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Build and repair bones


break down bone

Unabsorbed fats in intestines

They increase osmotic pressure within the intestine Excess of unabsorbed fats in the intestines inhibits normal water and electrolye absorption, resulting in increased osmotic pressure and diarrhea

When protein in blood decreases

–Osmotic pressure decreases –Which results in increase in fluid in body tissues NORMALLY –When the protein level is normal in blood, blood increases the osmotic pressure, which in turn return of fluid to the circulatory system from the body tissues

Malnutrition occurs

when nutrition is not absorbed

SSRIs most likely relieve depression by increasing

Amount of time that serotonin is present in synaptic cleft

Epithelial Cells are

specialized for secretion and are present in respiratory tract

The rate of typical enzymatic reaction is increased by

INCREASED in TEMP –Optimum temp for enzymes is normally 37C


Structure of glomerular capillaries prevents the entry of large molecules, such as proteins, into the filtrate

Certain viruses contain RNA as their genetic material. One of the ways these RNA viruses replicate themselves is to:

Code for or carry a transcriptase that copies viral RNA RNA viruses require a type of transcriptase(reverse transcriptase)to replicate themselves

#41. Assuming that the protein was underway, when the radioactive amino acids were added, which of the following best describes how radioactivity was distributed in one of the first molecules of Protein X that was completely translated?

Radioactive amino acids were located only at one end of the molecule –Since the translation was underway, most of the N-terminal end and probably the middle part of the protein were already synthesized before the addition of radioactive amino acids

Imprinted gene

An imprinted gene is one in which only one copy is expressed based on parent of origin. Individuals have 2 copies of the gene as usual, one from mom and one from dad. However, the gene will only be expressed from the maternal or paternal chromosome. i.e. in Angelman’s syndrome, only the maternally-inherited copy of the gene is active. The silencing of the other (paternal) copy is achieved via epigenetic marking. Imprinted genes are re-marked according to the individual’s own sex in their gametes. i.e. For a male, the active Angelman’s gene (inherited from his mom) will be marked as silent in his sperm (since that gene copy will be paternally inherited by the resulting zygote)

Y-linked gene

Y linked transmission would mean only males can carry the mutated allele when the passage states that its only expressed when transmitted from the father. This suggests that some other allele acts as an expression cofactor.

X linked gene

When a gene being is present on the X chromosome, but not on the Y chromosome, it is said to be X-linked.

Complexes of ETC

Complex I establishes the hydrogen ion gradient by pumping four hydrogen ions across the membrane from the matrix into the intermembrane space. Complex II (Succinyl Dehydrogenase) –receives FADH2, which bypasses complex I, and delivers electrons directly to the electron transport chain. Ubiquinone (Q) accepts the electrons from both complex I and complex II and delivers them to complex III. Complex III pumps protons through the membrane and passes its electrons to cytochrome c for transport to the fourth complex of proteins and enzymes. Complex IV (Cytochrome c oxidase) –reduces oxygen; the reduced oxygen then picks up two hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium to make water.

Complexes of ETC

Complex I: NADH Dehydrogenase Complex II: Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex III: cytochrome oxidase

Overexpression of which enzyme will likely result in increased levels of HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)

Succinyl-CoA synthetase Passage states that: –Succinyl modulates level of HIF by inhibiting HIF hydroxylase (an enzyme that induces HIF degradation) –Thus overexpression of Succinyl-CoA synthetase, which results in increased production of succinate, will enhance HIF levels

Succinyl-CoA synthetase

Leads to production of Succinate in Kreb’s cycle NEED TO KNOW THIS!!

Restriction enzymes

recognize only palindromic sequences

#37. Which type(s) of restriction enzyme(s) can recognize the HIF binding sequence? A restriction enzyme that has:

I. a four-base recognition sequence
II. a six-base recognition sequence
II. a eight-base recognition sequence

I and II only Passage states that target sequence is: CCCCGGGC: –But only CCCCGGGC within HIF binding sequence is palindromic. Therefore, only a restriction enzyme that recognizes a four-base sequence or a six-base sequence can recognize this sequence within the HIF binding sequence

Why is tubulin used as a control in western blot

The expression levels of tubulin, a cytoskeletal protein, is stable under most conditions, including hypoxia. Therefore, it is often used as a loading control to ascertain an equal amount of protein loading in each lane

#35. If the NDU gene is amplified inside cells leading to overexpression of the protein, what event is likely to occur under hypoxic conditions?

The data presentedin Figure 3A indicate that compared to NDU-KO cells, in WT cells which possess NDU, oxygen consumptionof NDU is likely to further decrease oxygen comsumption

What are the effects of hypoxia on energy metabolism?

Lactic acid is incuded to regenerate NAD+

Osmotic pressure

Pi = iMRT

Which of the following best describes the chemical energy that is derived from the Kreb’s cycle? Energy is produced in forms of:

ATP, which directly supplies energy to many cellular processes, and NADH, which supplies energy for ETC

REMEMBER: In Kreb’s cycle:

NADH is produced for ETC

Adrenal medulla is part of

Sympathetic nervous system

Histone acetylation & Histone Deacetylase (HDAC)

Histone acetylation PROMOTES transcription by modifying chromatin Histone Deacetylation INHIBTS transcription by condensing chromatin structure


is a component of ketone bodies

Fasting leads to

glycogen breakdown and gluconeogenesis, then continued fasting leads to production of ketone bodies by sustained fatty acid oxidation

If HDAC inhibition by Betahydroxybutyrate is a physiological response in living animals, the information in the passage indicates it is likely to occur when:

There is sustained fatty acid oxidation

#28. Which statement is best supported by data using anti-AcTubK40 antibody?

Betahydroxybutyrate is not a general deacetylase inhibitor –Because according to fig 1, Betahydroxybutyrate has no significant effect upon tubulin deacetylase

Operon containing two genes

Operon containing two genes in prokaryotic cells is transcribed from a single promoter upstream of the first gene in the operon

Which action(s) could contribute to the positive intropic effect (increases the forces of contraction) of digtoxin on cardiac myocytes?

I. Decrease transport of Ca2+to the extracellular environment
II. Increases availability of intracellular Ca2+ to bind to troponin
III. Increase overall Ca2+ stores in sacroplasmic reticulum

I,II,and III –All of these actions will lead to an increase in intracellular calcium levels, resulting in enhancement of contractile force of the heart

Which type of membrane transport is directly affected by cardiac glycosides?
(affects Na+K+ATPase pump)

Primary active transport

Na+K+ATPase pump is an example of

Primary active transport

#21. Dihydrodigxin levels in the culture medium of E.lenta cells would most likely be highest in which data set?

2 –2 shows highest level of Cgr2 expression, which would suggest that this data will be most efficient at reducing digoxin to dihydrodigoxin

Ion movements across myocardial cell membrane

3 Na+ OUT 2 K+IN

#23. Which statement is LEAST supported by the experimental data?

The cgr operon is functionally more active in the FAA 1-3-56 strain than in the DSM2243 strain of E.lenta –Because the E.lenta FAA 1-3-56 strain is not effective in inactivating digoxin as shown in table 1 and figure 1. Therefore, it is not likely to be more functionally active than DSM2243 strain.

Western blot analysis uses

electrophoresis and antibody detection to determine specific protein levels compared to invariant alpha-tubulin levels

#17. Based on the passage, the overexpression of which protein is most likely associated with GM6112 cells becoming cancerous

cFLIP Because overexpression of cFLIP would prevent the activation of caspase-8, which would lessen apoptotic response. Inhibition of apoptosis is a characteristic of cancer cells.

What is a one characteristic of cancer cells

Inhibition of apoptosis

#16.Cells that contain a large amount of phosphorylated p38 are most likely:

undergoing growth arrrest Because passage states that p38 phosphorylation levels correlates with apoptotic signaling, which most likely leads to growth arrest

#15. Which type of catalytic activity is most likely missing from cFLIP?

Hydrolase activity the passage notes that cFLIP is a homolog of a protease, caspase-8. Therefore, it is most likely that the catalytic activity that is missing from cFLIP is hydrolase activity

#14. Overexpression of cFLIP in other cell types will most likely result in:

Decreased apoptosis in response to FAS ligand — Because indicates that cFLIP, a structurally similar homolog lacks catalytic activity, regulates FAS signaling through binding to FADD at the same site as caspase-8. Therefore, overexpression of cFLIP reduces the interaction between FADD and capase-8 and results in decreased apoptosis in response to Fas ligand

Which statement correctly identifies enzyme involved in DNA replication and describes its primary function?

Helicase catalyzes the separation of the parent DNA strands at the origin of replication

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

is in the reproductive axis

#11. Assume that certain species with sex chromosomes R and S exists such that the RR individuals develop as males and RS individuals develop as females. Which of the following mechanisms would most likely compensate for the potential imbalance of sex-chromosome gene products between males and females of this species

A.Inactivation of one R chromosome in males
B.Doubling transcription from the S chromosome in females
C. Inactivation of R chromosomes in females
D. Doubling transcription from the R chromosome in males

A.Inactivation of one R chromosome in males –Because males of the species have two copies of the R chromosome, whereas females have one R chromosome and one S chromosome. Therefore, in order to compensate for the potential imbalance of the sex chromosomes between males and females, one R chromosome should be inactivated in males

#10.Which of the following animal pairs best illustrate the outcome of CONVERGENT evolution?

A. The dolphin and the shark
B. The domestic sheep and the mountain goat
C.The polar bear and the panda bear
D. The light-colored and dark-colored forms of the peppered moth

A. The dolphin and the shark –Because convergent evolution is distantly related organisms independently evolve similar traits to adapt to similar needs

CONVERGENT evolution

Distantly related organisms independently evolve similar traits to adapt to similar needs

Autosomal dominant, recessive, x-linked, y-linked


Autosomal dominant

A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes. (In contrast, autosomal recessive diseases require that the individual have two copies of the mutant gene.) –Parents are heterozygous in this type of interitence pattern


If a disease skip generations, it must be recessive

More likely X-linked recessive if

more males than females have the disease –furthermore, if a disease is x-linked father will never pass it down to their sons

It’s probably Y-linked

if only males have the condition but it is very rare

Mitochondrial inheritence

If all children on the affected mother have the condition, but no children of affected fathers and healthy mothers do, it’s probably mitochondrial –Mitochondria have their own genetic material, which is passed down through the maternal line

#2. What are the relative potentials for force and power generation by a slow-twitch muscle fiber and fast-twitch muscle fiber of the same diameter?

The fast-twitch muscle fiber is capable of generating more power than the slow-twitch fiber, when the potential for force generation is the same

Type I slow twitch fibers

Muscle fibers with high myoglobin content; much better blood supply due to more capillary networks surrounding; combination of good oxygen delivery from the blood stream allow extended periods of contraction without fatigue; red slow twitch, red oxidative; tons of mitochondria; low force

Type IIA Fast twitch fibers

muscle fibers with intermediate speed of contraction, medium force generated, somewhat resistant to fatigue (30 min) medium amount of mitochondria, and some capillary network; fast twitch oxidative

Type IIB Fast twitch Fibers

muscle fibers with the fastest speed of contraction; very few mitochondria and capillaries, extreme fatigue sensitivity; high force generation; known as white fast twitch fibers

#5.According to the passage,relative to slow twitch fibers, fast-twitch fibers are likely to exhibit which property?

Greater Ca2+ pumping capacity –slow-twitch fibers are adapted to aerobic exercise which suggests they are likely, relative to fast twitch fibers, to have increased capillary density, larger numbers of mitochondria, and higher levels of oxygen binding proteins. The names of the fibers themselves give insight to their relative rate of contraction. thus, it is unlikely that slow twitch fibers will have greater Ca2+ pumping capacity, than fast twitch fibers

Slow-twitch fibers are adapted for

AEROBIC exercise

Fast-twitch fibers are related to

Glycolytic pathway so ANAEROBIC respiration

#4. Assuming that the duration of contraction is the same, which point on the power curve corresponds to the LEAST amount of work being done by the muscle?

Point A –Work = Fd –Given that the item states the time domain of contraction was the same, we can treat the y-axis as synonymous with distance. When the distance is zero (or near zero) and when the force is zero (or near zero), the product of the two numbers will be very small

Lack of oxygen shuts down

Kreb’s cycle and ETC

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