bio ch.4

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Sunlight is essential for the varied life on Earth. Sunlight provides energy to photosynthetic organisms by providing _____.

the energy necessary to power the rearrangement of chemical bonds

Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.

How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?

They produce ATP.

The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is

lost in the form of heat

Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?

energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide

Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?

Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step.

The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.

Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?

Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from gasoline.

The functioning of an electron transport chain is analogous to

a Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs.

Oxidative phosphorylation could not occur without glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, because _____.

these two stages supply the electrons needed for the electron transport chain

A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit

the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?

glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Glycolysis is the only stage of cellular respiration that _____.

requires ATP to make ATP

As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs.


The end products of glycolysis include


We inhale O2 and we exhale CO2. Carbon dioxide is produced _____.

In the reaction that creates acetyl CoA (coenzyme A) from pyruvate

The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the

matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane.

The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except



At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in



In oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are passed from one electron carrier to another. The energy released is used to _____.

pump protons (H+) across the mitochondrial membrane

During chemiosmosis,

ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a channel in ATP synthase.

Which of the following statements about the inner mitochondrial membrane is false?

Electron carriers are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A gradient of H+ exists across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
ATP synthase is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The inner mitochondrial membrane plays a role in the production of pyruvate.

The inner mitochondrial membrane plays a role in the production of pyruvate.

If you were able to stop the process of cellular respiration after completing electron transport but prior to chemiosmosis, you would find the pH of a mitochondrion to be at its lowest

in the intermembrane space.

By-products of cellular respiration include

carbon dioxide and water.

In the electron transport chain, the final electron acceptor is

an oxygen atom.

Which of the following statements about the energy yield of aerobic respiration is false?

Less than 50% of the chemical energy available in glucose is converted to ATP energy.
Most of the ATP derived during aerobic respiration results from oxidative phosphorylation.
The total yield of ATP molecules per glucose molecule is about 32.
Oxidative phosphorylation resulting from 1 glucose molecule yields about 12 ATP molecules

Oxidative phosphorylation resulting from 1 glucose molecule yields about 12 ATP molecules

Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They’ve added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there’s no alcohol in the mixture. The most likely explanation is that

the mixture needs less oxygen, because yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.

The function of cellular respiration is to _____.

extract usable energy from glucose

Which of the following best describes the electron transport chain?

Electrons pass from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.

Where does glycolysis occur in a eukaryotic cell?

in the cytoplasmic fluid

Where do the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in eukaryotic cells?


In eukaryotes, most of the high-energy electrons released from glucose by cell respiration _____.

reduce NAD+ to NADH, which then delivers them to the electron transport chain

Most of the NADH that delivers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from _____.

the citric acid cycle

The major (but not sole) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle is the _____.

formation of NADH and FADH2

Once the citric acid cycle has been completed, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____.


What happens to the energy that is given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain?

It pumps H+ through a membrane.

The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from _____.

the flow of H+ through a membrane

What is the mechanism of action for the enzyme ATP synthase? ATP is formed _____.

due to the potential energy of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions across a membrane

In cellular respiration, which of the following is performed directly by the electron transport chain (or its components)?

A proton gradient is formed.

Which of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria?


In a eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is precisely located in or on the _____.

cristae of the mitochondrion

Which of the following directly requires molecular oxygen (O2)?

the electron transport chain

Through respiration, humans breathe in O2 and breathe out CO2. However, what would happen if we did not breathe in O2?

We would not make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements

In the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound?


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