BIOL231 - Ch20 Test

tunica media

Layer of blood vessels innervated by sympathetic vasomotor fibers.

tunica intima

Capillaries consist of only this layer.

precapillary sphincter

Structure that regulates blood flow into true capillaries.

sinusoids

Wide leaky capillaries found in bone marrow and spleen.

vascular anastomosis

A "coming together" of alternate pathways of blood vessels.

metarterioles

Precapillary sphincters allow blood to leave this structure and enter true capillaries.

dural sinuses

Collective name for the structures that drain the cranium.

intercellular clefts

Present in most capillaries, these structures are absent in those of the blood-brain barrier.

fenestrated capillaries

Vessels of the small intestines, renal glomerulus, and synovial membranes that allow passage of fluid and solutes through "windows" in the endothelium.

vasa vasorum

Microvasculature that provides nourishment to the outer walls of the aorta.

tunica media

Which layer of blood vessels contains smooth muscle tissue?

through intercellular clefts

Most small molecules pass through a capillary wall through which route?

the blood pressure in arteries is high enough that there is no backflow of blood.

Functionally, there are no valves in arteries (as opposed to in veins) because

elastic arteries.

Blood pressure is highest in the

The first picks up digested nutrients, and the second delivers these nutrients to liver cells.

The hepatic portal system has two distinct capillary beds separated by a portal vein. What are the functions of these two capillary beds?

a sac-like widening or outpocketing of an artery.

An aneurysm is

anterior to the masseter muscle at the inferior margin of the mandible.

The pulse of the facial artery is palpated

a muscular artery.

A blood vessel that ranges from 0.3 mm to about 1 cm in diameter and has a large tunica media relative to the size of the lumen is

through the true capillaries.

In a capillary bed, relaxation of the precapillary sphincters causes more blood to flow

palpating between the first and second metatarsal.

The dorsalis pedis artery is located by

middle meningeal artery

What artery enters the skull through the foramen spinosum and supplies the inner surface of the parietal bone, dura mater, and parts of the temporal bone?

common carotid artery and the femoral artery (in the superior thigh).

Two large (wide) arteries that have relatively superficial locations and are often wounded are the

femoral

If a physician cannot feel a pulse in the popliteal fossa, the ________ artery is most likely narrowed by atherosclerosis.

superior sagittal sinus.

Of the following, the only unpaired dural sinus is the

the azygos vein

Which vessel is missing in the following statement? "Tracing venous blood from the inferior left side of the posterior abdominal wall to the heart, we find that blood enters the posterior intercostal veins, the hemiazygos vein, the superior vena cava, and the right atrium."

shortly after birth.

The foramen ovale in the heart normally closes

great saphenous vein

Which vessel is most commonly used to bypass a damaged coronary artery in coronary bypass surgery?

ductus arteriosus

What vessel in the fetus connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch so that most of the blood bypasses the immature lungs?

Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the heart.

Which of the following statements about arteries is false?

celiac trunk

Which branch (or branches) of the abdominal aorta supplies the stomach?

the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma

The cerebral arterial circle forms a loop around which structures?

an inflammatory response to a damaged endothelium.

A common theme to the development of atherosclerosis is

the common iliac arteries

The abdominal aorta divides at its distal end into which arteries?

the saphenous vein

Which of the following is most likely to become a varicose vein?

have pores in their walls.

Fenestrated capillaries

brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian.

The correct proximal to distal sequence of the three vessels branching from the aortic arch is

valves

What prevents the backflow of blood in veins?

pinocytotic vesicles

The largest molecules that pass through the walls of typical capillaries are thought to use which route?

anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and ophthalmic arteries.

The internal carotid artery branches to form the

formation of atheromas.

The major cause of atherosclerosis is due to the

the hepatic portal vein.

Most systemic venous blood is both oxygen-poor and nutrient-poor. However, systemic venous blood that is not oxygen-poor and is nutrient-rich occurs in

thyrocervical trunk

The ________ delivers arterial blood to the rotator cuff muscles and thyroid gland.

an erythrocyte.

The diameter of a typical capillary is similar to that of

They have the largest content of smooth muscle in their tunica media.

Which of the following statements about arterioles is false?

renal veins.

Systemic venous blood that is oxygen-poor but contains the lowest concentration of nitrogenous wastes occurs in the

dorsal venous network of the hand.

A preferred site to insert intravenous catheters is into the

inferior mesenteric artery

Which artery arises from the inferior part of the abdominal aorta and supplies the distal half of the large intestine?

posterior tibial

The main arteries of the sole of the foot—the medial and lateral plantar arteries—arise behind the ankle from which artery?

cavernous.

A dural sinus that contains a major artery and some cranial nerves within it is the

hepatic vein

Which vessel is missing from the following statement? "Tracing blood that drains from the large intestine, we find that blood drains from the distal colon is collected in the inferior mesenteric vein, merges with the splenic vein then directed to the hepatic portal vein, the liver sinusoids, and the inferior vena cava."

umbilical vein.

In the adult, the hepatic portal system carries nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract to the liver. In the fetus, nutrients are absorbed at the placenta, and the vessel that carries these nutrients to the liver is the

left renal vein.

The right suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the inferior vena cava, whereas the left suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the

inflammation of a vein.

Phlebitis is

vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

By definition, veins are

the lens and the cornea

Which body tissues lack capillaries?

posterior communicating arteries

Which arteries connect the basilar artery and the internal carotid artery forming the posterior aspect of the cerebral arterial circle?

posterior interosseous

The extensor muscles of the forearm are supplied by which artery?

inferior vena cava.

The lumbar veins drain the inferior posterior abdominal wall and direct oxygen-poor blood into the

sigmoidal artery

Which of the following is not a branch of the celiac trunk?

inferior vena cava.

The right gonadal vein drains into the

hepatic portal circulation.

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called

lungs, left atrium, and ventricle.

Blood passing through the fetal ductus arteriosus bypasses the

True

All types of blood vessels contain a tunica intima.

False

All arteries carry oxygen-rich blood, whereas veins carry oxygen-poor blood.

True

Systemic blood pressure is regulated by adjusting the diameter of arterioles.

False

In metabolically active tissues, blood is present in metarterioles, and precapillary sphincters are constricted.

True

Postcapillary venules function much like true capillaries.

False

The pulse of the posterior tibial artery is palpated behind the knee.

True

Veins have less elastin in their walls than do arteries.

False

Arterioles and venules have a vasa vasorum to provide nutrients to their outer walls, whereas the inner walls receive nutrients from blood in the lumen.

True

The middle and posterior cerebral arteries are connected by the posterior communicating arteries.

True

The internal iliac arteries supply blood both to the pelvic organs and to the lower limbs.

False

The inferior vena cava ascends on the left side of the vertebral bodies and to the left of the abdominal aorta.

True

Muscular arteries regulate blood flow to organs and groups of organs.

True

The elastic arteries are the largest arteries near the heart.

True

The saphenous vein is not paired with an artery with the same name.

False

Paired fetal umbilical veins carry blood from the fetus to the placenta, whereas the unpaired umbilical artery returns blood from the placenta to the fetus.

temporal

The ________ pulse can be palpated near the temple anterior to the auricle of the ear.

external iliac

The ________ artery descends along the arcuate line of the ilium and passes below the inguinal ligament.

thoroughfare channel

In a capillary bed, blood enters by a terminal arteriole, continues through a metarteriole, and exits to a venule by means of a(n) ________.

vertebral

The ________ vein descends through the transverse foramina of the first six cervical vertebrae.

fenestrations

Capillaries that allow a high degree of flow between the blood and tissue fluid usually have pores called ________ in their membranes.

tight junctions

The blood-brain barrier consists of capillaries with complete ________ and no intercellular clefts.

valves

The presence of ________ in the veins and the action of skeletal muscle pressing on the walls ensure that blood return to the heart is in one direction.

vasa vasorum

The largest blood vessels near the heart have their own blood supply network called the ________.

brachiocephalic trunk

The ________ branches to form the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries.

portal

Cirrhosis of the liver causes backup of blood in the sinusoids, resulting in a condition known as ________ hypertension.

azygos

Venous blood from the right posterior intercostal veins (except the first intercostal space) flows to the unpaired ________ vein and on to the superior vena cava.

basilic

Venous blood from the hands can be drained towards the heart through the radial, ulnar, median, cephalic, and ________ veins.

Collateral

________ channels, also known as arterial anastomoses, provide alternative pathways of blood to joints.

basilar artery

Blood flow to the posterior brain follows the following sequence: subclavian artery, vertebral artery, ________, posterior cerebral arteries.

varicose

Veins with compromised valves are called ________ veins.

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BIOL231 – Ch20 Test

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tunica media

Layer of blood vessels innervated by sympathetic vasomotor fibers.

tunica intima

Capillaries consist of only this layer.

precapillary sphincter

Structure that regulates blood flow into true capillaries.

sinusoids

Wide leaky capillaries found in bone marrow and spleen.

vascular anastomosis

A "coming together" of alternate pathways of blood vessels.

metarterioles

Precapillary sphincters allow blood to leave this structure and enter true capillaries.

dural sinuses

Collective name for the structures that drain the cranium.

intercellular clefts

Present in most capillaries, these structures are absent in those of the blood-brain barrier.

fenestrated capillaries

Vessels of the small intestines, renal glomerulus, and synovial membranes that allow passage of fluid and solutes through "windows" in the endothelium.

vasa vasorum

Microvasculature that provides nourishment to the outer walls of the aorta.

tunica media

Which layer of blood vessels contains smooth muscle tissue?

through intercellular clefts

Most small molecules pass through a capillary wall through which route?

the blood pressure in arteries is high enough that there is no backflow of blood.

Functionally, there are no valves in arteries (as opposed to in veins) because

elastic arteries.

Blood pressure is highest in the

The first picks up digested nutrients, and the second delivers these nutrients to liver cells.

The hepatic portal system has two distinct capillary beds separated by a portal vein. What are the functions of these two capillary beds?

a sac-like widening or outpocketing of an artery.

An aneurysm is

anterior to the masseter muscle at the inferior margin of the mandible.

The pulse of the facial artery is palpated

a muscular artery.

A blood vessel that ranges from 0.3 mm to about 1 cm in diameter and has a large tunica media relative to the size of the lumen is

through the true capillaries.

In a capillary bed, relaxation of the precapillary sphincters causes more blood to flow

palpating between the first and second metatarsal.

The dorsalis pedis artery is located by

middle meningeal artery

What artery enters the skull through the foramen spinosum and supplies the inner surface of the parietal bone, dura mater, and parts of the temporal bone?

common carotid artery and the femoral artery (in the superior thigh).

Two large (wide) arteries that have relatively superficial locations and are often wounded are the

femoral

If a physician cannot feel a pulse in the popliteal fossa, the ________ artery is most likely narrowed by atherosclerosis.

superior sagittal sinus.

Of the following, the only unpaired dural sinus is the

the azygos vein

Which vessel is missing in the following statement? "Tracing venous blood from the inferior left side of the posterior abdominal wall to the heart, we find that blood enters the posterior intercostal veins, the hemiazygos vein, the superior vena cava, and the right atrium."

shortly after birth.

The foramen ovale in the heart normally closes

great saphenous vein

Which vessel is most commonly used to bypass a damaged coronary artery in coronary bypass surgery?

ductus arteriosus

What vessel in the fetus connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch so that most of the blood bypasses the immature lungs?

Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the heart.

Which of the following statements about arteries is false?

celiac trunk

Which branch (or branches) of the abdominal aorta supplies the stomach?

the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma

The cerebral arterial circle forms a loop around which structures?

an inflammatory response to a damaged endothelium.

A common theme to the development of atherosclerosis is

the common iliac arteries

The abdominal aorta divides at its distal end into which arteries?

the saphenous vein

Which of the following is most likely to become a varicose vein?

have pores in their walls.

Fenestrated capillaries

brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian.

The correct proximal to distal sequence of the three vessels branching from the aortic arch is

valves

What prevents the backflow of blood in veins?

pinocytotic vesicles

The largest molecules that pass through the walls of typical capillaries are thought to use which route?

anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and ophthalmic arteries.

The internal carotid artery branches to form the

formation of atheromas.

The major cause of atherosclerosis is due to the

the hepatic portal vein.

Most systemic venous blood is both oxygen-poor and nutrient-poor. However, systemic venous blood that is not oxygen-poor and is nutrient-rich occurs in

thyrocervical trunk

The ________ delivers arterial blood to the rotator cuff muscles and thyroid gland.

an erythrocyte.

The diameter of a typical capillary is similar to that of

They have the largest content of smooth muscle in their tunica media.

Which of the following statements about arterioles is false?

renal veins.

Systemic venous blood that is oxygen-poor but contains the lowest concentration of nitrogenous wastes occurs in the

dorsal venous network of the hand.

A preferred site to insert intravenous catheters is into the

inferior mesenteric artery

Which artery arises from the inferior part of the abdominal aorta and supplies the distal half of the large intestine?

posterior tibial

The main arteries of the sole of the foot—the medial and lateral plantar arteries—arise behind the ankle from which artery?

cavernous.

A dural sinus that contains a major artery and some cranial nerves within it is the

hepatic vein

Which vessel is missing from the following statement? "Tracing blood that drains from the large intestine, we find that blood drains from the distal colon is collected in the inferior mesenteric vein, merges with the splenic vein then directed to the hepatic portal vein, the liver sinusoids, and the inferior vena cava."

umbilical vein.

In the adult, the hepatic portal system carries nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract to the liver. In the fetus, nutrients are absorbed at the placenta, and the vessel that carries these nutrients to the liver is the

left renal vein.

The right suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the inferior vena cava, whereas the left suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the

inflammation of a vein.

Phlebitis is

vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

By definition, veins are

the lens and the cornea

Which body tissues lack capillaries?

posterior communicating arteries

Which arteries connect the basilar artery and the internal carotid artery forming the posterior aspect of the cerebral arterial circle?

posterior interosseous

The extensor muscles of the forearm are supplied by which artery?

inferior vena cava.

The lumbar veins drain the inferior posterior abdominal wall and direct oxygen-poor blood into the

sigmoidal artery

Which of the following is not a branch of the celiac trunk?

inferior vena cava.

The right gonadal vein drains into the

hepatic portal circulation.

The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called

lungs, left atrium, and ventricle.

Blood passing through the fetal ductus arteriosus bypasses the

True

All types of blood vessels contain a tunica intima.

False

All arteries carry oxygen-rich blood, whereas veins carry oxygen-poor blood.

True

Systemic blood pressure is regulated by adjusting the diameter of arterioles.

False

In metabolically active tissues, blood is present in metarterioles, and precapillary sphincters are constricted.

True

Postcapillary venules function much like true capillaries.

False

The pulse of the posterior tibial artery is palpated behind the knee.

True

Veins have less elastin in their walls than do arteries.

False

Arterioles and venules have a vasa vasorum to provide nutrients to their outer walls, whereas the inner walls receive nutrients from blood in the lumen.

True

The middle and posterior cerebral arteries are connected by the posterior communicating arteries.

True

The internal iliac arteries supply blood both to the pelvic organs and to the lower limbs.

False

The inferior vena cava ascends on the left side of the vertebral bodies and to the left of the abdominal aorta.

True

Muscular arteries regulate blood flow to organs and groups of organs.

True

The elastic arteries are the largest arteries near the heart.

True

The saphenous vein is not paired with an artery with the same name.

False

Paired fetal umbilical veins carry blood from the fetus to the placenta, whereas the unpaired umbilical artery returns blood from the placenta to the fetus.

temporal

The ________ pulse can be palpated near the temple anterior to the auricle of the ear.

external iliac

The ________ artery descends along the arcuate line of the ilium and passes below the inguinal ligament.

thoroughfare channel

In a capillary bed, blood enters by a terminal arteriole, continues through a metarteriole, and exits to a venule by means of a(n) ________.

vertebral

The ________ vein descends through the transverse foramina of the first six cervical vertebrae.

fenestrations

Capillaries that allow a high degree of flow between the blood and tissue fluid usually have pores called ________ in their membranes.

tight junctions

The blood-brain barrier consists of capillaries with complete ________ and no intercellular clefts.

valves

The presence of ________ in the veins and the action of skeletal muscle pressing on the walls ensure that blood return to the heart is in one direction.

vasa vasorum

The largest blood vessels near the heart have their own blood supply network called the ________.

brachiocephalic trunk

The ________ branches to form the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries.

portal

Cirrhosis of the liver causes backup of blood in the sinusoids, resulting in a condition known as ________ hypertension.

azygos

Venous blood from the right posterior intercostal veins (except the first intercostal space) flows to the unpaired ________ vein and on to the superior vena cava.

basilic

Venous blood from the hands can be drained towards the heart through the radial, ulnar, median, cephalic, and ________ veins.

Collateral

________ channels, also known as arterial anastomoses, provide alternative pathways of blood to joints.

basilar artery

Blood flow to the posterior brain follows the following sequence: subclavian artery, vertebral artery, ________, posterior cerebral arteries.

varicose

Veins with compromised valves are called ________ veins.

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