Biology Cell Study

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A scientist wants to examine living cells lining the respiratory tract to determine how the cells use tiny hairs to move dirt and mucus away from the lungs. Which of the following instruments would be best, and why?

a light microscope because it allows observations of whole live cells

Which of the following statements about cells is true?
All cells are motile.
All cells are attached to other cells.
All cells have internal structures that move.
All cells have cell walls

C. All cells have internal structures that move

Light microscopes
A. typically provide more resolution than an electron microscope.
B. use light and glass lenses to magnify an image.
C.allow to look at the surface of objects with magnification of up to 500 000x.
D. work by reflecting electrons off the surface of an object being studied.


The eyepiece of a light microscope has a magnification level of 10x. If you were looking at a paramecium under the lowest-power objective (4x), what would be the total magnification of the microscope at this setting?


The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
organelle theory.
the laws of inheritance.
cell theory


In the plasma membrane, the phospholipid heads
are hydrophilic and face inward, shielded from water
are hydrophobic and face outward towards the aqueous solution on both sides of the membrane
are hydrophobic and face inward, shielded from water
are hydrophilic and face outward towards the aqueous solution on both sides of the membrane


As cell size increases, the
volume and surface area decrease.
surface area and volume increase at the same rate.
volume increases faster than the surface area.
surface area increases faster than the volume.


________ cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus.


Archaea are composed of ________ cells.


You are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. You look at them through a microscope and see cell walls and membrane-bound organelles. You conclude correctly that the cells
are animal cells.
are bacterial cells.
are plant cells.
could be either plant or bacterial cells.


Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.
chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . a nucleus
centrioles . . . chloroplasts . . . cell walls
chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
centrioles . . . cell walls . . . large central vacuoles


You have identified a new organism. It has ribosomes, plasmodesmata, and cell walls made of cellulose. This new organism is most likely a(n) _____.


The function of the nucleolus is
to manufacture polypeptides.
to manufacture ribosomal RNA.
intracellular digestion.
to store chromatin.


The nucleus of a cell
is contained within the nucleolus.
contains DNA.
is the primary location of protein synthesis.
is surrounded by a single layer of membrane.


The skin is the body’s largest organ. It’s made up of many different types of cells. Oils, produced by the sebaceous glands, prevent the skin from drying and splitting. The protein melanin, produced by melanocytes in the epidermis, protects the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. Sweat, released through ducts to the skin surface, helps to cool the body. The types of cells that produce these compounds have different numbers of specific organelles, depending on their function.

Based on their function, you would expect melanocytes in the skin to have a higher than usual number of


Which location in the cell is unlikely to contain ribosomes or ribosomal subunits?
nuclear envelope
endoplasmic reticulum
plasma membrane


What do the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes have in common?
They all perform similar roles in the cell.
They are all physically connected to each other.
They are constructed of interrelated membranes.
All are located in the nucleus of the cell.


How are cell surface proteins exported out of the cell?
The proteins are packaged into vesicles for transport to the lysosomes.
The protein will be modified with the addition of a monosaccharide.
The protein will be sent to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum to be sorted for its final destination.
The protein is folded, then packaged for transport to the Golgi apparatus.


Which of the following statements about lysosomes is false?
Lysosomes destroy harmful bacteria engulfed by white blood cells.
Lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles to expose nutrients to lysosomal enzymes.
Lysosomes synthesize proteins from the recycled amino acids.
Lysosomes help to digest worn-out or damaged organelles.


A manufacturing company dumps its wastes into a nearby pond. One of the wastes is found to paralyze the contractile vacuoles of certain protists. A biologist looking at individual samples of these organisms taken from the pond would find that they
have died because wastes have built up in the cytoplasm.
have lost water and shrunk.
have died of malnutrition.
have gained water and burst.


One function of the central vacuole in plants is growth. The central vacuole grows larger when there is an increase in the amount of stored material. An animal cell does not grow by this method. What is the essential difference between animals and plants that requires the central vacuole?
Plant cells cannot divide.
The plant cell wall provides a more rigid structure.
Plant cells grow at a slower rate than animal cells.
Animal cells have a similar organelle that produces the same effect as the central vacuole.


Contractile vacuoles
allow organisms to avoid dehydration by absorbing water from the environment.
are generally found in protists that inhabit salt water.
help in the excretion of excess salt.
prevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water.


The function of mitochondria is
lipid synthesis.
intracellular digestion.
cellular respiration.


Cyanide inhibits mitochondrial function; as a result, the rate of
protein synthesis increases.
ATP synthesis decreases.
ATP synthesis increases.
photosynthesis increases.


Where are chlorophyll molecules located within plant cells?
within the cell membrane
embedded in the thylakoid membrane
in the cytoplasm
within chloroplast ribosomes


The function of chloroplasts is
lipid synthesis.
cellular respiration.
intracellular digestion.


Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false?
The cytoskeleton is composed of three types of fibers: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.
Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place.
The cytoskeleton helps to support cells.
The cytoskeleton plays an important role in amoeboid motion.


Cilia differ from flagella in that
cilia are anchored only in the proteins of the cell membrane, while flagella are anchored in a special structure called the basal body.
cilia contain nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of microtubules, while flagella contain only nine microtubule doublets.
the protein filaments of cilia are "naked," while those of flagella are wrapped in an extension of the cell membrane.
cilia are typically more numerous and shorter than flagella.


Which cell structure is responsible for metabolism?
Golgi apparatus
smooth endoplasmic reticulum


The plasma membrane would fit into which general function category?
energy production
support, movement, and communication


The maximum size of a cell is limited by _____.
its need for enough surface area to make exchanges with its environment
the materials needed to build it
the number of organelles that can be packed inside
the amount of flexibility it needs to be able to move


What are the limits on which maximum cell size depends?
amount of DNA in the nucleus
the number of organelles
surface-to-volume ratio
number of surrounding cells


Size Range Eukarote


Size Range Prokaryote


Cell Membrane

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.


contains DNA


Assembles ribosomes


interior of cell


Fluid portion of cytoplasm


make proteins and works with RNA

Smooth ER

Is ER that does not have ribosomes attached. It is a major site of lipid synthesis.(lysosmoes are made)

Rough ER

Covered in ribosomes and is responsible for the synthesis and transport of proteins and glycoproteins.(makes vesicles)

Golgi Apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell


A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones. (toxins)


Cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation for cellular activities. (double membrane)


A Network of Microtubules and Interconnected Filaments that PROVIDE For the SHAPE OF CELLS & ALLOW THE CELL TO BE MOBILE


Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell


Consist of hollow tubes which provide support for the cell


Locomotion organelles of some bacteria (long tail like) (2)


Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion (short and many)


– Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste remova

Central Vacuole

A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.

Cell Wall

A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants


A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.(aka- PHOTOSYNTHESIS)

Nuclear Enevolpe

the double membrane surrounding the nucleus within a cell


A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell. (made of cell membrane)

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