BIO43

AUTOPHAGY

a process of cell renewel that replaced damaged mitochondria that generate reactive oxygen species with new mitochondria

excersie

inceases BDNF improves metalbolism reduces obesity and type 2 diabities protects againts alzhemers

) Digestion of proteins occurs

In the stomach and small intestine.

) Insulin _____ fat breakdown. Insulin causes blood glucose levels to _____.

Inhibits; fall

) Glucagon causes glycogen stores in the liver to ______. Glucagon causes the level of glucose in the blood to ______.

Decrease; increase

) If you take in more glucose than you need, you are likely to store the excess as ______. If you take in more fructose than you need, you are likely to store the excess as ______.

Glycogen; fat

) ______ participate in the development of brain function, particularly of the frontal lobe. Children at age 4 had higher mental processing abilities if their mothers had high intakes of this dietary constituent during pregnancy and lactation.

Omega-3 fatty acids (such as from cod liver oil)

) If you are overweight and lose weight, your LDL cholesterol will ______, and your HDL cholesterol will ______.

Decrease; increase, but only if you lose enough weight to approach the normal weight range

) There are(is) ______ "essential amino acid(s)".

9

) A leptin-deficient boy of Pakistani origin was given leptin therapy. After one week, food intake

Was reduced 85%.

) The percent prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African-Americans is ______. The percent prevalence in Africans living in rural Tanzania is ______.

13%; 1%

) According to the leaky proton gradient hypothesis for weight control, a person with a very leaky proton gradient will be naturally ______ and should eat _____ than the average person to maintain proper weight.

Slender; more

) According to the sluggish reward circuitry hypothesis, some individuals gain weight more easily than others because they have ______ transmission in the brain.

Reduced dopamine

) The instructor described experiments that established the validity of the NEAT hypothesis to explain why some people gain weight more easily than others. People who can't gain weight have _____ NEAT upon overeating. Can some of the variability in NEAT scores among different people be explained by supposing that some individuals, upon overeating, require more energy to perform a particular activity (such as riding a bicycle at a defined speed.? (Y,N)

More; N

) What is the caloric content of food?

Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/g; Protein: 4 kcal/g; Lipids: 9 kcal/g

) Which of the following cannot pass through the wall of the small intestine?

Lactose

) Insulin causes cells to ______ the bloodstream. Blood sugar levels consequently ______. Glucagon causes cells to ______ the blood stream. Blood sugar levels consequently ______.

Take up glucose from; fall; release glucose into; rise

) During exercise by an insulin-resistant person, insulin synthesis is ______. During exercise, the level of glucose in the blood is ______.

Reduced; reduced

) A person with type 2 diabetes should strive for weight control through diet and exercise. In addition, he should have a diet that is ______ in animal fat, _____ in fiber, and with a ______ glycemic index.

Low; high; low

) ______ are absorbed across the wall of the small intestine, assembled into chylomicrons, and then transported away from the intestine in ______.

Fatty acids and monoglycerides; lacteals

) ______ promote the inflammatory response to injury and infection, a key element of the body's defenses.

Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

) Smoking causes LDL protein levels to _____ and HDL protein levels to _____.

Increase; decrease

) About ______ of the protein in our diet, _____ of the fat in our diet, and _____ of the carbohydrates in our diet are absorbed through the wall of the small intestine.

More than 95%; more than 95%, more than 95%

) The limited digestion of fiber by bacteria in the colon ______ the production of butyrate and other short chain fatty acids. Butyrate _____ inflammation.

Leads to; suppresses

) The level of ghrelin in the blood ______ when the stomach is empty, and ______after food is consumed.

Increases; falls immediately

) Which of the following groups is most likely to become obese and develop type 2 diabetes if they are living a typical "western" lifestyle?

US Pima (Native Americans from Arizona)

) In the leaky proton gradient hypothesis to explain why some people gain weight more easily than others, the protons accumulate in

The mitochondria.

) According to the leaky proton gradient hypothesis for why some people gain weight more easily than others, protons leak from

Inside the mitochondrion, across the mitochondrial membrane, to outside the mitochondrion.

) In the experiment to establish the NEAT hypothesis for explaining why some people gain weight more easily than others, the increase in fat mass for each subject at the end of the experiment was determined by

Weighing and dual energy X-ray absorptometry.

) On a typical day, a typical person will consume about ______ of her calories as carbohydrates, ______ as protein, and ______ as fat,

Half; one-sixth; one-third

) Which of the following is NOT one of the main tastes?

FAT

) The digestion of lipids occurs

In the small intestine.

) Which of the following can pass through the wall of the small intestine?

Fructose

) Insulin _____ the utilization of fat stores. Glucagon _____ the utilization of fat stores.

Inhibits; promotes

) Exercise ______ insulin production. Exercise ______ the utilization of muscle glycogen.

...

) Exercise ______ insulin production. Exercise ______ the utilization of muscle glycogen.

Decreases; increases

) In the body, fructose _____ readily converted to glucose. Fructose _____ readily converted to fat.

Is not; is

) Soluble fiber ______ gastric emptying. This is ______ for a diabetic.

Delays; good

) ______ coat platelets in the blood and reduce their stickiness, thereby reducing the likelihood of clot formation and the likelihood of a heart attack.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

) _______ is avidly sucked up by the nervous system, where it becomes concentrated in cells surrounding the retina of the eye, in nerve cells, and in synapses.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

) Nitrogen for our bodies' proteins comes from

Animal proteins and plant proteins.

) Which of the following is not a good source of vegetable protein?

corn

) Can excess dietary protein be converted to carbohydrate? (Y,N) Can excess dietary protein be converted to fat? (Y,N)

Y; Y

) The absence of leptin causes a mouse to eat ______ and to exercise ______.

More; less

) Ghrelin _______ the appetite. The level of ghrelin depends upon _______.

Stimulates; the degree of emptiness in the stomach

) Central to the sluggish reward circuitry hypothesis of why some people tend to eat more than others are presumed genetic differences in the rate of______.

Dopamine transmission

) Does walking from your room in the residence halls to class count as a NEAT activity? (Y,N) Does tapping your finger on the desk during the test count as a NEAT activity? (Y,N)

Y; Y

Y; Y

When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.

amino acids

When digested, fats are broken down into _____.

both glycerol and fatty acids

Starch is a type of _____.

polysaccharide

Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.

fructoses

Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?

amylase

Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.

maltose

Protein digestion begins in the _____.

stomach

What is the main component of gastric juice?

water

_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.

Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine

What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?

hydrochloric acid

Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal?

Salivary glands.

Which process is not required for an animal to obtain energy from food?

Excretion

One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestive processes with different requirements (for example, an acidic or basic environment) can be separated within the tract.

...

False. The alimentary canal is the tube through which food passes, beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus. The liver is an accessory organ of digestion and not part of the actual canal through which food passes.

...

Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.

...

Where is insulin produced?

Pancreas. The pancreas produces insulin, which then travels through the bloodstream and binds to receptors on various cells throughout the body.

True or false? Type I diabetes can be managed with drugs that increase cellular responsiveness to insulin.

False

Which of the following statements about type II diabetes is false?

Type II diabetes can be managed by insulin injections.

True or False? Insulin is secreted in response to low blood sugar levels.

False

Which of the following secretes glucagon?

The pancreas.

In both healthy individuals and in individuals with type I diabetes mellitus glucose is elevated following a meal.

...

True or False? Type II diabetes mellitus is more common than type I diabetes mellitus.

True

Which of the following most accurately describes type I diabetes mellitus?

Many individuals with type I diabetes mellitus can be effectively treated with insulin injections.

What is the importance of consuming an adequate amount of proteins in the diet?

Proteins serve a variety of functions, and the body does not store excess quantities of protein.

The process of breaking down food particles into molecules that can be transported into circulation is known as ________.

digestion.

Starch digestion begins where?

in the mouth

A major enzyme involved in protein digestion is ________.

pepsin.

If you chew a salted cracker long enough, it begins to taste sweet. Why?

Salivary amylase degrades the starch from the cracker into glucose.

Food and its products of degradation move through the alimentary canal by means of peristalsis. What is peristalsis?

rhythmic waves of contraction of the muscular layer surrounding the alimentary canal that are responsible for moving contents of the lumen along the length of the digestive tract

Which of the following is a major function of the small intestine?

to absorb the end-products of digestion

Bile, which is synthesized in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, is important in lipid digestion. What feature/function of bile makes it an effective emulsifying agent?

Bile is an amphipathic molecule, having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.

Amino acids, dipeptides, and sugars are transported from intestinal epithelial cells into circulation. Lipids are transported from the intestinal epithelium into ________.

the lymph system.

Villi and microvilli that are associated with the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium are important in that they ________.

increase the surface area available for absorption.

Aquaporins have been identified in the epithelium of the large intestine. What is the function of these aquaporins?

to reabsorb water from the large intestine

Based on the graph in the figure, what can you infer about the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus?

Obesity is a risk factor for development of type II diabetes mellitus.

Following a meal high in starch, digestive processes break the starch into ________, which when absorbed into circulation cause a release of the hormone ________.

glucose; insulin.

A major risk factor for atherosclerosis is high levels of dietary cholesterol. If you get your lipid levels checked regularly, which of the following, when elevated, most significantly increases your risk for developing atherosclerosis?

LDL cholesterol

Why does carbohydrate loading increase the performance of distance athletes?

It increases glycogen stores in the muscle and liver.

How are carbohydrates digested?

by amylases in the mouth and small intestine

What role do bile salts play in the digestion of complex fats?

They emulsify lipids, meaning that large masses of fat molecules are broken into smaller masses.

CHAPTER 44

...

Voice sounds are produced by the _____.

larynx

The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.

nasal cavity

True or false? The lungs of humans form from the embryonic foregut.

TRUE

True or false? The pressure inside the human chest cavity is always positive, so the lungs stay relatively inflated even upon exhalation.

False

Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface between air and blood?

Alveolus.

Which barrier(s) must 02 and C02 cross to pass between air and blood inside lungs?

epithelial cells capillary wall extracellular fluid

How is most carbon dioxide transported from tissues to the lungs?

As bicarbonate ions ().

Which of the following statements about the oxygen-hemoglobin interaction is true?

The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.

By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.

acidic

In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.

combined with hemoglobin

Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.

capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs

The _____ has(have) the thinnest walls.

capillaries

Blood pressure is highest in the _____.

aorta

Gas exchange occurs across the walls of the alveoli.Arteries carry blood _____.

away from the heart only

Blood returns to the heart via the _____.

pulmonary veins

From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.

left atrium

From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium

From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.

posterior vena cava

What is the function of a circulatory system?

It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.

Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?

The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.

What is the function of the left ventricle?

It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.

Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?

Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.

Which event occurs first during diastole?

The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?

The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.

A rabbit taken from a meadow near sea level and moved to a meadow high on a mountainside would have some trouble breathing. Why?

The partial pressure of oxygen in the air at high elevations is lower than at sea level.

If other factors are equal, which of the following environments would have the highest level of dissolved oxygen?

cool, fresh water at low elevation

Why is it more difficult to obtain enough oxygen via respiration from water than from air?

The density of water makes ventilating the respiratory tissues more difficult, and the solubility of oxygen in water is less than air.

The main difference between respiration in terrestrial insects and in terrestrial vertebrates is that ________.

insects rely on their tracheal system to deliver oxygen in air to their tissues, whereas terrestrial vertebrates rely on their lungs to deliver oxygen to their tissues through the blood in their circulatory system.

Which of the following is not a feature of gas exchange in the respiratory system of birds?

The exchange of gases between parabronchi and blood is in a countercurrent direction.

In the countercurrent exchange respiratory system of fish, which of the following would not be expected?

Blood flows through the gills from anterior to posterior.

When you are jogging, your muscles are using more oxygen and releasing more carbon dioxide into the blood than when you are at home on the couch. Which of the following would occur during your jog?

The medullary respiratory center would increase the rate of breathing.

Which of the following statements supports the hypothesis that the bidirectional gas flow occurring in humans (air goes in and out through the same passages) is less efficient than the unidirectional flow in fish?

Neither "bidirectional flow in humans does not take advantage of countercurrent exchange" nor "about one-third of the air in human lungs is trapped in 'dead space' where gas exchange with the circulation cannot occur" is true.

A mutation results in a form of hemoglobin that has binding sites for four molecules of oxygen but does not exhibit cooperative binding. Which of the following would result?

None of the results described would occur.

Which of the following events would be predicted by the Bohr shift effect as the amount of carbon dioxide released from your tissues into the blood capillaries increases?

The amount of oxygen in venous blood would decrease.

In what way does hemoglobin act as a buffer against changes in blood pH?

Hemoglobin binds some of the excess protons released by carbonic acid.

The oxygen content of water increases linearly with increase in oxygen partial pressure while the oxygen content of blood increases in a sigmoidal (S-shaped) fashion. Why?

Hemoglobin shows cooperative oxygen binding.

You are a physician, and you are seeing a patient who complains of abnormal fatigue during exercise. You find that the immediate problem is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the tissues. What is the most likely cause?

abnormal carbonic anhydrase

Which of the following result, either directly or indirectly, when carbonic anhydrase is functioning properly?

The amount of carbon dioxide diffusing into red blood cells increases and the pH of capillary blood decreases.

Which of the following mechanisms are used to regulate blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates?

all of the above

A large increase in albumin concentration in the plasma of a dog would result in which of the following?

increase in blood volume and decrease in lymph volume

Which of the following is the correct sequence of terms describing fluid movement throughout the vessels and tissues of the body, starting with the circulatory system?

blood interstitial fluid lymph blood

Which of the four muscular chambers of the human heart directly propels blood into the pulmonary circulation?

right ventricle

An animal has a cardiac output of 40 mL/min and a stroke volume of 5 mL. What is its heart rate?

8 beats/minute

Premature infants may not produce surfactants in the alveoli of their lungs. What implications does this have for their health and survival?

The surface tension of fluids in the lungs may be too high for the lungs to expand fully during inhalation.

O2 will diffuse from blood to tissue faster in response to which of the following conditions?

a decrease in the of the tissue

Which of the following does blood not do?

produce red blood cells and other formed elements

Which of the following promotes oxygen release from hemoglobin?

a decrease in pH

An open circulatory system is less efficient than a closed circulatory system in what respect?

It is harder to deliver to specific tissues based on need.

) At 15≡ C, one liter of air contains ______ of oxygen, and one liter of water contains ______ of oxygen.

209 ml; 7 ml

) The solubility of oxygen in warm water is ______ than the solubility of oxygen in cold water. The solubility of oxygen in seawater is _______ than the solubility of oxygen in freshwater.

Less; less

) Animals that do not have organs for gas exchange, and therefore rely entirely upon diffusion, are generally ______ and live in ______ environments.

Flat; wet

) The structure of gills can be described as follows Each gill arch has many ______. Each ______ has many ______. Each ______ has many _____.

Gill filaments; gill filament; lamellae; lamella; capillaries

Gill filaments; gill filament; lamellae; lamella; capillaries

Fish

) The diffusion distance for gases across the epithelium of the alveolus in the mammalian lung is about

0.2 ∝m.

) In the process of inhaling, your diaphragm and rib muscles ______, and the space in your chest cavity ______.

Contract; increases and then decreases

) Surface tension in the mammalian lung ______ during inhalation. Surfactants act to ______ the force of surface tension.

ncreases; decrease

) The air inhaled by a bird in one breath is exhaled ______. The dead space in the bird respiratory system is ______.

Only after the second breath; close to zero

) When we exercise hard, our breathing rate increases because of an increase in

Acidity.

) The "formed elements" in blood plasma are mostly

Red blood cells

) In a person at rest, about _____ of bound hemoglobin is unloaded in the tissues. During exercise, about _____ of bound hemoglobin is unloaded.

50%; 80%

) The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is active in

Red blood cells.

) Release of carbon dioxide into the breathing cavity from blood results in the blood becoming _____ acid, which makes it _____ for hemoglobin to bind incoming oxygen molecules.

Less; easier

) In animals with open circulatory systems, the circulatory system operates under relatively low pressure. (T,F) In animals with open circulatory systems, nutrients need to diffuse across capillary walls. (T,F)

T; F

) The walls of the ______ are dominated by elastic fibers that stretch when blood is pumped in, and contract afterwards.

Aorta

) Capillaries typically have an inside diameter that is typically about _______ the diameter of a red blood cell.

Equal to

) _______ contain one-way valves that prevent backflow of blood.

Veins

) Albumin, which is present in ______, acts to increase the fluid content of ______.

Plasma; plasma

) After passing through capillaries throughout the body, blood enters the _____ atrium of the heart. The pulmonary circuit operates under ______ pressure than the systemic circuit.

Right; lower

) Arteries that leave the right ventricle of the heart have a ______ oxygen content. Veins that return blood to the left atrium of the heart have a ______ oxygen content.

Low; high

) What is the sequence of contractions of the various chambers of the heart?

First: the two atria (simultaneously); Second: the two ventricles (simultaneously).

) The valve between the aorta and ventricle closes as a result of a pressure ______ in the ______.

Decrease; ventricle

) The pressure in the ______ is never high.

Atrium

) The initial signal for contraction of the heart is delivered by "pacemaker" cells located in the SA node of the

Right atrium

) When baroreceptors signal the brain that a dangerous drop in blood pressure has occurred, one of the responses is a generalized constriction of ______, which reduces the volume of blood and thereby increases the blood pressure.

The veins

) According to Fick's Law of Diffusion, the rate of diffusion is proportional to ______, where A = the surface area, and inversely proportional to _______, where D = the distance.

A; D

) Fish use a ______ exchange system for transfer of oxygen to the blood. This is ______ efficient than the cross-current system used by birds.

Counter-current; more

) In insects, air enters the body by means of ______. Waste gases leave the body by means of ______.

Spiracles; spiracles

) Oxygen diffusing into a capillary in the lungs crosses various layers in the following sequence.

(1) Aqueous layer; (2) alveolar epithelial cell; (3) extracellular matrix; (4) capillary epithelial cell

) ______ may not produce adequate amounts of surfactant that works to reduce the surface tension at the inner surface of the lungs.

...

...

Premature infants

) The Arabian oryx, a large desert mammal, produces ______ urine. It does not sweat _____ its body temperature reaches 40≡ C on a hot day.

Extremely concentrated; even when

) The principal sources of dietary vitamin D for the greatest number of Americans are

Fortified milk and fortified orange juice.

) Your breastfed infant should receive _____ supplements in his first few months of life.

Vitamin D

) Type I diabetes has been linked to suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which is consistent with observations that type I diabetes is ______ likely to occur in people of African descent, and with the observation that the frequency of type I diabetes in the U.S. has ______ two- to four-fold in the past 50 years.

More; increased

) Vitamin D metabolizes ______ in the colon, thereby reducing the risk of colon cancer.

A bile acid derivative

) The current clinical definition of vitamin D deficiency is a serum 25-OHD level of <27.5 mM/l. The serum 25-OHD levels of rural women in Gambia is on the order of ______.

80 nM/l

) The current recommendation for vitamin D intake for a young adult is 5 ∝g/day (200 IU). A. Norman, writing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2008, has recommended a new standard of _______.

50 ∝g/day (2,000 IU)

) The four major tissue types include all of the following EXCEPT ______.

Smooth muscle tissue

) When you swallow, the food goes down your esophagus with the aid of contractions by

Smooth muscle tissue.

) The apical sides of epithelial cells ______. The basolateral sides of epithelial cells ______.

Face away from other tissues and towards the environment; face the interior and are connected to other tissues

) ______ animals become dehydrated more easily. ______ animals have a higher rate of metabolism compared to their weight.

Small; small

) The small intestine is 10 feet long, and has a surface area equal to

A tennis court.

) A dog's panting is an example of ______ regulation of body temperature. Such a dog is in ______ homeostasis.

Active; regulatory

) Endotherms _____ sources of heat. As the temperature becomes colder, an endoderm's metabolic rate _____.

Have internal; increases

) When an animal is hibernating with a body temperature of 1≡ C, his metabolic rate is about ______ of the normal rate.

1

) When a hibernating animal warms up, ______ occurs first, to which ______ adds additional warming when the animal's whole body temperature reaches about ______.

Metabolism of brown fat; shivering thermogenesis; 15≡ C

) The Arabian oryx, a large desert mammal, obtains _____ of his water from drinking fluids, _____ from eating vegetation, and _____ from metabolism of food.

0%; 86%; 14%

) Which are the best natural sources of vitamin D?

Liver and ocean-caught salmon

) In _____, 66% of children have rickets, which is caused by ______ deficiency.

Tibet; vitamin D

) Finnish children receiving vitamin D supplements throughout their childhood were 78% less likely to develop ______.

Type 1 diabetes.

) There is strong evidence linking vitamin D deficiency with

Colon cancer.

) The current clinical definition of vitamin D deficiency is a serum _____ level of less than _____

25-OHD; 27.5 nM/l

) Which of the following people is most susceptible to death from skin cancer?

A Caucasian individual who has relatively little total sun exposure, but who gets bad sunburns maybe a dozen times a year.

) The current tolerable upper limit for vitamin D intake is 50 ∝g/day (2,000 IU). A recommended new tolerable upper limit is ______.

250 ∝g/day (10,000 IU)

) The major types of muscle tissue include all of the following except

Connective muscle.

) Each _____ muscle cell branches and makes direct, end-to-end physical and electrical contact with other muscle cells of the same type.

Cardiac

) Nutrients traveling down the lumen of the small intestine are absorbed across the _____ surfaces of epithelial cells, pass _____ the cells, and exit across the _____ surfaces of these cells.

Apical; through; basolateral

) Rapid removal of wastes is more difficult with ______ animals. Removal of excess heat is more difficult with ______ animals.

Large; large

) Shivering on a cold day while waiting for the bus is an example of ______ homeostasis. Sweating by the pool on a hot day is an example of _____ homeostasis.

Regulatory; regulatory

) In homeostatic systems, ______ is(are) located in the hypothalamus of the brain

The integrator

) If you, dressed in a T-shirt, shorts, heavy socks, and shoes, should step outside on a cold, calm, and clear night, you will lose heat primarily by

Radiation

) In the countercurrent heat exchange system used for a wolf's paw,

Returning blood is warmed by arterial blood along the entire length of the system.

) A hibernating animal needs to warm up periodically, after which it cools down to resume hibernation. Such an animal is generally in the warmed state for

Less than 24 hours.

) Among hibernating animals, the males are generally ______ terminators of hibernation, whereas the females are generally ______ terminators of hibernation. ______ generally awake from hibernation before ______.

Obligate; facultative; Males; females

) The Arabian oryx, a large desert mammal, functions better at an air temperature of _____ than _____. Which is better adapted to 40° C, the oryx or humans?

34° C; 40° C; the oryx

) Will your body make vitamin D if it is exposed to the winter midday sun in Islip on Long Island? (Y,N) How about the summer midday sun in Islip? (Y,N)

N; Y

) In Saudi Arabia, osteomalacia is most often seen in

Married women with children.

) Suboptimal levels of vitamin D have been associated with all of the following EXCEPT

Anemia.

) Cathelicidin is

An antimicrobial peptide whose synthesis is controlled by vitamin D.

) The current clinical definition of vitamin D deficiency is a serum 25-OHD level of <27.5 mM/l. Toxic effects from vitamin D overdose set in with a serum 25-OHD level of ______ and higher.

500 nM/l

) Vitamin D advocates counsel

Combining vitamin D supplements with small amounts of sun exposure.

) All of the following are examples of connective tissue EXCEPT ______.

Smooth muscle

) Plasma is ______. Is plasma a connective tissue? (Y,N)

The liquid in blood without the cells; N

) Dietary glucose passes _______ epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small intestine, and then passes ______ epithelial cells lining blood capillaries.

Through; through

) Nutrients are absorbed across the _____ surfaces of endothelial cells, pass through the cells, and then exit across the _____ surfaces of these cells and enter blood vessels. In the windpipe, the _____ sides of epithelial cells secrete mucus and are covered with cilia to help sweep away dust, bacteria, and viruses.

Apical; basolateral; apical

) An elephant is in ______ homeostasis. A house mouse is in ______ homeostasis.

Regulatory; regulatory

) A homeostatic system has three general components. These communicate in the following sequence.

Sensor to integrator to effector.

) Suppose you get out of a warm outdoor swimming pool on a cold day and you start to shiver. In terms of how homeostatic systems work, the integrator is located in _______. The sensor is located in ________.

The hypothalamus of your brain; the surface of your body

) Increased blood flow to the skin on a _____ causes greater _____ of heat.

Hot day; loss

) Brown fat is used primarily for _______ production. The energy for nonshivering thermogenesis is supplied by oxidation of ______ fat.

Heat; brown

) The small amount of energy required to maintain an animal at 1° C during hibernation is provided by

Conversion of fat to ketone bodies such as ®-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate.

) When a bear comes out of hibernation in the spring, the body temperature ______ and the resting metabolic rate ______.

Rapidly rises to normal; remains at about 50% of normal for about three weeks

What tissue types make up a human hand?

connective, nervous, muscle, and epithelial tissues

One function of the intestines is absorption. Water and nutrients pass from the inside of the intestines to the surrounding circulatory system. Which of the following represents the correct path that water and nutrients travel during absorption?

lumen apical membrane cytoplasm basolateral membrane circulatory system

Which of the following are structures in the mammalian digestive tract that allow for efficient distribution of nutrients to the rest of the body?

Villi

Which of the following statements about diffusion across a cell membrane is true?

The surface area of the membrane determines how many molecules can enter a cell at once.

What relationship between surface area and volume must organisms achieve to ensure efficient delivery of nutrients?

Maximize surface area and minimize volume.

Which of the following statements about an animal's size and shape is not true?

Large animals are more susceptible to cold than small animals.

Which one of the following is not a good strategy for increasing the surface area relative to the volume?

Enlarge and make more spherical.

Which term describes a mechanism by which the internal conditions of an organism are kept at set values without regard to the external conditions?

Regulatory homeostasis.

Which of the following actions is not a function of the epithelium?

Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.

True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.

True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.

True

Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?

Integrator

Which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?

Sensor.

Which of the following actions acts to warm a homeothermic body?

Shivering

Which of these is an example of negative feedback?

After you eat, insulin stimulates the lowering of blood sugar levels.

What is the main reason that a person sitting on the beach with an air temperature of 15°C loses heat less rapidly than when immersed in lake water at 15°C?

Water conducts heat more efficiently than air does.

Many types of ectothermic animals can be seen lying out in the sun on a warm, sunny day. What is the primary mechanism by which the animal warms itself during this activity?

radiation

Which of the following explanations for brown adipose tissue explains why infant humans and some small mammals have this tissue type?

This tissue allows for the conversion of fats directly into heat without the production of ATP.

Torpor has evolved in several high-latitude species even though it is energetically expensive. Why does this adaptation require a large energy input for those species that utilize this function?

Animals in torpor lower their body temperature dramatically and require a great deal of energy to bring the body temperature back up to normal.

) The most abundant solutes in the blood are

Electrolytes.

) If you exercise on a hot day, impaired athletic performance and impaired cognition begin with a loss of about ______ of body weight.

2%

) If you become dehydrated, the cells in your body ______ decrease in size. The concentration of electrolytes in these cell ______ increase.

Will; will

) Of the different forms of disposal of nitrogenous wastes, which has the highest energy cost? Which is most toxic?

Energy: uric acid; Toxic: ammonia

...

Energy: uric acid; Toxic: ammoni

) Humans excrete nitrogen

Mostly as urea, but a little as uric acid and ammonia.

) Melamine, used as ______ by unscrupulous food suppliers in China, is converted to ______ by the human body.

Fake protein; ammonia

) The renal corpuscle is at the ______ of the nephron, and is located in the ______ of the kidney.

Beginning; cortex

) The nephron has all of the following components EXCEPT

The collecting duct.

) About _____ blood is filtered by the kidneys each day. About _____ of the blood that enters the renal corpuscle is filtered out as pre-urine.

180 liters; 25%

) Salt leaves the loop of Henle in the _____ limb in a process that is ______ independent.

Ascending; partly energy dependent and partly energy

) Is the flow of blood in capillaries in the same direction or in the countercurrent direction in the descending limb of the loop of Henle? How about the ascending limb?

Descending limb: countercurrent; ascending limb: countercurrent

) The hormone aldosterone causes

Retention of salt by the body.

) A highly concentrated urine is made in

The presence of ADH.

) If you eat a bag of salty pretzels, you will make ______ urine. The excess salt that enters your blood stream is eliminated ______.

More; in the urine

) ______ eliminate most of their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid.

Birds

) Urine formed in the kidney is transported in a long tube called the ______ to the bladder for storage.

Ureter.

) About ______ of bladder cancer in the US can be attributed to cigarettes. A high fluid intake lowers the risk of bladder cancer in______.

40-50%; smokers and non-smokers.

) The glomerulus is located in _____ of the nephron.

The renal corpuscle

) The hormone aldosterone causes sodium to be pumped out of the pre-urine ______ of the nephron.

In the distal tubule

) Humans produce uric acid by catabolism of

Nucleic acids.

) Is excess vitamin C in our blood eliminated in the urine? (Y,N) Is excess iron in our blood eliminated in the urine? (Y,N)

Y; N

) Pesticide residues in our blood stream are eliminated in our ______. Prescription medicines in our blood stream are eliminated in our ______.

Urine; urine

) Of the three forms in which nitrogen can be eliminated by animals, which requires the most water? Which requires the least?

Most: Ammonia; Least: Uric acid

) Excretion of nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid has a _______ energy cost of production than excretion as urea. Excretion or nitrogenous wastes as uric acid requires ______ water than excretion as urea.

Higher; less

) Humans produce uric acid from metabolism of

Nucleic acids and caffeine.

) Unscrupulous milk producers in China adulterated milk with an industrial organic nitrogen-containing chemical called melamine. Melamine is metabolized by the human body to

Ammonia.

) What is the pathway for excretion of urine?

Collecting duct ureter gall bladder urethra elimination

) Pre-urine is formed

In the renal corpuscle.

) Water passes from the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule because of

A pressure differential.

) Up to ______ of the blood plasma that passes through the glomerulus will leave the blood stream and become pre-urine

25%

) Epithelial cells _______ have extensive microvilli to aid passage of salts across their boundaries

In the proximal tubule

) Which of the following is least likely to be returned to the blood from the proximal tubule of a nephron?

Carbon tetrachloride (an industrial solvent)

) Sodium ions present in pre-urine _______ returned to the blood from the proximal tubule. Urea molecules present in pre-urine _______ returned to the blood from the proximal tubule.

Are partially; are not

) As the pre-urine passes down the descending limb of the loop of Henle, _____ so that the osmotic pressure inside and outside the nephron remains constant all along the length of the descending loop.

Water leaves the pre-urine.

) When pre-urine passes through the loop of Henle, are salts pumped out in an energy-dependent process?

Yes, but only in the thick (upper) part of the ascending limb.

) Insects take air in through ______. They release waste products of oxidative metabolism from ______.

Spiracles; the spiracles

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BIO43

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AUTOPHAGY

a process of cell renewel that replaced damaged mitochondria that generate reactive oxygen species with new mitochondria

excersie

inceases BDNF improves metalbolism reduces obesity and type 2 diabities protects againts alzhemers

) Digestion of proteins occurs

In the stomach and small intestine.

) Insulin _____ fat breakdown. Insulin causes blood glucose levels to _____.

Inhibits; fall

) Glucagon causes glycogen stores in the liver to ______. Glucagon causes the level of glucose in the blood to ______.

Decrease; increase

) If you take in more glucose than you need, you are likely to store the excess as ______. If you take in more fructose than you need, you are likely to store the excess as ______.

Glycogen; fat

) ______ participate in the development of brain function, particularly of the frontal lobe. Children at age 4 had higher mental processing abilities if their mothers had high intakes of this dietary constituent during pregnancy and lactation.

Omega-3 fatty acids (such as from cod liver oil)

) If you are overweight and lose weight, your LDL cholesterol will ______, and your HDL cholesterol will ______.

Decrease; increase, but only if you lose enough weight to approach the normal weight range

) There are(is) ______ "essential amino acid(s)".

9

) A leptin-deficient boy of Pakistani origin was given leptin therapy. After one week, food intake

Was reduced 85%.

) The percent prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African-Americans is ______. The percent prevalence in Africans living in rural Tanzania is ______.

13%; 1%

) According to the leaky proton gradient hypothesis for weight control, a person with a very leaky proton gradient will be naturally ______ and should eat _____ than the average person to maintain proper weight.

Slender; more

) According to the sluggish reward circuitry hypothesis, some individuals gain weight more easily than others because they have ______ transmission in the brain.

Reduced dopamine

) The instructor described experiments that established the validity of the NEAT hypothesis to explain why some people gain weight more easily than others. People who can’t gain weight have _____ NEAT upon overeating. Can some of the variability in NEAT scores among different people be explained by supposing that some individuals, upon overeating, require more energy to perform a particular activity (such as riding a bicycle at a defined speed.? (Y,N)

More; N

) What is the caloric content of food?

Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/g; Protein: 4 kcal/g; Lipids: 9 kcal/g

) Which of the following cannot pass through the wall of the small intestine?

Lactose

) Insulin causes cells to ______ the bloodstream. Blood sugar levels consequently ______. Glucagon causes cells to ______ the blood stream. Blood sugar levels consequently ______.

Take up glucose from; fall; release glucose into; rise

) During exercise by an insulin-resistant person, insulin synthesis is ______. During exercise, the level of glucose in the blood is ______.

Reduced; reduced

) A person with type 2 diabetes should strive for weight control through diet and exercise. In addition, he should have a diet that is ______ in animal fat, _____ in fiber, and with a ______ glycemic index.

Low; high; low

) ______ are absorbed across the wall of the small intestine, assembled into chylomicrons, and then transported away from the intestine in ______.

Fatty acids and monoglycerides; lacteals

) ______ promote the inflammatory response to injury and infection, a key element of the body’s defenses.

Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

) Smoking causes LDL protein levels to _____ and HDL protein levels to _____.

Increase; decrease

) About ______ of the protein in our diet, _____ of the fat in our diet, and _____ of the carbohydrates in our diet are absorbed through the wall of the small intestine.

More than 95%; more than 95%, more than 95%

) The limited digestion of fiber by bacteria in the colon ______ the production of butyrate and other short chain fatty acids. Butyrate _____ inflammation.

Leads to; suppresses

) The level of ghrelin in the blood ______ when the stomach is empty, and ______after food is consumed.

Increases; falls immediately

) Which of the following groups is most likely to become obese and develop type 2 diabetes if they are living a typical "western" lifestyle?

US Pima (Native Americans from Arizona)

) In the leaky proton gradient hypothesis to explain why some people gain weight more easily than others, the protons accumulate in

The mitochondria.

) According to the leaky proton gradient hypothesis for why some people gain weight more easily than others, protons leak from

Inside the mitochondrion, across the mitochondrial membrane, to outside the mitochondrion.

) In the experiment to establish the NEAT hypothesis for explaining why some people gain weight more easily than others, the increase in fat mass for each subject at the end of the experiment was determined by

Weighing and dual energy X-ray absorptometry.

) On a typical day, a typical person will consume about ______ of her calories as carbohydrates, ______ as protein, and ______ as fat,

Half; one-sixth; one-third

) Which of the following is NOT one of the main tastes?

FAT

) The digestion of lipids occurs

In the small intestine.

) Which of the following can pass through the wall of the small intestine?

Fructose

) Insulin _____ the utilization of fat stores. Glucagon _____ the utilization of fat stores.

Inhibits; promotes

) Exercise ______ insulin production. Exercise ______ the utilization of muscle glycogen.

) Exercise ______ insulin production. Exercise ______ the utilization of muscle glycogen.

Decreases; increases

) In the body, fructose _____ readily converted to glucose. Fructose _____ readily converted to fat.

Is not; is

) Soluble fiber ______ gastric emptying. This is ______ for a diabetic.

Delays; good

) ______ coat platelets in the blood and reduce their stickiness, thereby reducing the likelihood of clot formation and the likelihood of a heart attack.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

) _______ is avidly sucked up by the nervous system, where it becomes concentrated in cells surrounding the retina of the eye, in nerve cells, and in synapses.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

) Nitrogen for our bodies’ proteins comes from

Animal proteins and plant proteins.

) Which of the following is not a good source of vegetable protein?

corn

) Can excess dietary protein be converted to carbohydrate? (Y,N) Can excess dietary protein be converted to fat? (Y,N)

Y; Y

) The absence of leptin causes a mouse to eat ______ and to exercise ______.

More; less

) Ghrelin _______ the appetite. The level of ghrelin depends upon _______.

Stimulates; the degree of emptiness in the stomach

) Central to the sluggish reward circuitry hypothesis of why some people tend to eat more than others are presumed genetic differences in the rate of______.

Dopamine transmission

) Does walking from your room in the residence halls to class count as a NEAT activity? (Y,N) Does tapping your finger on the desk during the test count as a NEAT activity? (Y,N)

Y; Y

Y; Y

When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.

amino acids

When digested, fats are broken down into _____.

both glycerol and fatty acids

Starch is a type of _____.

polysaccharide

Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.

fructoses

Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?

amylase

Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.

maltose

Protein digestion begins in the _____.

stomach

What is the main component of gastric juice?

water

_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.

Bile … liver … fats … small intestine

What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?

hydrochloric acid

Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal?

Salivary glands.

Which process is not required for an animal to obtain energy from food?

Excretion

One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestive processes with different requirements (for example, an acidic or basic environment) can be separated within the tract.

False. The alimentary canal is the tube through which food passes, beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus. The liver is an accessory organ of digestion and not part of the actual canal through which food passes.

Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.

Where is insulin produced?

Pancreas. The pancreas produces insulin, which then travels through the bloodstream and binds to receptors on various cells throughout the body.

True or false? Type I diabetes can be managed with drugs that increase cellular responsiveness to insulin.

False

Which of the following statements about type II diabetes is false?

Type II diabetes can be managed by insulin injections.

True or False? Insulin is secreted in response to low blood sugar levels.

False

Which of the following secretes glucagon?

The pancreas.

In both healthy individuals and in individuals with type I diabetes mellitus glucose is elevated following a meal.

True or False? Type II diabetes mellitus is more common than type I diabetes mellitus.

True

Which of the following most accurately describes type I diabetes mellitus?

Many individuals with type I diabetes mellitus can be effectively treated with insulin injections.

What is the importance of consuming an adequate amount of proteins in the diet?

Proteins serve a variety of functions, and the body does not store excess quantities of protein.

The process of breaking down food particles into molecules that can be transported into circulation is known as ________.

digestion.

Starch digestion begins where?

in the mouth

A major enzyme involved in protein digestion is ________.

pepsin.

If you chew a salted cracker long enough, it begins to taste sweet. Why?

Salivary amylase degrades the starch from the cracker into glucose.

Food and its products of degradation move through the alimentary canal by means of peristalsis. What is peristalsis?

rhythmic waves of contraction of the muscular layer surrounding the alimentary canal that are responsible for moving contents of the lumen along the length of the digestive tract

Which of the following is a major function of the small intestine?

to absorb the end-products of digestion

Bile, which is synthesized in the liver and stored in the gallbladder, is important in lipid digestion. What feature/function of bile makes it an effective emulsifying agent?

Bile is an amphipathic molecule, having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.

Amino acids, dipeptides, and sugars are transported from intestinal epithelial cells into circulation. Lipids are transported from the intestinal epithelium into ________.

the lymph system.

Villi and microvilli that are associated with the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium are important in that they ________.

increase the surface area available for absorption.

Aquaporins have been identified in the epithelium of the large intestine. What is the function of these aquaporins?

to reabsorb water from the large intestine

Based on the graph in the figure, what can you infer about the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus?

Obesity is a risk factor for development of type II diabetes mellitus.

Following a meal high in starch, digestive processes break the starch into ________, which when absorbed into circulation cause a release of the hormone ________.

glucose; insulin.

A major risk factor for atherosclerosis is high levels of dietary cholesterol. If you get your lipid levels checked regularly, which of the following, when elevated, most significantly increases your risk for developing atherosclerosis?

LDL cholesterol

Why does carbohydrate loading increase the performance of distance athletes?

It increases glycogen stores in the muscle and liver.

How are carbohydrates digested?

by amylases in the mouth and small intestine

What role do bile salts play in the digestion of complex fats?

They emulsify lipids, meaning that large masses of fat molecules are broken into smaller masses.

CHAPTER 44

Voice sounds are produced by the _____.

larynx

The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.

nasal cavity

True or false? The lungs of humans form from the embryonic foregut.

TRUE

True or false? The pressure inside the human chest cavity is always positive, so the lungs stay relatively inflated even upon exhalation.

False

Which lung structure is a tiny sac that functions as an interface between air and blood?

Alveolus.

Which barrier(s) must 02 and C02 cross to pass between air and blood inside lungs?

epithelial cells capillary wall extracellular fluid

How is most carbon dioxide transported from tissues to the lungs?

As bicarbonate ions ().

Which of the following statements about the oxygen-hemoglobin interaction is true?

The binding of one oxygen molecule to hemoglobin stimulates the binding of other oxygen molecules.

By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.

acidic

In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.

combined with hemoglobin

Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.

capillaries of the head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs

The _____ has(have) the thinnest walls.

capillaries

Blood pressure is highest in the _____.

aorta

Gas exchange occurs across the walls of the alveoli.Arteries carry blood _____.

away from the heart only

Blood returns to the heart via the _____.

pulmonary veins

From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.

left atrium

From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.

right atrium

From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.

posterior vena cava

What is the function of a circulatory system?

It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.

Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?

The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.

What is the function of the left ventricle?

It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.

Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?

Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.

Which event occurs first during diastole?

The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.

Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?

The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.

A rabbit taken from a meadow near sea level and moved to a meadow high on a mountainside would have some trouble breathing. Why?

The partial pressure of oxygen in the air at high elevations is lower than at sea level.

If other factors are equal, which of the following environments would have the highest level of dissolved oxygen?

cool, fresh water at low elevation

Why is it more difficult to obtain enough oxygen via respiration from water than from air?

The density of water makes ventilating the respiratory tissues more difficult, and the solubility of oxygen in water is less than air.

The main difference between respiration in terrestrial insects and in terrestrial vertebrates is that ________.

insects rely on their tracheal system to deliver oxygen in air to their tissues, whereas terrestrial vertebrates rely on their lungs to deliver oxygen to their tissues through the blood in their circulatory system.

Which of the following is not a feature of gas exchange in the respiratory system of birds?

The exchange of gases between parabronchi and blood is in a countercurrent direction.

In the countercurrent exchange respiratory system of fish, which of the following would not be expected?

Blood flows through the gills from anterior to posterior.

When you are jogging, your muscles are using more oxygen and releasing more carbon dioxide into the blood than when you are at home on the couch. Which of the following would occur during your jog?

The medullary respiratory center would increase the rate of breathing.

Which of the following statements supports the hypothesis that the bidirectional gas flow occurring in humans (air goes in and out through the same passages) is less efficient than the unidirectional flow in fish?

Neither "bidirectional flow in humans does not take advantage of countercurrent exchange" nor "about one-third of the air in human lungs is trapped in ‘dead space’ where gas exchange with the circulation cannot occur" is true.

A mutation results in a form of hemoglobin that has binding sites for four molecules of oxygen but does not exhibit cooperative binding. Which of the following would result?

None of the results described would occur.

Which of the following events would be predicted by the Bohr shift effect as the amount of carbon dioxide released from your tissues into the blood capillaries increases?

The amount of oxygen in venous blood would decrease.

In what way does hemoglobin act as a buffer against changes in blood pH?

Hemoglobin binds some of the excess protons released by carbonic acid.

The oxygen content of water increases linearly with increase in oxygen partial pressure while the oxygen content of blood increases in a sigmoidal (S-shaped) fashion. Why?

Hemoglobin shows cooperative oxygen binding.

You are a physician, and you are seeing a patient who complains of abnormal fatigue during exercise. You find that the immediate problem is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the tissues. What is the most likely cause?

abnormal carbonic anhydrase

Which of the following result, either directly or indirectly, when carbonic anhydrase is functioning properly?

The amount of carbon dioxide diffusing into red blood cells increases and the pH of capillary blood decreases.

Which of the following mechanisms are used to regulate blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates?

all of the above

A large increase in albumin concentration in the plasma of a dog would result in which of the following?

increase in blood volume and decrease in lymph volume

Which of the following is the correct sequence of terms describing fluid movement throughout the vessels and tissues of the body, starting with the circulatory system?

blood interstitial fluid lymph blood

Which of the four muscular chambers of the human heart directly propels blood into the pulmonary circulation?

right ventricle

An animal has a cardiac output of 40 mL/min and a stroke volume of 5 mL. What is its heart rate?

8 beats/minute

Premature infants may not produce surfactants in the alveoli of their lungs. What implications does this have for their health and survival?

The surface tension of fluids in the lungs may be too high for the lungs to expand fully during inhalation.

O2 will diffuse from blood to tissue faster in response to which of the following conditions?

a decrease in the of the tissue

Which of the following does blood not do?

produce red blood cells and other formed elements

Which of the following promotes oxygen release from hemoglobin?

a decrease in pH

An open circulatory system is less efficient than a closed circulatory system in what respect?

It is harder to deliver to specific tissues based on need.

) At 15≡ C, one liter of air contains ______ of oxygen, and one liter of water contains ______ of oxygen.

209 ml; 7 ml

) The solubility of oxygen in warm water is ______ than the solubility of oxygen in cold water. The solubility of oxygen in seawater is _______ than the solubility of oxygen in freshwater.

Less; less

) Animals that do not have organs for gas exchange, and therefore rely entirely upon diffusion, are generally ______ and live in ______ environments.

Flat; wet

) The structure of gills can be described as follows Each gill arch has many ______. Each ______ has many ______. Each ______ has many _____.

Gill filaments; gill filament; lamellae; lamella; capillaries

Gill filaments; gill filament; lamellae; lamella; capillaries

Fish

) The diffusion distance for gases across the epithelium of the alveolus in the mammalian lung is about

0.2 ∝m.

) In the process of inhaling, your diaphragm and rib muscles ______, and the space in your chest cavity ______.

Contract; increases and then decreases

) Surface tension in the mammalian lung ______ during inhalation. Surfactants act to ______ the force of surface tension.

ncreases; decrease

) The air inhaled by a bird in one breath is exhaled ______. The dead space in the bird respiratory system is ______.

Only after the second breath; close to zero

) When we exercise hard, our breathing rate increases because of an increase in

Acidity.

) The "formed elements" in blood plasma are mostly

Red blood cells

) In a person at rest, about _____ of bound hemoglobin is unloaded in the tissues. During exercise, about _____ of bound hemoglobin is unloaded.

50%; 80%

) The enzyme carbonic anhydrase is active in

Red blood cells.

) Release of carbon dioxide into the breathing cavity from blood results in the blood becoming _____ acid, which makes it _____ for hemoglobin to bind incoming oxygen molecules.

Less; easier

) In animals with open circulatory systems, the circulatory system operates under relatively low pressure. (T,F) In animals with open circulatory systems, nutrients need to diffuse across capillary walls. (T,F)

T; F

) The walls of the ______ are dominated by elastic fibers that stretch when blood is pumped in, and contract afterwards.

Aorta

) Capillaries typically have an inside diameter that is typically about _______ the diameter of a red blood cell.

Equal to

) _______ contain one-way valves that prevent backflow of blood.

Veins

) Albumin, which is present in ______, acts to increase the fluid content of ______.

Plasma; plasma

) After passing through capillaries throughout the body, blood enters the _____ atrium of the heart. The pulmonary circuit operates under ______ pressure than the systemic circuit.

Right; lower

) Arteries that leave the right ventricle of the heart have a ______ oxygen content. Veins that return blood to the left atrium of the heart have a ______ oxygen content.

Low; high

) What is the sequence of contractions of the various chambers of the heart?

First: the two atria (simultaneously); Second: the two ventricles (simultaneously).

) The valve between the aorta and ventricle closes as a result of a pressure ______ in the ______.

Decrease; ventricle

) The pressure in the ______ is never high.

Atrium

) The initial signal for contraction of the heart is delivered by "pacemaker" cells located in the SA node of the

Right atrium

) When baroreceptors signal the brain that a dangerous drop in blood pressure has occurred, one of the responses is a generalized constriction of ______, which reduces the volume of blood and thereby increases the blood pressure.

The veins

) According to Fick’s Law of Diffusion, the rate of diffusion is proportional to ______, where A = the surface area, and inversely proportional to _______, where D = the distance.

A; D

) Fish use a ______ exchange system for transfer of oxygen to the blood. This is ______ efficient than the cross-current system used by birds.

Counter-current; more

) In insects, air enters the body by means of ______. Waste gases leave the body by means of ______.

Spiracles; spiracles

) Oxygen diffusing into a capillary in the lungs crosses various layers in the following sequence.

(1) Aqueous layer; (2) alveolar epithelial cell; (3) extracellular matrix; (4) capillary epithelial cell

) ______ may not produce adequate amounts of surfactant that works to reduce the surface tension at the inner surface of the lungs.

Premature infants

) The Arabian oryx, a large desert mammal, produces ______ urine. It does not sweat _____ its body temperature reaches 40≡ C on a hot day.

Extremely concentrated; even when

) The principal sources of dietary vitamin D for the greatest number of Americans are

Fortified milk and fortified orange juice.

) Your breastfed infant should receive _____ supplements in his first few months of life.

Vitamin D

) Type I diabetes has been linked to suboptimal levels of vitamin D, which is consistent with observations that type I diabetes is ______ likely to occur in people of African descent, and with the observation that the frequency of type I diabetes in the U.S. has ______ two- to four-fold in the past 50 years.

More; increased

) Vitamin D metabolizes ______ in the colon, thereby reducing the risk of colon cancer.

A bile acid derivative

) The current clinical definition of vitamin D deficiency is a serum 25-OHD level of <27.5 mM/l. The serum 25-OHD levels of rural women in Gambia is on the order of ______.

80 nM/l

) The current recommendation for vitamin D intake for a young adult is 5 ∝g/day (200 IU). A. Norman, writing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2008, has recommended a new standard of _______.

50 ∝g/day (2,000 IU)

) The four major tissue types include all of the following EXCEPT ______.

Smooth muscle tissue

) When you swallow, the food goes down your esophagus with the aid of contractions by

Smooth muscle tissue.

) The apical sides of epithelial cells ______. The basolateral sides of epithelial cells ______.

Face away from other tissues and towards the environment; face the interior and are connected to other tissues

) ______ animals become dehydrated more easily. ______ animals have a higher rate of metabolism compared to their weight.

Small; small

) The small intestine is 10 feet long, and has a surface area equal to

A tennis court.

) A dog’s panting is an example of ______ regulation of body temperature. Such a dog is in ______ homeostasis.

Active; regulatory

) Endotherms _____ sources of heat. As the temperature becomes colder, an endoderm’s metabolic rate _____.

Have internal; increases

) When an animal is hibernating with a body temperature of 1≡ C, his metabolic rate is about ______ of the normal rate.

1

) When a hibernating animal warms up, ______ occurs first, to which ______ adds additional warming when the animal’s whole body temperature reaches about ______.

Metabolism of brown fat; shivering thermogenesis; 15≡ C

) The Arabian oryx, a large desert mammal, obtains _____ of his water from drinking fluids, _____ from eating vegetation, and _____ from metabolism of food.

0%; 86%; 14%

) Which are the best natural sources of vitamin D?

Liver and ocean-caught salmon

) In _____, 66% of children have rickets, which is caused by ______ deficiency.

Tibet; vitamin D

) Finnish children receiving vitamin D supplements throughout their childhood were 78% less likely to develop ______.

Type 1 diabetes.

) There is strong evidence linking vitamin D deficiency with

Colon cancer.

) The current clinical definition of vitamin D deficiency is a serum _____ level of less than _____

25-OHD; 27.5 nM/l

) Which of the following people is most susceptible to death from skin cancer?

A Caucasian individual who has relatively little total sun exposure, but who gets bad sunburns maybe a dozen times a year.

) The current tolerable upper limit for vitamin D intake is 50 ∝g/day (2,000 IU). A recommended new tolerable upper limit is ______.

250 ∝g/day (10,000 IU)

) The major types of muscle tissue include all of the following except

Connective muscle.

) Each _____ muscle cell branches and makes direct, end-to-end physical and electrical contact with other muscle cells of the same type.

Cardiac

) Nutrients traveling down the lumen of the small intestine are absorbed across the _____ surfaces of epithelial cells, pass _____ the cells, and exit across the _____ surfaces of these cells.

Apical; through; basolateral

) Rapid removal of wastes is more difficult with ______ animals. Removal of excess heat is more difficult with ______ animals.

Large; large

) Shivering on a cold day while waiting for the bus is an example of ______ homeostasis. Sweating by the pool on a hot day is an example of _____ homeostasis.

Regulatory; regulatory

) In homeostatic systems, ______ is(are) located in the hypothalamus of the brain

The integrator

) If you, dressed in a T-shirt, shorts, heavy socks, and shoes, should step outside on a cold, calm, and clear night, you will lose heat primarily by

Radiation

) In the countercurrent heat exchange system used for a wolf’s paw,

Returning blood is warmed by arterial blood along the entire length of the system.

) A hibernating animal needs to warm up periodically, after which it cools down to resume hibernation. Such an animal is generally in the warmed state for

Less than 24 hours.

) Among hibernating animals, the males are generally ______ terminators of hibernation, whereas the females are generally ______ terminators of hibernation. ______ generally awake from hibernation before ______.

Obligate; facultative; Males; females

) The Arabian oryx, a large desert mammal, functions better at an air temperature of _____ than _____. Which is better adapted to 40° C, the oryx or humans?

34° C; 40° C; the oryx

) Will your body make vitamin D if it is exposed to the winter midday sun in Islip on Long Island? (Y,N) How about the summer midday sun in Islip? (Y,N)

N; Y

) In Saudi Arabia, osteomalacia is most often seen in

Married women with children.

) Suboptimal levels of vitamin D have been associated with all of the following EXCEPT

Anemia.

) Cathelicidin is

An antimicrobial peptide whose synthesis is controlled by vitamin D.

) The current clinical definition of vitamin D deficiency is a serum 25-OHD level of <27.5 mM/l. Toxic effects from vitamin D overdose set in with a serum 25-OHD level of ______ and higher.

500 nM/l

) Vitamin D advocates counsel

Combining vitamin D supplements with small amounts of sun exposure.

) All of the following are examples of connective tissue EXCEPT ______.

Smooth muscle

) Plasma is ______. Is plasma a connective tissue? (Y,N)

The liquid in blood without the cells; N

) Dietary glucose passes _______ epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small intestine, and then passes ______ epithelial cells lining blood capillaries.

Through; through

) Nutrients are absorbed across the _____ surfaces of endothelial cells, pass through the cells, and then exit across the _____ surfaces of these cells and enter blood vessels. In the windpipe, the _____ sides of epithelial cells secrete mucus and are covered with cilia to help sweep away dust, bacteria, and viruses.

Apical; basolateral; apical

) An elephant is in ______ homeostasis. A house mouse is in ______ homeostasis.

Regulatory; regulatory

) A homeostatic system has three general components. These communicate in the following sequence.

Sensor to integrator to effector.

) Suppose you get out of a warm outdoor swimming pool on a cold day and you start to shiver. In terms of how homeostatic systems work, the integrator is located in _______. The sensor is located in ________.

The hypothalamus of your brain; the surface of your body

) Increased blood flow to the skin on a _____ causes greater _____ of heat.

Hot day; loss

) Brown fat is used primarily for _______ production. The energy for nonshivering thermogenesis is supplied by oxidation of ______ fat.

Heat; brown

) The small amount of energy required to maintain an animal at 1° C during hibernation is provided by

Conversion of fat to ketone bodies such as ®-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate.

) When a bear comes out of hibernation in the spring, the body temperature ______ and the resting metabolic rate ______.

Rapidly rises to normal; remains at about 50% of normal for about three weeks

What tissue types make up a human hand?

connective, nervous, muscle, and epithelial tissues

One function of the intestines is absorption. Water and nutrients pass from the inside of the intestines to the surrounding circulatory system. Which of the following represents the correct path that water and nutrients travel during absorption?

lumen apical membrane cytoplasm basolateral membrane circulatory system

Which of the following are structures in the mammalian digestive tract that allow for efficient distribution of nutrients to the rest of the body?

Villi

Which of the following statements about diffusion across a cell membrane is true?

The surface area of the membrane determines how many molecules can enter a cell at once.

What relationship between surface area and volume must organisms achieve to ensure efficient delivery of nutrients?

Maximize surface area and minimize volume.

Which of the following statements about an animal’s size and shape is not true?

Large animals are more susceptible to cold than small animals.

Which one of the following is not a good strategy for increasing the surface area relative to the volume?

Enlarge and make more spherical.

Which term describes a mechanism by which the internal conditions of an organism are kept at set values without regard to the external conditions?

Regulatory homeostasis.

Which of the following actions is not a function of the epithelium?

Allows the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment.

True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.

True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.

True

Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?

Integrator

Which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?

Sensor.

Which of the following actions acts to warm a homeothermic body?

Shivering

Which of these is an example of negative feedback?

After you eat, insulin stimulates the lowering of blood sugar levels.

What is the main reason that a person sitting on the beach with an air temperature of 15°C loses heat less rapidly than when immersed in lake water at 15°C?

Water conducts heat more efficiently than air does.

Many types of ectothermic animals can be seen lying out in the sun on a warm, sunny day. What is the primary mechanism by which the animal warms itself during this activity?

radiation

Which of the following explanations for brown adipose tissue explains why infant humans and some small mammals have this tissue type?

This tissue allows for the conversion of fats directly into heat without the production of ATP.

Torpor has evolved in several high-latitude species even though it is energetically expensive. Why does this adaptation require a large energy input for those species that utilize this function?

Animals in torpor lower their body temperature dramatically and require a great deal of energy to bring the body temperature back up to normal.

) The most abundant solutes in the blood are

Electrolytes.

) If you exercise on a hot day, impaired athletic performance and impaired cognition begin with a loss of about ______ of body weight.

2%

) If you become dehydrated, the cells in your body ______ decrease in size. The concentration of electrolytes in these cell ______ increase.

Will; will

) Of the different forms of disposal of nitrogenous wastes, which has the highest energy cost? Which is most toxic?

Energy: uric acid; Toxic: ammonia

Energy: uric acid; Toxic: ammoni

) Humans excrete nitrogen

Mostly as urea, but a little as uric acid and ammonia.

) Melamine, used as ______ by unscrupulous food suppliers in China, is converted to ______ by the human body.

Fake protein; ammonia

) The renal corpuscle is at the ______ of the nephron, and is located in the ______ of the kidney.

Beginning; cortex

) The nephron has all of the following components EXCEPT

The collecting duct.

) About _____ blood is filtered by the kidneys each day. About _____ of the blood that enters the renal corpuscle is filtered out as pre-urine.

180 liters; 25%

) Salt leaves the loop of Henle in the _____ limb in a process that is ______ independent.

Ascending; partly energy dependent and partly energy

) Is the flow of blood in capillaries in the same direction or in the countercurrent direction in the descending limb of the loop of Henle? How about the ascending limb?

Descending limb: countercurrent; ascending limb: countercurrent

) The hormone aldosterone causes

Retention of salt by the body.

) A highly concentrated urine is made in

The presence of ADH.

) If you eat a bag of salty pretzels, you will make ______ urine. The excess salt that enters your blood stream is eliminated ______.

More; in the urine

) ______ eliminate most of their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid.

Birds

) Urine formed in the kidney is transported in a long tube called the ______ to the bladder for storage.

Ureter.

) About ______ of bladder cancer in the US can be attributed to cigarettes. A high fluid intake lowers the risk of bladder cancer in______.

40-50%; smokers and non-smokers.

) The glomerulus is located in _____ of the nephron.

The renal corpuscle

) The hormone aldosterone causes sodium to be pumped out of the pre-urine ______ of the nephron.

In the distal tubule

) Humans produce uric acid by catabolism of

Nucleic acids.

) Is excess vitamin C in our blood eliminated in the urine? (Y,N) Is excess iron in our blood eliminated in the urine? (Y,N)

Y; N

) Pesticide residues in our blood stream are eliminated in our ______. Prescription medicines in our blood stream are eliminated in our ______.

Urine; urine

) Of the three forms in which nitrogen can be eliminated by animals, which requires the most water? Which requires the least?

Most: Ammonia; Least: Uric acid

) Excretion of nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid has a _______ energy cost of production than excretion as urea. Excretion or nitrogenous wastes as uric acid requires ______ water than excretion as urea.

Higher; less

) Humans produce uric acid from metabolism of

Nucleic acids and caffeine.

) Unscrupulous milk producers in China adulterated milk with an industrial organic nitrogen-containing chemical called melamine. Melamine is metabolized by the human body to

Ammonia.

) What is the pathway for excretion of urine?

Collecting duct ureter gall bladder urethra elimination

) Pre-urine is formed

In the renal corpuscle.

) Water passes from the glomerulus into Bowman’s capsule because of

A pressure differential.

) Up to ______ of the blood plasma that passes through the glomerulus will leave the blood stream and become pre-urine

25%

) Epithelial cells _______ have extensive microvilli to aid passage of salts across their boundaries

In the proximal tubule

) Which of the following is least likely to be returned to the blood from the proximal tubule of a nephron?

Carbon tetrachloride (an industrial solvent)

) Sodium ions present in pre-urine _______ returned to the blood from the proximal tubule. Urea molecules present in pre-urine _______ returned to the blood from the proximal tubule.

Are partially; are not

) As the pre-urine passes down the descending limb of the loop of Henle, _____ so that the osmotic pressure inside and outside the nephron remains constant all along the length of the descending loop.

Water leaves the pre-urine.

) When pre-urine passes through the loop of Henle, are salts pumped out in an energy-dependent process?

Yes, but only in the thick (upper) part of the ascending limb.

) Insects take air in through ______. They release waste products of oxidative metabolism from ______.

Spiracles; the spiracles

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