Bio Ch. 12 Quiz

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Which of these most influences the development of a female fetus?

a. none of these
b. the absence of a Y chromosome
c. the presence of two X chromosomes
d. the presence of any two sex chromosomes
e. the presence of a Y chromosome

b

Why are more males than females affected by X-linked recessive genetic diseases?

a. Females have an additional Y chromosome to mask the X-linked recessive allele.

b. Males have a Y chromosome that cannot mask the X-linked recessive allele.

c. Females have two Y chromosomes and cannot be affected by X-linked traits.

d. Females have no Y chromosome to mask the X-linked recessive allele.

e. Males and females are affected equally by X-linked recessive genetic conditions.

b

If a man has an X-linked recessive disease, can his sons inherit that disease from him?

a. Yes, all his sons have one X chromosome.
b. No, all his sons have one X chromosome.
c. Yes, all his sons inherit their X chromosomes maternally.
d. Yes, all his sons inherit their Y chromosomes maternally.
e. No, all his sons inherit their X chromosomes maternally.

e

Which statement is true about Y chromosome analysis?

a. It is commonly used to determine paternity and ancestry.
b. It can be used to determine whether a man is carrying traits such as hemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
c. It can be used to determine whether a man is likely to pass on traits such as hemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
d. It is commonly used to determine the sex of an individual.
e. It can be used to determine whether a person has a genetic disease caused by a mutant allele on an autosome.

a

Why do some people have unusual chromosome combinations, such as XYY and XXX?

a. Genetic disease causes a spontaneous increase in the number of sex chromosomes in mature gametes.

b. People who inherit large numbers of short tandem repeats (STRs) also inherit extra sex chromosomes.

c. A mistake in mitosis during embryonic development leads to extra sex chromosomes in every cell.

d. Errors occurred in chromosome segregation during meiosis in their fathers or mothers.

e. It is not known why these unusual chromosome combinations occur.

d

Which couple could have a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)?

a. a male without DMD and a homozygous dominant female
b. a male with DMD and a homozygous dominant female
c. a male without DMD and a carrier female
d. none of these
e. all of these

c

Predict the sex of a baby with an XX pair of sex chromosomes.

a. female
b. This cannot be determined with the chromosome information given.
c. male

a

Predict the sex of a baby with an XXY combination of sex chromosomes.

a. male
b. female
c. This cannot be determined with the chromosome information given.

a

Predict the sex of a baby with an X sex chromosome.

a. This cannot be determined with the chromosome information given.
b. female
c. male

b

Consider your brother and your son. If you are male, which statement is correct?

a. The inheritance of the Y chromosome is dependent on which X chromosome is inherited.

b. You and your brother inherited different Y chromosomes from your dad, and you passed your Y chromosome on to your son.

c. You and your brother inherited the same Y chromosome from your dad, and you passed a different Y chromosome on to your son.

d. You cannot tell the inheritance pattern with the information given.

e. You and your brother inherited the same Y chromosome from your dad, and you passed the same Y chromosome on to your son.

e

Which inheritance pattern includes an environmental contribution?

a. X-linked recessive
b. polygenic
c. none of these
d. multifactorial
e. X-linked dominant

d

How are polygenic and multifactorial traits different?

a. Polygenic traits are influenced by nutrition and diet, whereas multifactorial traits are not.

b. Polygenic traits are influenced by the number of traumatic life events, whereas multifactorial traits are influenced by the levels of brain chemicals.

c. There are more kinds of polygenic traits than multifactorial traits.

d. Polygenic traits show a continuous range of phenotypic variation, whereas multifactorial traits show several distinct phenotypes.

e. Polygenic traits are genetically based, whereas multifactorial traits have both genetic and environmental influences.

e

How is codominant inheritance different from incomplete dominant inheritance?

a. In codominance, two alleles are expressed equally; in incomplete dominance, there is only one allele in the system.

b. In codominance, one gene is recessive to two dominant genes; in incomplete dominance, all genes are recessive.

c. In codominance, the two alleles cooperate to make an intermediate phenotype; in incomplete dominance, the heterozygote shows the recessive phenotype.

d. In codominance, two alleles are expressed equally; in incomplete dominance, heterozygotes have an intermediate phenotype.

e. In codominance, all genes are recessive; in incomplete dominance, one gene is recessive to two dominant genes.

d

Human skin color ranges from very light to dark black, with many distinct skin tones in between. What type of inheritance pattern governs skin color?

a. multifactorial inheritance
b. incomplete dominance
c. X-linked inheritance
d. codominance
e. polygenic inheritance

e

What are the chances that a curly-haired father and a straight-haired mother can give birth to a child with curly hair?

a. 0%
b. 100%
c. 50%
d. 75%
e. 25%

a

If two women have identical alleles of the suspected 20 height-associated genes, why might one of those women be 5 feet 5 inches tall and the other 5 feet 8 inches tall?

a. because the identical 20 alleles cause variation in the phenotype
b. all of these
c. because environmental factors also play a role in the phenotype of this trait
d. none of these
e. because phenotype dictates genotype

c

Why is type O Rh-negative the "universal donor"?

a. Three surface markers are present on the donor blood cells (A, B, and O) that are recognized as compatible in all recipients.

b. Three surface markers are present on the donor blood cells (A, B, and O), which block immune reactions in the recipient.

c. The O and Rh surface markers on the donor red blood cells block immune reactions in the recipient.

d. No surface markers are present on the O Rh-negative blood cells to react with the recipient’s immune system.

e. More people have type O blood than any other blood type.

d

What is different about red blood cells from a person with type AB blood, compared to those from other blood types?

a. They carry A and B type surface markers, so they cannot receive or donate blood.

b. They carry A and B type surface markers, so they are universal acceptors of blood.

c. They have no surface markers from the ABO blood type alleles.

d. They carry A and B type surface markers, so they are universal donors of blood.

e. They carry Rh markers, whereas other blood types have none.

b

Which of these is a likely result of nondisjunction in human meiosis?

a. a genetic disorder (such as hemophilia or color blindness) caused by a faulty allele

b. an egg that can develop into a child without fertilization by a sperm

c. aneuploid eggs or sperm

d. a sperm that can develop into a child without fertilization with an egg

e. an increased risk of clinical depression

c

A gamete is aneuploid if _____.

a. one or more sister chromatids fail to separate in meiosis II
b. one or more homologous chromosomes fail to separate in meiosis I
c. all of these
d. there are fewer than 23 chromosomes in the cell
e. there are more than 23 chromosomes in the cell

c

Which combination contains the normal chromosome number?

a. a human egg – 23; a human sperm – 23; a human zygote – 46

b. a human egg – 46; a human sperm – 46; a human zygote – 23

c. a human egg – 46; a human sperm – 23; a human zygote – 23

d. a human egg – 23; a human sperm – 23; a human zygote – 23

e. a human egg – 46; a human sperm – 46; a human zygote – 46

a

Which of these can be determined by amniocentesis and karyotyping?

a. trisomy 21
b. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
c. hair color
d. blood type
e. cystic fibrosis

a

Which of these can result in a trisomy such as Down syndrome?

a. an egg with 22 chromosomes fertilized by a sperm with 24 chromosomes

b. an egg with 23 chromosomes fertilized by a sperm with 22 chromosomes

c. an egg with 22 chromosomes fertilized by a sperm with 23 chromosomes

d. an egg with 23 chromosomes fertilized by a sperm with 23 chromosomes

e. an egg with 24 chromosomes fertilized by a sperm with 23 chromosomes

e

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