Biology 1 Ch. 11

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What does DNA stand for?

deoxyribosenucleic acid

DNA is the genetic material in _____ _____.

living things

DNA is a molecule made of repeating ______.


What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?

a sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group, nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine)

Nucleotides join together to form long _____.


The _____ ______ of one nucleotide bonds to the ____ _____ of an adjacent nucleotide.

phosphate group, sugar molecule

The phosphate groups and sugar molecules for the backbone of the chain, while the nitrogenous bases stick out like the ______ of a _____.

teeth, zipper

What does adenine always pair with in DNA base pairing?


What does thymine always pair with in DNA base pairing?


What does cytosine always pair with in DNA base pairing?


What does guanine always pair with in DNA base pairing?


The amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of ____.


The amount of guanine is always equal to the amount of _____.


If there is 15% adenine, how much thymine, guanine, and cytosine will there be?

thymine- 15%, guanine- 35%, cytosine- 35%

Write the complimentary base pair for: ATTGCCGAATG


What is the DNA structure called?

double helix

What is the DNA structure described as?

twisted ladder (spiral staircase)

the strands of DNA run in opposite directions from each other


The closer the relationship between 2 organisms, the more similar their ____ _______ will be.

DNA sequence

Scientists study nucleotide sequences to :
– Determine evolutionary relationships among ____
– Determine whether 2 people are _____
– Identify persons in ____

organisms, related, crimes

A cattail, a cat, and a catfish are all different organisms composed of ______ ____ ______.

different DNA sequences

If you compare the chromosomes of a cattail, a cat, and a catfish, you would find that they all contain DNA made up of the ___ _ ______ with adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.

same 4 nucleoties

The sequence of nucleotides forms the unique ______ _______ of an organism.

genetic information

Before a cell can divide, it must (1) _____ and (2) make a ___ of its _____

unwind, copy, DNA

unzips the strand of DNA


adds on new nucleotides to the complementary DNA strand


Each DNA molecule resulting from replication has one ______ ______ and one ____ _____.

original strand, new strand

Like DNA, RNA is also a ____ ____.

nucleic acid

What does RNA stand for?

ribonucleic acid

RNA differs from DNA in 3 major ways:
– It is ____ _____ (looks like one half of a zipper
– The sugar is _____
– Instead of thymine it has ____.

single stranded, ribose, uracil

What does uracil pair with in RNA?


The process of making a copy of mRNA from the DNA template is called….


What does mRNA stand for?

messenger RNA

mRNA brings a copy of the DNA out of the ____ into the _____.

nucleus, cytoplasm

Base pairing in transcription:


What is only done is RNA?


In _____, the codons in the mRNA strand is translated to a strand of _____ _____. (proteins)

translation, amino acid

A group of 3 _____ _____ in mRNA codes for one amino acid.

nitrogenous bases

Each group of 3 nitrogenous bases is called a….


Once the codons are made, the _____ reads each codon.


uses a DNA template to make RNA


3 RNA bases that code for an amino acid


changes RNA codons into an amino acid


Any change in the DNA sequence is called a ____


Any agent that can cause a change in DNA is called a _____


Mutagens can be ____ or _____ agents

chemical, physical

Give an example of a mutagen.

pesticides, tobacco

a change in a single base pair in DNA

point mutation

a base pair is either added or taken away, changing all of the reading frame for the following codons

frameshift mutation

a change in the number or structure of chromosomes

chromosomal mutations

Chromosomal mutations can change the number or location of genes on _______.


What are the 4 types of chromosomal mutations?

deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation

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