Bio Ch. 6

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The waste products of cellular respiration include ______.

water and carbon dioxide

Plant cells ______.

have chloroplasts and mitochondria

The ultimate source of the energy in food is ______.

the sun

The function of cellular respiration is to __________.

extract usable energy from glucose

_____ is a chemical process that uses light energy from the sun to build organic molecules.


The chemical ingredients needed for photosynthesis are _____ and _____.

carbon dioxide, water

_____ is used as food and _____ is produced as a waste in the overall process of cellular respiration.

Glucose, carbon dioxide

How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?


In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?


In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose breakdown?


In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.


Which of these enters the citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle)?

acetyl CoA

In the citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle), ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle (also called the Krebs cycle)?

acetyl CoA

For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH enter the electron transport chain.


In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.

oxidative phosphorilation

The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.


During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.

NADH and FADH2 … intermembrane space

The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.

kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient

In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.

lactate and NAD+

An aerobic process requires ______.


Which of the following are produced during cellular respiration?

carbon dioxide, water and ATP

The first electron acceptor of cellular respiration is ______.


The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration is ______.


Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?


Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages in cellular respiration?

glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport

A product of glycolysis is ______.

pyruvic acid

Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?

conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid

The second stage of aerobic respiration is ______.

the citric acid cycle

What must pyruvic acid be converted to before it can enter the citric acid cycle?

acetyl CoA

In aerobic respiration, how many molecules of acetic acid are produced from six molecules of glucose?


Which part of cellular respiration produces the most NADH?

citric acid cycle

Electron transport takes place in the ______.


ATP synthase plays a role in ______.

generating ATP

In cellular respiration, most ATP is produced directly as a result of ______.

the electron transport chain

Breathing faster when we exercise is necessary to expel ______.

carbon dioxide and bring in more oxygen to support aerobic metabolism

When oxygen delivery becomes insufficient to support a runner’s aerobic metabolism, cells switch to an emergency mode in which ______.

ATP is inefficiently produced and lactic acid is generated as a by-product

If humans did not breathe in O2, we would not __________.

make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements

Which one of the following best describes the electron transport chain?

Electrons pass from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.

During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur __________.

in the cytosol

Most of the electrons released from glucose by cell respiration __________.

are bound to NAD+ to be sent through electron transport

Immediately after completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____.


What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvic acid?


Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from _____.

the citric acid cycle

The major (but not sole) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle is the __________.

the formation of NADH and FADH2

The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from __________.

the flow of H+ through a membrane

In respiration, which one of the following is done during the electron transport chain phase?

carry electrons

Which part of the breakdown of glucose requires molecular oxygen (O2)?

the electron transport chain

When a poison such as rotenone blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle soon grind to a halt as well, because __________.

they run out of NAD+ and FAD

In the citric acid cycle, the energy production per glucose molecule is __________.

2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2

Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from __________.

the flow of electrons across the inner mitochondrial membrane

The main function of cellular respiration is __________.

making ATP to power cell activities

Aerobic metabolism always requires _____.


An important end product of cellular respiration is _____.


The net gain of ATP for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, in the absence of oxygen, is approximately __________.

2 ATPs

Which of the following "escorts" acetic acid produced from pyruvic acid into the first reaction of the citric acid cycle?


A glucose molecule is completely broken down in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, but these two processes yield only a few ATPs. Where is the rest of the energy that the cell can obtain from the glucose molecule?


In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is a series of electron carrier molecules embedded in which organelle?

the mitochondria

The term anaerobic means ______.

without O2

Which of the following metabolic pathways is common to both aerobic and anaerobic processes of sugar breakdown?


A child is born with a rare disease in which mitochondria are missing from certain skeletal muscle cells. Physicians find that the muscle cells function. Not surprisingly, they also find that ______.

the muscles contain large amounts of lactic acid following even mild physical exercise

What waste product do yeast produce under anaerobic conditions?

ethyl alcohol

Of the metabolic pathways listed below, the only pathway found in almost all organisms is __________.


What is the name of the process in which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid?


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