Biology 12

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Nucleoli are present during _____


Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____


Chromosomes become visible during _____


Centromeres divide and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.


Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____


During _______ centromeres come apart, and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes, which migrate to opposite poles of the cell.


Cytokinesis in ______ involves the formation of a cleavage furrow

animal cells

Events of _____ include the condensation of chromatin and the dispersal of nucleoli.


Cytokinesis in _____ involves the formation of a cell plate.

plant cells

During ______ both nuclear envelopes and nucleoli re-form


During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____

two chromosomes and four chromatids

During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided

mitotic phase

During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes


A single individual is reproducing

asexual reproduction

Human gametes are produced by _____


Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes


Once meiosis I is completed, cells are __


A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes.

16, since 16 is half of 32.

Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

two … haploid

Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____

four … haploid

The events of prophase II are essentially the same as those of mitotic prophase except that prophase II cells are ____


During ___- sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles

anaphase II

_____ are present at the end of telophase II and cytokinesis

Four haploid cells

During _____ sister chromatids separate.

anaphase II

At the end of _______there are two haploid cells

telophase I and cytokinesis

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids

telophase I

Homologous chromosomes pair during _______

prophase l

Metaphase II is essentially the same as mitotic metaphase except that the cells are _____


During metaphase I tetrads align along the____

metaphase plate.

Synapsis occurs during _____

prophase I

Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____

anaphase I

During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell

metaphase II

During ______homologous chromosomes, consisting of sister chromatids, migrate to opposite poles.

anaphase I

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells.

telophase II

During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell

prophase II

During ____the centrosome duplicates and the chromosomes are not condensed


Pairing of ____ is followed by crossing over, the exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes.

homologous chromosomes

Humans produce gametes (eggs and sperm) thorugh the process of?


The nucleus is where _______ is stored in the chromosomes

Genetic information

Most of a person’s cells are diploid with __ sets of chromosomes.


Each _____ chromosome has a corresponding ____ chromosome

maternal …. paternal

The matched pairs are called _____ chromosomes


Why do cells need to divide?

Reproduction of single-celled organism, Growth from a small to larger organism, repair of damaged tissues, replacement of worn- out cells

What is the cell cycle?

The life of a cell from the time it is formed until it divides into 2 cells. Identical genetic information is passed from the original cell to the 2 cells that are formed.

Cell division involves the distribution of identical ______ to two daughter cells

identical genetic information in DNA


All the cell’s DNA (where DNA is organized into multiple chromosomes.

How many chromosomes do human have in somatic cell?

46 chromosomes, two set of 23 one set inherited from each parent

Chromosomes uncoiled state this is called _________


Each chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes ___________ , units that specify an organism’s inherited traits


After copying the chromosomes has two sister chromatids held together by a _________



the division of the nucleus, usually followed by cytokinesis 1.Results in identical daughter cells 2.Used in organisms for growth, repair, replacement


the division of the cytoplasm


a kind of cell division used to form cells that have half the usual number of chromosomes, one of each kind instead of two 1.This type of cell division is used to produce gametes, eggs and sperm, for sexual reproduction 2.Occurs in gonads of humans (testes or ovaries)

What does Fertilization do?

Two gametes are fused forming zygote ,Original number of chromosomes is restored

The cell cycle can divide into what phases?

Mitosis (M) phase and Interphase

What does M phase usually include?

It includes both mitosis and cytokinesis

Which phase in the cell cycle is the shortest?

It is M phase

In the Interphase, the cell ________ its chromosomes

grows and copies

Interphse can be subdivided into 3 subphases and they are:

G1 Phase, S phase, G2 phase

____ first gap, in here the cell grows

G1 phase

______ , synthesis,in this phase the cells continues to grow, and chromosomes are duplicated

S phase

Mitosis can be broken down into 5 phases and they are:

Prophase, Prometaphase Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase,

_____ occurs before mitosis and is NOT one of the 5 phases


When does the Nucleoli disappear on mitosis?



Prophase is c

prometaphase d and e



telophase & cytokinesis

What is the fist step for bacteria division?

Chromosome replication begins, soon thereafter one copy of the orgin moves rapidly towards the other end of the cell

What is the 2 step for bacteria division?

Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell

What is the 3 step for bacteria division?

Replication finishes, plasma membrane gorw inwards and new cell is deposited.

What is the 4 step for bacteria division?

2 daughter cells result

What causes a cell to divide?

Molecular signals trigger cell division

The cell cycle control system

a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

G1 is the _____, if the "go ahead " signal is given here, the cell will usually move through the remaining phases and divide.


In G1, what happen to the when the cells gets the stop signal?

It will go into a nondividing state, named the G0 phase

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