Biol 1201 Practice Tests and Quizzes PT.2

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True or False? Action potentials travel in only one direction down an axon because potassium channels in the neuron are refractory and cannot be activated for a short time after they open and close.


The membrane depolarizes above a certain threshold potential which triggers the creation of an ____.

Action potential

What describes how a neuronal membrane’s potential is altered in the presence of inhibitory signals?


Where in the neuron do action potentials begin?

Axon hillock

How is an action potential propagated down an axon after voltage-gated sodium channels open in a region of the neuron’s membrane?

Sodium ions enter the neuron and diffuse to adjacent areas, resulting in the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels farther down the axon

What causes the release of the neurotransmitter molecules?

An action potential reaching the end of the axon

The space between an axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron is called a ____

Synaptic cleft

Neurons store neurotransmitter molecules in vesicles located within ____.

Synaptic terminals

A type of cell that must have a receptor for the chemical signal.

Target cell

A compound that is secreted in one part of the body and travels through the bloodstream to another part of the body where it has an effect is called a ____.


Protein signal molecules are not permeable to the cell membrane but can affect their target cells because:

The target cells have cell membrane bound receptors specific to the signal molecule

In a normal cell:

The membrane potential is negative

In a portal system how many capillary beds does the blood flow through as it travels from the heart back to the heart?


A neuron’s nucleus is located in its ____.

Cell body

A nerve impulse moves toward a neuron’s cell body along ____.


A never impulse moves away from a neuron’s cell body along ____.


An impulse relayed along a myelinated axon "jumps" from ____ to ____.

Node of Ranvier, Node of Ranvier

Axons insulated by a ____ are able to conduct impulses faster than those not so insulated.

Myelin sheath

What type of cell makes up the myelin sheath of a motor neuron?

Schwann cells

What part of a neuron relays signals from one neuron to another neuron or to an effector?

Synaptic terminal

What describes the difference in electrical charge across a membrane?

Membrane potential

Resting neurons are most permeable to which of the following ions?


True or False? The potential energy of an membrane potential comes solely from the difference in electrical charge across the membrane.


Which channel is mainly responsible for the resting potential of a neuron?

Potassium leak channel

Which term describes an electrical signal generated by neurons?

Action potential

Which channel maintains the concentration gradients of ions across a neuronal membrane?

The sodium-potassium pump moving Na+ ions out and K+ ions in

What behavior is observed if the voltage across a neuronal membrane is set to -20mV?

The sodium channel opens, and the Na+ ions flow in

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