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

All of the above

Which of the following assumptions was not part of Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

Traits are inherited as discrete particles

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of its genes to the next generation

The disease phenylketonuria (PKU. is caused by a recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with the disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q2? (Fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth..

0.0001

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck

What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance?

Homologous

In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to __________ genetically different gametes

eight

A population is

the smallest unit that can evolve

Evolution

The core theme of biology is

Species are fixed (permanent) and perfect

Aristotle believed that

More than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands

Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Earth’s surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting

Lyell’s book Principles of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.M.S Beagle, argued in favor of which of the following concepts?

The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait

A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed. After 30 years of work she has a new breed of dog with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following would be a logical explanation for her failure?

Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random chance

Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin’s idea of natural selection?

Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics

Which of the following best expresses the concept of natural selection?

Wallace

Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin’s?

Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward improving an organism’s fitness

Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?

It is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

The currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes

Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record is false?

Biogeography

Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native distributions (locations) of living species?

Homology

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species’ early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail, humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

Relatively ancient common ancestors…relatively recent common ancestors

Deep branch points near the base, or truck, of an evolutionary tree represent ______, while branch points near the tips of the branches represent ______

A change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population

Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?

Have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring

A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that

Polyploid

Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be

10 to 20 billion years ago

The "big bang" that produced the universe is though to have occurred

Prokaryotes…3.5 billion

The earliest discovered fossils are of ______ dating back to ______ years ago.

The atmosphere was rich in gases released in volcanic eruptions; volcanic activity, lightning, and ultraviolet radiation were all much more intense than on today’s Earth

When the Earth first solidified, what were conditions like?

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

A population is

A population’s allele frequencies change over a span of generations

Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when

Mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual organisms)

The ultimate source of all new alleles is

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

A woman struggling with a bacterial illness is prescribed a month’s supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?

A harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population

Which of the following would most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?

A northern landmass called Laurasia and a southern landmass called Gondwana

When the continent of Pangaea first split apart, it formed

Classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships

Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to

Only within the domain Eukarya

In the three-domain system, the eukaryotes are represented

Subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains

The three-domain system

Organisms have evolved over time…beginning with the formation of molecules…then the molecules formed organisms…and those organisms formed more complex organisms

There are numerous theories of evolution with the common thought

God is the creator of all

There are numerous theories of creation with the common thought

There is a higher, intelligent being that made all that we see today (Irreducible Complexity)

Another way of explaining our origin is intelligent design with the common thought

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

?

Large antlers in male elk, which are used for battles between males, are a good example of

Intrasexual selection

Genetic differences between populations tend to be reduced by

Gene flow

Mate-attracting features such as the bright plumage of a male peacock result from

Intersexual selection

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called

microevolution

What is a mutation?

A random change in an organism’s DNA

Certain whale species were hunted to near extinction. With a moratorium on hunting them, their population sizes have expanded. Which of the following is true?

The populations may still be endangered because they may have little remaining genetic variation

What is the result of natural selection?

a change in the gene pool of a population due to differential reproductive success

Which of the following provides evidence that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

All of the choices are correct: similarities in protein structure, common development of pharyngeal pouches, homologous structures, the presence of similar genes

Which one of the following is false? Natural selection

Results from an organism’s needs

Which one of the following is false?

All variation in a population is heritable

Natural selection is often described as "survival of the fittest" The best measure of an organism’s fitness is

How many offspring it produces

Which of the following promote(s) genetic variation in a population?

All of the choices promote genetic variation in a population: balancing selection, heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection

Analogous structures found in two species are structures that have

Similar overall shape due to common function

Which one of the following was not a main idea that Darwin advanced in his works?

New species can form by inheritance of acquired characteristics

The term macroevolution refers to which one of the following

Grand scale of evolution over many geological time

The unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Tay-Sachs is inherited as an autosomal recessive allele. Homozygous individuals die within the first few years of life. However, there is some evidence that heterozygous individuals are more resistant to tuberculosis. Which of the following statements is true?

This situation is an example of heterozygote advantage

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous?

The wing of a bat and the flipper of a whale

Long-legged cheetahs are well adapted to catching prey. The ancestor of the cheetah is believed to have had relatively short legs. According to Darwinian views, the evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

Directional selection

A plant breeder has been trying to develop a strain of snap dragons with blue flowers from a population of snapdragons some of which have white flowers and some of which have blue flowers. He finds that no matter how careful he is to only select blue flowered snap dragons, when he plants them out side roughly 10% of the snapdragons have white flower and some plants have both blue and white flowers on the same plant. The most likely explanation is:

Selection can only act on heritable variation and the white flower is due to environment

Mutations by themselves are rarely the cause of evolution in populations of plants and animals because:

All of the above

Which of the following assumptions was not part of Darwin’s theory of natural selection?

Traits are inherited as discrete particles

Fitness increases when an organism

passes on a greater proportion of its genes to the next generation

The disease phenylketonuria (PKU. is caused by a recessive allele, and one child in 10,000 is born with the disease. Let q represent the frequency of the PKU allele. What is the value of q2? (Fetuses with PKU are no likelier than other fetuses to die before birth..

0.0001

A population of 1,000 birds exists on a small Pacific island. Some of the birds are yellow, a characteristic determined by a recessive allele. The others are green, a characteristic determined by a dominant allele. A hurricane on the island kills most of the birds from this population. Only ten remain, and those birds all have yellow feathers. Which of the following statements is true?

The hurricane has caused a population bottleneck

What term is used to refer to structures that have a similar origin or ancestry even though they may be very different in appearance?

Homologous

In a cell in which 2n = 6, the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis can by itself give rise to __________ genetically different gametes

eight

A population is

the smallest unit that can evolve

1) The term "gene expression" refers to the

D) process by which genetic information flows from genes to proteins.

2) A gene operon consists of

D) transcribed genes, an operator, and a promoter.

3) In a prokaryote, a group of genes with related functions, along with their associated control sequences, defines

A) an operon.

4) The lac operon in E. coli

C) prevents lactose-utilizing enzymes from being expressed when lactose is absent from the environment.

5) Proteins that bind to DNA and turn on operons by making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to a promoter are called

D) activators.

6) The lac operon of E. coli is ________ when the repressor is bound to lactose.

A) active

7) The expression of the tryptophan operon is controlled by

D) a repressor that is active when it binds to tryptophan.

8) Which of the following is likely to occur in E. coli cells that are grown in skim milk?

D) The trp repressor is activated and the cells will produce lactose-utilizing enzymes.

9) A single cell, the zygote, can develop into an entirely new organism with many different specialized cells. Which of the following statements about this process is false?

B) Additional genetic information for the formation of specialized cells is passed on to the developing embryo via the placenta.

10) The basis of cellular differentiation is

A) selective gene expression.

11) The genes for the enzymes of glycolysis

A) are active in all metabolizing cells, but the genes for specialized proteins are expressed only in particular cell types.

12) Which of the following statements regarding DNA packing is false?

C) DNA packing tends to promote gene expression.

13) The relationship between DNA and chromosomes is most like

B) thread wrapped around a spool.

14) In female mammals, the inactive X chromosome in each cell

B) becomes a Barr body.

15) The tortoiseshell pattern on a cat

B) results from X chromosome inactivation.

16) Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells use ________ to turn certain genes on or off.

D) proteins

17) Enhancers are

A) DNA sequences to which activator proteins bind.

18) Silencers

C) bind to DNA sequences and inhibit the start of transcription.

19) RNA splicing involves the

A) removal of introns from the molecule.

20) The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called

B) exons.

21) Which of the following permits a single gene to code for more than one polypeptide?

C) alternative RNA splicing

22) Small pieces of RNA that can regulate translation of mRNA are called

B) microRNA.

23) miRNA can be used by

B) cells to prevent infections from double-stranded RNA viruses.

24) All of the following mechanisms are used to regulate protein production except

C) DNA editing.

25) Which of the following mechanisms of controlling gene expression occurs outside of the nucleus?

D) translation

26) Which of the following statements about fruit fly development is false?

D) The location of the head and tail ends of the egg is primarily determined by the location of sperm entry during fertilization.

27) A homeotic gene

A) serves as a master control gene that functions during embryonic development by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.

28) Which of the following statements about microarrays is false?

A) Microarrays use tiny portions of double-stranded RNA fragments from a large number of genes.

29) In multicellular organisms, the coordination of cellular activities relies on

A) cell-to-cell signaling and signal transduction pathways.

30) To initiate a signal transduction pathway, a signal binds to a receptor protein usually located in the

C) plasma membrane.

31) Transcription factors attach to

D) DNA.

32) A signal outside a cell triggers changes in the transcription and translation inside the cell through

B) signal transduction pathways.

33) Yeast are able to communicate with each other

B) through chemical signaling.

34) Signal transduction pathways

A) are mechanisms of communication that probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes.

35) In plants, most differentiated cells retain

C) a complete set of their genes, and retain the ability to express those genes under certain circumstances.

36) Why can some plants be cloned from a single cell?

D) Plant cells can dedifferentiate and give rise to all of the specialized cells required to produce an entire plant.

37) Which of the following processes occurs when a salamander regenerates a lost limb?

A) Certain cells in the limb dedifferentiate, divide, and then redifferentiate to form a new limb.

38) The cloning of Dolly the sheep

D) demonstrated that the nuclei from differentiated mammalian cells can retain their full genetic potential.

39) The use of cloning to produce special embryonic stem cells is called

B) therapeutic cloning.

40) Which of the following mammals has not yet been cloned and brought through the complete gestation cycle?

A) human

41) Which of the following possible uses of reproductive cloning is still considered by most to be an unresolved ethical issue?

A) the reproductive cloning of humans

42) Which of the following statements regarding stem cells is false?

B) Adult, but not embryonic, stem cells can be grown in laboratory culture.

43) Adult stem cells have limited therapeutic potential

B) because their developmental potential is limited to certain tissues.

44) A gene that can cause cancer when present in a single copy in a cell is called a(n)

A) oncogene.

45) Which of the following statements about proto-oncogenes is false?

B) A mutation in a tumor-suppressor gene can stop cell division immediately.

46) Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to normal cells becoming cancerous?

D) one or more of the cell’s genes being removed by a virus

47) Cancer of the colon is caused by

D) several somatic cell mutations.

48) The development of colon cancer occurs slowly, and colon cancer is more frequently seen in the elderly than the young. This is most likely because

C) four or more somatic mutations must occur to give rise to the cancer, which takes time.

49) Mutations in the proto-oncogene ras and the tumor suppressor gene p53

B) disrupt normal regulation of the cell cycle.

50) Mutations in the p53 gene can lead to cancer by

A) causing the production of a faulty protein that is no longer able to inhibit cell division.

51) The carcinogen known to cause the most cases and types of cancer is

A) tobacco.

52) Which of the following statements regarding cancer risk factors is false?

D) Mutagens are usually not carcinogens.

53) In this drawing of the lac operon, which molecule is an inactive repressor?

D) molecule D

54) Which structure in this figure shows one complete nucleosome?

D) structure D

55) Why don’t the grafted hybrids produce apples with a blend of traits from the scion and the rootstock?

D) The rootstock regulates gene expression in the scion, but contributes no genetic information for fruit production.

56) Half the trees in an orchard were derived from rootstock "A" and half from rootstock "B," but all the
trees had the same scion. If the trees grafted onto rootstock "A" were infected by a parasite that
causes blossom rot, the trees grafted onto rootstock B

A) would be very likely to become infected, because the remaining scions are genetically identical to those that are already infected.

mRNA can be used by

Cells to prevent infections from double-stranded RNA viruses.

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli

When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known as

recombinant DNA

Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?

98.8%

The feature of "sticky ends" that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability to

form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA profiling

Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?

98.5%

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization

In the process of human gene cloning using recombinant plasmids, the bacterial plasmid

functions as a vector

During the process of electrophoresis, the _______ functions like a thick filter, separating the samples according to their size.

gel

Restriction enzymes

cut DNA at specific sites

When DNA fingerprinting was first used,

the two semen samples did not match the person who initially confessed

Restriction enzymes specifically recognize and cut short sequences of DNA called

restriction sites

The production of multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA defines

gene cloning

Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?

Scientists think that the typical human gene probably specifies just one polypeptide.

A collection of DNA fragments obtained from the genome of one organism, inserted by recombinant DNA techniques into the genome of a host organism (one fragment per host genome), and maintained there is called a

genomic library

Which step in this process requires use of restriction enzymes?

step B

In order to match the pilot’s remains to the correct family using DNA profiling,

each of the 13 STR bands must match

Based on analysis of the STR sites shown, does the missing pilot belong to any of these three families?

Yes, family 3 matches.

DNA ligase binds

nucleotides together

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size

In order for gene therapy to be permanent,

the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply

If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by ______, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.

PCR

A nucleic acid probe is

a piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to locate a specific gene.

_________ are a major source of restriction enzymes.

Bacteria

DNA fragments that have matching sticky ends are joined by covalent bonds formed by the action of

DNA ligase

When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,

the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction than cow, pig or horse insulin.

A vaccine works by

stimulating the immune system.

Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?

a very close match in the DNA profile

The number of proteins in humans

is much greater than the number of genes

Decisions regarding the human genome are the responsibility of

society as a whole (individuals, doctors, scientists, government)

The electrical current in the electrophoresis chamber always runs

negative to positive

Remove the bacterial plasmid/cut using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Harvest/purify the insulin protein to be injected into patients

5th- e

Put the bacterial plasmid back into the bacterial cell where it can reproduce and synthesize the insulin protein

4th- d

Isolate in insulin gene in human DNA using the same restriction enzyme

2nd- b

Insert the insulin gene into the bacterial plasmid/Seal with ligase

3rd- c

Separate the fragments using electrophoresis

2nd- b

Compare the bands of DNA

3rd- c

Cut the DNA using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Analyze/Interpret the results

4th- d

Why is the whole-genome shotgun method currently the tool of choice for analyzing genomes?

It is fast and inexpensive

which of the following genetically modified organisms has not been developed by genetic engineers

Transgenic corn with the gene for human insulin

Which of the following has NOT been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified organisms?

The fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage.

golden rice is golden in color because it is rich in

BEta-carotene

which of the following statements regarding proteomics is correct?

Proteomics is the systemic study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.

the only recombinant cells that can correctly attach sugars on proteins to form glycoprotein products are

Mammalian cells

which of the following statements about dna technology is false

DNA technology is now used to create cells that can identify and kill cancer cells

genomic libraries can be constructed using either bacterial plasmids or what other vector

Bacteriophages

A transgenic animal is

An animal containing a gene from another organism, typically of another species.

which of the following statements regarding repetitive dna is false?

Repetitive DNA is identical in all humans

after dna fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

genome sequence analysis suggest that neanderthals

Atleast sometimes had pale skin and red hair

Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are called

Transposable elements

The ________ approach to gene cloning employs a mixture of fragments from the entire genome of an organism.

shotgun

Blue-footed boobies have webbed feet and are comically clumsy when they walk on land. Evolutionary scientists view these feet as

the outcome of a tradeoff: webbed feet perform poorly on land, but are very helpful in diving for food.

Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?

Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics

Broccoli, cabbages, and Brussels sprouts all descend from the same wild mustard and can still interbreed. These varieties were produced by.

Artificial selection

Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly identical between the two species: both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure; the species vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of

homology

Darwin was the first person to draw an evolutionary tree, a diagram that represents

evidence- based hypotheses regarding our understanding of patterns of evolutionary descent.

Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?

Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in a population from one generation to the next.

An elk herd is observed over many generations. Most of the full-grown bull elk have antlers of nearly the same size. The average antler size remains constant over the generations. Which of the following effects probably accounts for the situation?

stabilizing selection

A women struggling with bacterial illness is prescribed a months supply of a potent antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about 2 weeks and feels much better. Should she save the remaining two week supply or should she continue taking the drug?

She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate the infection. Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover, and they will probably be resistant

The sickle-cell allele produces a serious blood disease in homozygotes. Why doesn’t natural selection eliminate this allele from all human populations?

In populations were endemic malaria is present, heterozygotes have an important advantage: They are resistant to malaria and therefore are more likely to survive and produce offspring that carry the allele.

Frequency-dependent selection, as seen in the case of the scale-eating fish in lake Tanganyika, tends to

maintain two phenotypes in a dynamic equilibrium in a population

During which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract

elimination

An alimentary canal is best defined as

a tube-shaped compartment for the transport, digestion, and absorption of food

Which of the following correctly lists the order of the parts of the human digestive system, from first to last contact with food matter?

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Digestion begins in the

oral cavity

The mucous-producing cells that line the stomach

lubricate and protect the stomach lining

In the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

small intestine

organisms suffering from malnutrition may have a diet deficient in

one or more essential nutrients

which of the following is a hormone produced by adipose cells that help to control appetite?

leptin

Animals that maintain internal body temperature using heat generated by their own metabolism are called

endotherms

To enhance heat loss, humans sweat, an adaption known as

evaporative cooling

sweating commonly results in dehydration. Of the choices listed, which would be the best option for rehydration after intense exercise?

sports drink

mammals have evolved a sophisticated mechanism for eliminating nitrogenous wastes that involves

forming urea and storing it in concentrated solution

whats is the name of the functional unit of the kidneys

nephron

during production of urine, a major function of the kidney is

water conservation

what is the function of antidiurectic hormone?

to increase water reabsorption

when a salmon moves from the ocean to a freshwater environment, you would expect its urine volume to _______ and its rate of salt absorption to ______.

increases….increases

In a dialysis machine, wastes are removed from blood plasma by process of

diffusion

through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?

urethra

increased brain size had many benefits for early humans. one example is

complex social structure with the ability to adapt to changing environments

when comparing the differences between human and chimpanzee DNA

the differences are generally found in the gene switches that determine when and how genes are expressed.

walking upright has both pros and cons. some of the pros of walking upright include

looking large to predators, the ability to harvest more food, the ability to carry young.

homo erectus was the first early human to spend most of its time walking upright

true

tool use is uniquely human

False

chimpanzees are humans closest living relatives

True

lower back pain can be attributed to walking upright, which formed the curvature at the base of the spine

True

Humans and chimpanzees have 90% identical genome sequences

False

Darwins ideas about evolution were formed after observing marine iguanas on the galapagos islands

false

____ genes are responsible for coding for self-proteins.

MHC

A molecule that can elicit an adaptive immune response is called

an antigen

Medullary breathing centers directly sense and respond to

blood pH and CO2 concentration

which part of the diagram shows the alveoli?

Part D

Air leaving human lung during exhalation contains

carbon dioxide and unused oxygen

during gas exchange, body cells

release CO2 and take in O2

As blood moves away from the heart towards the tissues, the relative size of blood vessels _____, the blood pressure ______, and the velocity of blood flow _______.

decreases…drops….slows

which of the following is a function of the nasal cavities in humans?

warming inhaled air

arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except

the amount of oxygen present in the blood

The main function of the AV node is to

relay a signal for the ventricles to contract

The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the

vital capacity

Which of the following cell types is responsible for the cell-mediated immune response?

T cells

Natural Killer Cells

attack virus-infected cells by releasing chemicals that lead to the death of the cell

Oxygen moves from blood into the interstitial fluid and then to body cells because

it diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure

which of the following distingueshes the secondary immune response from the primary?

The secondary response is faster and stronger

which of the following choices best describes a plasma cell?

It is a differentiated B cell

Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the

pulmonary arteries

What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?

capillary

which of the following helps activate our nonspecific (innate) defense system?

inflammation

A primary immune response is

the immune response elicited by the first exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen

cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by an ____ each time it contracts

ventricle

Which of the following types of cells does HIV preferentially infect?

helper T cells

The reason animals need continuous supply of oxygen is

obtain energy from their food

after binding to an infected cell, the cytotoxic T cell

releases a protein called perforin

what part of the human brain contains the primary breathing control center?

medulla oblongata

multipotent stem cells found in the red marrow inside bones

can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets

An adult humans red blood cells are formed in the

bone marrow

which blood vessels have the thinnest walls

capillaries

labored breathing, coughing, lung infections, and respiratory failure are characteristics defining

chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

which of the following contributes to gas exchange in the human fetus

the stronger attraction that fetal hemoglobin has for oxygen when compared to adult hemoglobin

blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein

fibrinogen

which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false?

The left side of a mammals heart sends blood to the lungs

The liquid part of blood is called

plasma

what prompts a newborn baby to start to breather?

an increase in the concentration of oxygen in the baby’s blood

which of the following options correctly lists the direction of carbon dioxide travel as it leaves the body?

alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx

which of the following is a function of the circulatory system?

transporting nutrients to body cells

The oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells is

hemoglobin

which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid and consume any bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter?

macrophages

anaphylactic shock is an example of an

allergic response

which of the following cells are phagocytes?

monocytes and neutrophils

which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure?

smoking

blood flow through capillaries is controlled by

precapillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles

what type of immune response is always disadvantageous to a person?

autoimmune

which of the following cell types is responsible for the humoral immune response?

B cells

The human lymphatic system consists of all of the following structures except the

pancreas

The basic function of the activated T cells is to battle

pathogens that have alreasy entered body cells

one kind of vaccine consists of

a harmless variant strain of a disease-causing microbe

cigarette smoke can affect the white blood cells that reside in our lungs, whose purpose is to

engulf foreign particles

which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?

Bear

Plasma proteins are involved in all of the following activities except

carrying oxygen

The autonomic nervous system

regulates the internal environment of the body

The central communication conduit between the brain and the rest of the body is the

spinal cord

functionally, the muscle fibers fundamental unit for contraction is the

sarcomere

muscles are connected to the bones by

tendons

a tennis player serving the ball uses fast muscle fibers. The ATP needed to accomplish this would come from

anaerobic fermentation

The signal that crosses a synapse is stopped when

the neurotransmitter is enzymatically broken down or transported back to the signaling cell

Bone is composed of

living cells that secrete a surrounding matrix

the neurotransmitter found at the synapse between nerves and human skeletal muscle cells is

acetylcholine

which division of the human nervous system carries signals to skeletal muscles?

motor system

action potentials normally travel along an axon

away from the cell body

According to the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, a sarcomere contracts when its

thin filaments slie towards each other across its thick filaments

skeletal muscles

work in antagonistic pairs

nervous system effector cells

include muscle cells and gland cells

which of the following statements regarding the brain is true

the blood-brain barrier helps to maintain a stable chemical environment for the brain

the gap between the transmitting and receiving neurons in a chemical synapse is known as the

synaptic cleft

The relationship between spinal nerves and the spinal cord is most like the relationship between

an interstate highway and the many roads that intersect with it via on- and off- ramps

which of the following structures constitutes part of the axial skeleton

skull

The calcium that triggers muscle contraction is stored in

the endoplasmic reticulum

which of the following statements regarding exercise is true

the main source of energy during aerobic exercise is ATP from aerobic respiration

Osteoporosis is characterized by

low bone mass and structural deterioration of the bone tissue.

what part of the neuron carries signals toward the part of the cell that houses the nucleus

dendrite

one neurotransmitter associated with sleep, mood, attention, and learning is

serotonin

Muscles that are constantly active, such as those maintaining our body posture, having a high proportion of

slow, fatigue-resistant fibers.

Parkinsons disease is associated with a deficiency in

dopamine

which of the following statements regarding the nervous system is true

motor neurons convey signals from the CNS to the effector cells

which of the following statements about resting potential is true

the sodium-potassium pump contributes to the resting membrane potential

changes occur within a sarcomere during muscle contraction. one change is that the

Z lines move closer together

The shoulder joint where the humerus meets the shoulder gridle is an example of

a ball and socket joint

a motor unit is

a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it controls

The speed of impulse conduction along an axon may be increase by

a myelin sheath

Neurotransmitters that open Na+ channels and trigger action potentials in receiving cells are called

excitatory

The enteric division of the autonomic nervous system consists of neurons in the digestive tract, the gallbladder and

the pancreas

a thick filament consists of

myosin

which of the following statements about locomotion is true

locomotion requires animals to overcome friction and gravity

multiple sclerosis results from an autoimmune disease that primarily involves

destruction of the myelin sheath

which of the following statements best describes the power stroke of muscle contraction?

the myosin head bends, pulling the thin filament toward the center of the sarcomere

which part of a bone contains mostly stored fat?

yellow bone marrow

during transmission across a typical chemical synapse

neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the receiving cells plasma membrane

the functional unit of the nervous system is the

neuron

in all vertebrates, the brain consists of the

forebrain, midbrain,hindbrain

the sequence of events that cause a muscle to contract can be summed up in the correct order as

detach, extend, attach, pull

the contacting surfaces of a moving joint, such as your hip joint, consist of

cartilage

action potentials relay different intensities of information due to the

frequency of action potentials relative to the strength of the stimulus

which of the following statements about skeletal muscle fibers is true

each muscle fiber contains actin and myosin

the two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system are the

central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

Which of the following statements regarding sexual reproduction is true?

Sexual reproduction generates greater genetic variation than asexual reproduction.

In which part of the human female reproductive system does fertilization normally take place?

oviduct

Human testes are positioned in an external sac rather than in the abdominal cavity

so the testes can be kept cooler than the body’s interior.

Which of the following produces a thick fluid containing fructose, which is used for energy by sperm?

seminal vesicles

Which of the following statements comparing spermatogenesis and oogenesis is true?

Men, but not women, can produce gametes throughout their lives.

Which of the following STDs is caused by a virus that can also cause cancer?

genital warts

Sterilization, in which the sperm is surgically prevented from reaching the egg, is accomplished by

tubal ligation or vasectomy.

The function of a sperm cell’s acrosome is to

carry enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg.

Which of the following serves as an impenetrable barrier that prevents more than one sperm from fertilizing an egg?

the vitelline layer

Which of the following occurs during the process of labor?

positive feedback involving oxytocin and prostaglandins

Mendel conducted his most memorable experiments on

peas.

An insect that has the genotype EeGGcc will have the same phenotype as an insect with the genotype _____.

EEGgcc

In an individual of genotype Aa, where are the A and a alleles physically located?

One allele is on one chromosome, and the other is in the same position (locus) on the homologous chromosome.

The phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross showing independent assortment is expected to be

9:3:3:1

Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision). We can conclude that

the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation.

Imagine that long fins in zebrafish is a dominant trait. A breeder wants to set up a breeding program beginning with homozygous dominant long-finned fish. If she obtains a handful of the long-finned fish, how can she tell which if any of these are homozygous for the trait?

Cross the long-finned fish with short-finned fish; if the offspring are all long-finned, the long-finned parent is homozygous.

Dr. Smith’s parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith’s parents could have which of the following genotypes?

Dd and Dd

A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be ________ to transmit it to offspring.

heterozygous for the trait and able

All the offspring of a cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant have pink flowers. This means that the allele for red flowers is ________ to the allele for white flowers.

incompletely dominant

A woman has been trying to conceive for several years, unsuccessfully. At a fertility clinic, they discover that she has blocked fallopian tubes. Using modern technologies, some of her eggs are removed, fertilized with her husband’s sperm, and implanted into her uterus. The procedure is successful, but the couple discovers that their new son is color-blind and has blood type O. The woman claims that the child can’t be theirs since she has blood type A and her husband has type B. Also, neither parent is color-blind, although one grandparent (the woman’s father) is also color-blind.

As a genetic counselor, you would explain to the parents that

it is possible for the baby to have type O blood, since type O is inherited through a dominant allele.

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization.

After DNA fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to cause harmful side effects than cow, pig, or horse insulin.

Which of the following has not been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified (GM) organisms?

the fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA fingerprinting

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size.

What is the current standard tool used for DNA profiling by forensic scientists?

STR analysis

Which of the following statements about genomics is false?

DNA technology limits genomic studies to prokaryotes.

In "Cracking Your Genetic Code," what type of cancer was being targeted with drugs based on the genome of the cancer cells?

melanoma

the type of repetitive dna composed of sequences of large repeated units is often associated with

Transposable elements

A cDNA library differs from a genomic library in that

cDNA libraries only contain information from genes that have been transcribed.

when genetic variation in one nucleotide is found in at least 1 of the population it is known as

A. single nucleotide polymorphism.

Which of the following statements about nucleic acid probes is false?

A nucleic acid probe is a double-stranded section of DNA.

"Sticky ends" are

DNA fragments with single-stranded ends.

The polymerase chain reaction relies upon unusual, heat-resistant ________ that were isolated from bacteria living in hot springs.

DNA polymerase molecules

Which of the following statements about genome sequencing is false?

Most of the genomes that have been sequenced to date are eukaryotes.

24. Genetically modifying ________ cells may directly affect future generations.

germ

What is the smallest number of cells needed to perform a successful DNA profile?

20

An advantage of using reverse transcriptase to prepare a gene for cloning is that

the resulting DNA strand will lack introns.

The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is

Escherichia coli

When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known as

recombinant DNA

Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?

98.8%

The feature of "sticky ends" that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability to

form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA

What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?

DNA profiling

Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?

98.5%

Biotechnology

has been around since the dawn of civilization

In the process of human gene cloning using recombinant plasmids, the bacterial plasmid

functions as a vector

During the process of electrophoresis, the _______ functions like a thick filter, separating the samples according to their size.

gel

Restriction enzymes

cut DNA at specific sites

When DNA fingerprinting was first used,

the two semen samples did not match the person who initially confessed

Restriction enzymes specifically recognize and cut short sequences of DNA called

restriction sites

The production of multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA defines

gene cloning

Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?

Scientists think that the typical human gene probably specifies just one polypeptide.

A collection of DNA fragments obtained from the genome of one organism, inserted by recombinant DNA techniques into the genome of a host organism (one fragment per host genome), and maintained there is called a

genomic library

Which step in this process requires use of restriction enzymes?

step B

In order to match the pilot’s remains to the correct family using DNA profiling,

each of the 13 STR bands must match

Based on analysis of the STR sites shown, does the missing pilot belong to any of these three families?

Yes, family 3 matches.

DNA ligase binds

nucleotides together

Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their

size

In order for gene therapy to be permanent,

the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply

If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by ______, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.

PCR

A nucleic acid probe is

a piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to locate a specific gene.

_________ are a major source of restriction enzymes.

Bacteria

DNA fragments that have matching sticky ends are joined by covalent bonds formed by the action of

DNA ligase

When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,

the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation.

The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that

human insulin is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction than cow, pig or horse insulin.

A vaccine works by

stimulating the immune system.

Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?

a very close match in the DNA profile

The number of proteins in humans

is much greater than the number of genes

Decisions regarding the human genome are the responsibility of

society as a whole (individuals, doctors, scientists, government)

The electrical current in the electrophoresis chamber always runs

negative to positive

Remove the bacterial plasmid/cut using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Harvest/purify the insulin protein to be injected into patients

5th- e

Put the bacterial plasmid back into the bacterial cell where it can reproduce and synthesize the insulin protein

4th- d

Isolate in insulin gene in human DNA using the same restriction enzyme

2nd- b

Insert the insulin gene into the bacterial plasmid/Seal with ligase

3rd- c

Separate the fragments using electrophoresis

2nd- b

Compare the bands of DNA

3rd- c

Cut the DNA using a restriction enzyme

1st- a

Analyze/Interpret the results

4th- d

Why is the whole-genome shotgun method currently the tool of choice for analyzing genomes?

It is fast and inexpensive

which of the following genetically modified organisms has not been developed by genetic engineers

Transgenic corn with the gene for human insulin

Which of the following has NOT been a significant issue in the creation of genetically modified organisms?

The fact that GM organisms cannot be modified to prevent them from reproducing once they pass beyond the experimental stage.

golden rice is golden in color because it is rich in

BEta-carotene

which of the following statements regarding proteomics is correct?

Proteomics is the systemic study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.

the only recombinant cells that can correctly attach sugars on proteins to form glycoprotein products are

Mammalian cells

which of the following statements about dna technology is false

DNA technology is now used to create cells that can identify and kill cancer cells

genomic libraries can be constructed using either bacterial plasmids or what other vector

Bacteriophages

A transgenic animal is

An animal containing a gene from another organism, typically of another species.

which of the following statements regarding repetitive dna is false?

Repetitive DNA is identical in all humans

after dna fragments with matching sticky ends are temporarily joined by complementary base-pairing, the union can be made permanent by the "pasting" enzyme

DNA ligase

genome sequence analysis suggest that neanderthals

Atleast sometimes had pale skin and red hair

Segments of eukaryotic DNA that can move or be copied from one site to another in the genome are called

Transposable elements

The ________ approach to gene cloning employs a mixture of fragments from the entire genome of an organism.

shotgun

Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity?

A community

The tree in your backyard is home to 2 cardinals, a colony of ants, a wasp’s nest, two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, all of these organisms represent

Sunlight

The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is

Has a membrane

Your instructor asks you to look into your microscope to see a prokaryotic cell. You will be looking for a cell that

Fungi

Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?

A hypothesis

You notice that over the past month, many students on campus have started wearing a new style of school sweatshirt. You think to yourself that perhaps the bookstore has recently started selling this new sweatshirt style. This prediction is an example of

Biosphere

The sum of all Earth’s ecosystems is called the

Habitat

While on a walk through a forest, you notice birds in trees, earthworms in the soil, and fungi on plant litter on the forest floor. Based on your observations, ou concluded that each of these organisms occupies a different

Ecosystem

The level of ecologic organization that incorporates abiotic factors is the

environmental effects of pesticides

Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring, deals with the

Rises and cools, dropping rain

In terms of global air circulation, the tropics are in a region where air

Day length