bio test 3 chapter 43

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Which secretion is not a barrier that prevents pathogens from entering the body?

Lysozyme.
Antigens.
Mucus.
Ear wax.

antigens

True or false? The leukocytes of the innate immune system are B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

True
False

false

How do cells involved in the innate immune response detect the presence of pathogens?

Leukocytes recognize the secretions from a pathogen.
Leukocytes recognize unique molecules on pathogens.
Antibodies bind to the pathogens.
Leukocytes recognize the entire pathogen.

Leukocytes recognize unique molecules on pathogens

Which of the following cells can engulf a pathogen?

Macrophages.
Platelets.
Mast cells.
Cytokines.

macrophages

Which of the following statements best describes the role of mast cells in the inflammatory response?

They release chemicals that dilate blood vessels at the wound site.

They release cytokines to stimulate the release of additional neutrophils and macrophages.

They release chemicals that constrict blood vessels at the wound site.

They release chemicals that constrict blood vessels at some distance from the wound site.

They release chemicals that constrict blood vessels at the wound site.

Which of the following events of the innate immune response occurs first when a wound that breaks the skin has occurred?

Neutrophils secrete substances that degrade bacterial cell walls.

Platelets release proteins that form clots and decrease bleeding.

Mast cells secrete chemical messengers to regulate blood flow to the wound.

Macrophages present bacterial proteins as antigens on their plasma membrane.

Platelets release proteins that form clots and decrease bleeding.

The site of inflammation may become swollen due to the increased numbers of cells and fluids at the site and painful due to signals from pain receptors.

True
False

true

Innate immunity and acquired immunity are both _____.

based on the trapping of microbes by mucus

characteristics of all vertebrate animals

dependent on surface secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands, which give the skin an acidic pH that is unfavorable for bacterial colonization

dependent on tears, saliva, and mucous secretions that contain lysozyme, an enzyme that digests bacterial cell walls

dependent exclusively on cell-mediated responses

characteristics of all vertebrate animals

Macrophages are _____.

large, phagocytic cells that can leave the circulation and enter the tissues of the body

the best defense against parasites

cells that induce the lysis of virus-infected body cells

antigen-presenting cells that originate from neutrophils

short-lived cells that self-destruct soon after engulfing foreign invaders

large, phagocytic cells that can leave the circulation and enter the tissues of the body

An antigen _____.

is a protein attacked by an invading microorganism

could be an invading bacterium

is a protein molecule that helps defend the body against disease

is a foreign molecule that evokes a specific response by a lymphocyte

induces development of white blood cells in the bone marrow

is a foreign molecule that evokes a specific response by a lymphocyte

The fact that there are about a million different antigen receptors possible in human B cells is based on _____.

temporary changes in the ways that RNA is spliced in the B cells

constant changes in the splicing pattern of receptor genes after the differentiation of the B cell

the capacity of memory cells to produce antibodies

recombination of the segments of the receptor DNA that make up the functional receptor genes of differentiated B cells

having one million different immunoglobulin genes

recombination of the segments of the receptor DNA that make up the functional receptor genes of differentiated B cells

The role of active cytotoxic T cells is to attack _____.

body cells that have been infected
circulating antibodies
extracellular viruses and bacteria
complement proteins
circulating proteins

body cells that have been infected

Which of these cells is a phagocytic leukocyte that can engulf a foreign bacterium?

macrophage
plasma cell
B cell
helper T cell
cytotoxic T cell

macrophage

_____ interact with the antigen-class II MHC complex presented by macrophages.

Cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
Bacterial cells
B cells
Epithelial cells

Helper T cells

B cells that have been stimulated by interleukin-2 develop into _____.

plasma cells
antigens
cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
macrophages

plasma cells

The role of cytotoxic T cells is the secretion of _____, which plays a role in the _____ immune response.

interleukin-2 … humoral
antibodies … antibody-mediated
perforin … humoral
antibodies … humoral
perforin … cell-mediated

perforin … cell-mediated

Clonal selection is the division of _____ that have been stimulated by binding to an antigen, which results in the production of cloned _____.

macrophages … B cells and T cells
B cells … macrophages
helper T cells … plasma cells
B cells … plasma cells and memory cells
T cells … B cells

B cells … plasma cells and memory cells

Which of these cells is responsible for the rapidity of the secondary immune response?

cytotoxic T cells
plasma cells
macrophages
cytokines
memory cells

memory cells

Which of these cells produce and secrete antibodies?

bacterial cells
cytotoxic T cells
plasma cells
macrophages
helper T cells

plasma cells

Which structure is not a component of the adaptive immune system?

Tissues.
Thymus.
Lymphatic ducts.
Spleen.

tissues

True or false? B cells were originally isolated from the bursa in chickens, and their function is to produce antibodies; T cells were originally isolated from the thymus in mice, and their functions include killing host cells that are being infected with a virus.

True
False

true

Which of the following statements about the clonal-selection theory of immune system function is false?

Cloned cells persist after the pathogen is eliminated.

Each lymphocyte recognizes one antigen.

An activated lymphocyte makes many copies of itself in response to an infection.

Antigens are recognized by receptor proteins inside the lymphocyte.

Antigens are recognized by receptor proteins inside the lymphocyte.

What is the final step in the cell-mediated response to a viral infection?

Antibodies coat viral particles.

Macrophages digest viral particles.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes punch holes in the membranes of infected host cells.

CD8+ T cells are activated.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes punch holes in the membranes of infected host cells.

How do cells involved in the humoral response respond to antigen presentation on the surface of a B cell?

Helper T cells secrete antibodies against the viral antigen.

Helper T cells recognize the receptor-antigen complex and cause plasma and memory cells to be produced to then produce antibodies.

Helper T cells divide and produce plasma and memory cells.

The B cell recognizes the receptor-antigen complex and divides to produce plasma and memory cells.

Helper T cells recognize the receptor-antigen complex and cause plasma and memory cells to be produced to then produce antibodies.

Which protein presents viral antigens on the outer surface of cells?

MHC protein.
T cell receptor.
B cell receptor.
Antibody.

MHC protein.

How are cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) produced?

Plasma cells secrete cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

Helper T cells divide and differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

CD8+ T cells divide and differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

B cells divide and differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

CD8+ T cells divide and differentiate into cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

Cell-mediated immunity differs from humoral immunity in that _____.

a subsequent secondary immune response can occur in humoral immunity

clonal selection occurs only in cell-mediated immunity

a humoral response is mounted more quickly

cell-mediated immunity is longer lasting

they respond differently to invaders

they respond differently to invaders

Helper T cells are part of _____.

innate immunity
cell-mediated immune responses
a group of phagocytic white blood cells
the complement system
the first cells to bind to antigens

cell-mediated immune responses

Extracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria in body fluids are attacked by _____.

helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells
complement proteins
antigens
antibodies from plasma cells

antibodies from plasma cells

Tissues are immunogically "typed" before an organ transplant to make sure that the donor and recipient match as closely as possible in their _____.

MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins
B cells
antibodies
T cells
histamines

MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins

A primary reason for needing a new vaccine for influenza each year is that _____.

the first infection with influenza weakens the immune system

mutation in the influenza virus is frequent

influenza is a disease that causes the apoptosis of all memory cells

immunity typically disappears one month after recovery from a disease

the influenza virus might proliferate in different tissues during each subsequent year, and immune memory is limited to those tissues initially infected

mutation in the influenza virus is frequent

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