Bio Chapter 41 Section 1

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In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.


An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.


When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.

secondary consumer

A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.

primary consumer

A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.

tertiary consumer

The term used to describe a harmless organism resembling a harmful one is _____.

batesian mimicry

species whose absence would cause major disruption in a community


Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?

a surface exposed by a retreating glacier

According to MacArthur and Wilson’s hypothesis of island biogeography, species immigration and extinction rates on a particular island correlate to _____.

the island’s size and distance from the mainland

Name the five levels of organization in order

Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism

all species living in the same place

ecological community

an assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for potential interaction

biological community

ecologists call relationships between species in a community

interspecific interactions

occurs when species compete for a resource that limits their growth or survival (-,-)

interspecific competition

local elimination of a particular species that results from strong competition

competitive exclusion

states that two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place

competitive exclusion principle

the specific set of biotic and abiotic resources used by an individual (ecological role)

ecological niche

_____ _______ reduces the impacts of competition through differences in organisms ecological niches

resource partitioning (example is two lizards, one prefers sunny places, the other prefers shady spots)

the niche that is POTENTIALLY occupied by a species

fundamental niche

the niche that is ACTUALLY occupied by a species

realized niche

range of physical and chemical conditions needed for survival. The total space & time that a species could occupy if there were no other species to interact with. Limits are abiotic.

fundamental niche

range of space & time that a species occupies based on limitations of interactions with other species. Limits are biotic interactions

realized niche

(+/− interaction) refers to an interaction in which one species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey


or camouflage, makes prey difficult to spot (type of coloration)

cryptic coloration

Animals with effective chemical defenses often exhibit (type of coloration)

aposematic coloration

an edible or harmless species mimics an unedible or harmful model (type of mimicry)

batesian mimicry (see slide 26)

two or more unedible species resemble each other (type of mimicry)

Müllerian mimicry

(+/− interaction) refers to an interaction ?in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga

Herbivory (see slide 30)

a relationship where two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another


(+/− interaction), one organism, the parasite, derives nourishment from another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process


Parasites that live within the body of their host are called


Parasites that live on the external surface of a host are


(+/+ interaction), is an interspecific interaction that benefits both species


(+/0 interaction), one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped


(+/+ or 0/+) is an interaction in which one species has positive effects on another species without direct and intimate contact (broad effect)


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