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Which part of the galaxy contains the coldest gas?

The halo

Why do disk stars bob up and down as they orbit the galaxy?

Because the gravity of other disk stars always pulls them toward the disk

Which part of the galaxy has gas with the hottest average temperature?

The halo

What is the typical percentage of elements other than hydrogen and helium in stars that are forming in the vicinity of the Sun?


Where would you be most likely to find an ionization nebula?

In the disk

The best measurements of the mass of the black hole at the galactic center come from

The orbits of stars in the galactic center

Where are most of the Milky Way’s globular clusters found?

In the halo

How do we determine the Milky Way’s mass outside of the Sun’s orbit?

From the orbits of stars and gas clouds orbiting the galactic center at greater distances than the Sun

Where would you least expect to find an ionization nebula?

In the halo

What kind of star is most likely to be part of the spheroidal population?

An M star

If we could see our galaxy from 2 million light years away, it would appear

As a flattened disk with a central buldge and spiral arms

How does the interstellar medium affect our view of most of the galaxy?

It prevents us from seeing most of the galactic disk with visible and ultraviolet light

Applying the Newton’s version of Kepler’s third law to the a star orbiting 40,000 light years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy allows us to determine

The mass of the Milky Way Galaxy that lies within 40,000 light years of the galactic center

The most common form of gas in the dism of the Milky Way galaxy is

Atomic hydrogen gas

How should we expect the Milky Way’s interstellar medium to be different in 50 years than it is today?

The total amount of gas will be much less than it is today

Over time, the star- gas- star cycle leads the gas in the Milky Way to

Have a greater abundance of heavy elements

All of the following types of objects are found almost exclusively in the disk(rather than the Halo) of the Milky Way except

Globular clusters

Red and orange stars are found evenly spread throughout the galactic disk, but blue stars are typically found

Only in or near star forming clouds

Spiral arms appear bright because

They contain more hot young stars than other parts of the disk

What is the best evidence for an extremely massive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy?

The orbits of the stars indicate that the presence of an approximately 4 million solar mass object in a region no larger than our solar system

How does the diameter of the disk of the Milky Way compare to its thickness?

The diameter is 100 times as great as the thickness

What do we call the bright, sphere shaped region of stars that occupies the central few thousand light years of the Milky Way Galaxy?

The galaxy’s buldge

The Sun’s location in the Milky Way Galaxy is

In the galactic disk, roughly halfway between the center and the outer edge of the disk

What do we mean when we say interstellar medium?

The gas and dust that lies in between the stars in the Milky Way galaxy

What are Magellanic clouds?

Two small galaxies that orbit the Milky Way Galaxy

How do disk stars orbit the center of the galaxy?

They all orbit in roughly the same plane and in the same direction

Elements heavier than hydrogen and helium constitute about _____

2% of the mass of the Milky Way’s interstellar medium

What do we mean by the star-gas-star cycle?

It is the continuous recycling of gas in the galactic disk between stars and the interstellar medium

What are cosmic rays?

Subatomic particles that travel close to the speed of light

The primary way that we observe the atomic hydrogen that makes up most of the interstellar gas in the Milky Way is with

Radio telescopes observing at a wavelength of 21 centimeters

Which of the following is the most abundant in molecular clouds


Interstellar dust consists mostly of

Microscopic particles of carbon and silicon

What do we mean by a protogalactic cloud?

A cloud of hydrogen and helium that contracts to become a galaxy

Most stars in the Milky Way’s halo are

Very old

What is an ionization nebula?

A colorful cloud of gas that glows because it is heated by light from nearby hot stars

Where do most star formation occur in the Milky Way Galaxy?

In the spiral arms

What kind of object do we think lies in the center of the Milky Way galaxy?

A black hole of about 4 million solar masses

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