Bio – Mitosis and DNA Replication Review

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Binary fission

Mitosis in bacteria and other unicellular organisms

Double helix

Shape of a DNA molecule


Cytosine and thymine


Chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell


Monomers of DNA


Part of DNA made of sugar and phosphate groups


Occurs at the end of G1 and G2 to make sure the cell can divide


His law is A=T and C=G; A+T does not equal C+G


Division of the nucleus


Number of chromosomes in a normal human cell


Number of hydrogen bonds between A and T


Number of hydrogen bonds between G and C


Made of sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base


Type of bond that holds the bases together in the ladder

Sister chromatid

The copy of an original chromatid


Guanine and adenine

Wilkins and Franklin

Studied the structure of DNA using x-ray chromatography


Part of interphase when DNA replicates


Includes G1, S, and G2

Watson and Crick

Scientists who won Nobel Prize for DNA structure

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Name of DNA


Type of cells formed during mitosis


Phase when the nuclear membrane reappears

Vegetative propagation

Mitosis in plant cells


Sister chromatids are pulled apart

Cell plates

Form in plant cells during telophase


Holds sister chromatid together during mitosis

Hershey and Chase

Determined that DNA not proteins were the genetic material in cells


Pairs with cytosine

Cleavage furrows

Form in animal cells during telophase


Found in animal cells only; form spindle fibers

Stem cells

Undifferentiated body cells found in embryos and bone marrow


Pairs with thymine


Phase when the nuclear membrane disappears


Division of the cytoplasm at the end of mitosis


Which of the following represents the correct order of the phases of the cell cycle? A) G1 -> G2 -> S -> M B) G1 -> G2 -> M -> S C) G1 -> S -> G2 -> M D) G1 -> S -> M -> G2 E) G1 -> M -> G2 -> S


The division of the cytoplasm is called A) synapsis. B) mitosis. C) meiosis. D) cytokinesis. E) cytogenetics.


Which of the following represents the correct order of the phases of mitosis? A) prophase -> anaphase -> metaphase -> telophase B) prophase -> metaphase -> anaphase -> telophase C) prophase -> metaphase -> telophase -> anaphase D) metaphase -> prophase -> telophase -> anaphase E) metaphase -> prophase -> anaphase -> telophase


DNA replication occurs in mitosis. A) True B) False


Mitosis and cytoplasmic division result in the formation of two genetically identical cells. A) True B) False


The success of DNA replication is assessed during the ______ phase. A) G1 B) M C) C D) S E) G2


The cell cycle is regulated by checkpoints during the _______ phases. A) G1, S and G2 B) G1, S and C C) G1, G2, and M D) G1, S and M E) G1, S, G2 and M


A eukaryotic cell that receives a "go-ahead" signal at the G1 checkpoint of the cell cycle will A) complete the cycle and divide. B) move directly into the M phase. C) move directly into the G2 phase. D) enter a resting stage. E) stop growing.


Preparation for cell division occurs in the G2 phase. A) True B) False


After cytokinesis, the cell enters the G1 phase. A) True B) False


Which of the following events do NOT occur in prophase of mitosis? A) DNA condenses to form chromosomes B) nuclear membrane breaks down C) nucleolus breaks down D) chromosomes are replicated E) mitotic spindle begins to form


The mitotic spindle fibers attach to chromosomes via special structures termed A) centrioles. B) asters. C) kinetochores. D) centrosomes. E) keratins.


Which of the following statements about microtubules during anaphase is TRUE? A) those attached to chromosomes elongate, while those that are unattached shorten B) those attached to chromosomes shorten, while those that are unattached elongate C) both attached and unattached microtubules shorten D) both attached and unattached microtubules elongate E) both attached and unattached microtubules elongate at first and then shorten


Centromeres divide during metaphase. A) True B) False


Cytokinesis in plant cells occurs by means of a cleavage furrow. A) True B) False


What part of the phage entered the bacterial cell following infection? A) DNA B) RNA C) Protein coat D) The entire phage E) No part


If ³⁵S was found in progeny phases rather than ³²P, Hershey and Chase would have concluded that: A) Proteins contain phosphorus B) DNA contains sulfur C) Phage DNA enters the host cell D) Phage protein enters the host cell E) Phage can kill the E. coli cell


In the Hershey and Chase experiment, radioactively-labeled: A) ³²P did not enter the cell B) ³²P remained inside the cells after vigorous shaking C) ³²P was removed from the cells by vigorous shaking D) ³²P and ³⁵S remained inside the cells after vigorous shaking E) ³²P and ³⁵S were removed from the cells after vigorous shaking


Hershey and Chase labeled the phage DNA with radioactive ³²P. True or false?


The phage used in the experiment consisted of a DNA molecule surrounded by a protein coat. True or false?


During which stage of a cell’s cycle do the replicated chromosomes thicken and become visible?

Centrioles, no

In animal cell, which structure is thought to produce the spindle fibers that help separate the sister chromatids during anaphase? Is this structure found in plant cells

Deoxyribonucleic acid

What do the letters DNA stand for?

Watson and Crick

Two scientists were given credit for discovering the structure of DNA. What is the name of these two scientists?


DNA is a polymer, which means that it is made up of many repeating single units (monomers). What are the monomers called?

Sugar and phosphate group

The backbone of the DNA molecule is made up of two components, what are these?

Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

There are four different variations of these monomers (four different bases), what are the names of those bases?

Two, one

These bases are of two different types of molecules: purines and pyrimidines. Purines have _____ ring(s) in their structure, and pyrimidines have _____ ring(s) in their structure.

Adenine and guanine

The two bases that are purines are:

Thymine and cytosine

The two bases that are pyrimidines are:

Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

Chargoff’s rule states that the DNA of any species contains equal amounts of ______ and ______ and also equal amounts of ______ and ______.

Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

Based on this information, scientists could predict that the base ______ pairs with ______ and the base ______ pairs with ______ in the formation of the DNA molecule.


This is called complementary base pairs. Thus one strand of DNA is complementary to the other strand (opposite/matching).


The bases are paired by ______ bonds along the axis of the molecule.

X-ray chromatography, double helix

Wilkins and Franklin studied the structure of DNA using _____, a technique to examine molecules, and helped Watson and Crick determine the shape of a molecule was _____ _____.


Write the complementary sequence to the following DNA strand. AATTCGCCGGTATTAGACGTT


Are the nitrogen bases attached to the sugar or the phosphate group?

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