Biology 102 Chapter 31

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Most angiosperms are dicots and most dicots are


Monocot floral parts usually occur in multiples of


Which of the following is a characteristic of eudicots?

a taproot system

Which of the following statements is false?

Plant root hairs help to absorb carbon dioxide from the soil

What is the node of a plant stem?

the point of leaf attachment

Removing the terminal bud of a plant that shows apical dominance will cause

increased growth of the axillary buds

The chief function of root hairs is to

increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals

A plant stem modified for storage of food such as starch is called a


Which of the following statements is false?

White potatoes are modified plant roots

Which of the following plant cells or tissues help regulate the movement of carbon dioxide into and out of a leaf?

guard cells

The cells that store starch in dicot roots are located between the

epidermis and the vascular cylinder.

In general, plant dermal tissues are found

at the outer surface of a plant.

Which of the following statements is false?

Each vein in a leaf is composed of either xylem or phloem, but not both.

Which of the following structures is found in both plant and animal cells?


Sieve-tube elements are plant cells that are part of a plant tissue called


Which type of vascular tissue cell in a plant is dead at maturity?

vessel elements

Which of the following substances, by providing strength, allows sclerenchyma cells to provide support and play a role analogous to that of an animal’s skeleton?


Photosynthesis occurs in which type of plant tissue?


Which of the following is a function of tracheids?

water conduction

Which of the following cells provide flexible support to the growing parts of plants?

collenchyma cells

New growth that increases stem length on a plant arises mainly from

apical meristems

The growth that pushes a root down through the soil takes place through

cell elongation behind the root tip

If you carve your initials in the trunk of a tree, will they move up as the tree grows?

No, because elongation occurs just below the tips of growing stems in the apical meristems

The three tissue systems of a mature plant root complete their development in the root zone of


Most trees and shrubs continue to grow year after year. Such plants are known as


The increase in girth associated with production of wood and bark in trees occurs as a consequence of

secondary growth

Bark consists of

secondary phloem, cork cambium, and cork.

What is the difference between the heartwood and sapwood of a tree?

Heartwood no longer transports water and minerals, while sapwood still conducts xylem sap.

The male organ of a flower is the


In a showy flower such as a magnolia or rose, the flower parts that play the main role in attracting the notice of animal pollinators are the


Before it opens up into full blossom, the outer green layer of a rosebud consists of the leaflike


Flowers bear seeds that develop from ovules housed in protective chambers called


How many chromosomes are there in a maize egg cell nucleus as compared to a maize pollen cell nucleus?

the same number

a flowering plant, the cells that give rise to sperm undergo meiosis in the


Which of the following flower parts produces female gametophytes?


In angiosperms, the process of ________ ensures that the endosperm will develop only in ovules containing a fertilized egg.

double fertilization

How does the sperm of an angiosperm reach the egg?

via the pollen tube that grows from the pollen grain through the carpel tissues to the ovule

A seed develops from a(n)


The "halves" of an individual peanut, which represent its cotyledons, develop from the fertilized zygote and are composed of

diploid embryo sporophyte cells.

How many chromosomes are there in a maize embryo cell nucleus as compared to a maize endosperm cell nucleus?

two-thirds as many

Which of the following is a function of fruits?

seed dispersal

A mature ovary, specialized as a vessel that houses and protects seeds, is a


Which of the following plant parts commonly contributes to asexual reproduction?


The genetically identical organisms that result from asexual reproduction are called


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