Astronomy Chapter 9

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What type of stresses broke Earth’s lithosphere into plates?

the circulation of convection cells in the mantle, which dragged against the lithosphere

Which two properties are most important in determining the surface temperature of a planet?
size and atmosphere

distance from the Sun and atmosphere

Which of the following most likely explains why Venus does not have a strong magnetic field?

Its rotation is too slow.

Which of the following does not provide evidence that Mars once had flowing water?

the presence of vast canals discovered in the late 1800s by Giovanni Schiaparelli and mapped by Percival Lowell

Deep trenches in the ocean mark places where

one plate slides under another, returning older crust to the mantle.

Which of the following best describes convection?

It is the process in which warm material expands and rises while cool material contracts and falls.

Which of the following describes tectonics?

the disruption of a planet’s surface by internal stresses

The Caloris Basin on Mercury covers a large region of theplanet, but few smaller craters have formed on top of it. From this we conclude that

the Caloris Basin formed toward the end of the solar system’s period of heavy bombardment.

The core, mantle, and crust of a planet are defined by differences in their


What are the circumstances under which convection can occur in a substance?

when the substance is strongly heated from underneath

What is differentiation in planetary geology?

the process by which gravity separates materials according to density

The polar caps on Mars are composed of
pure water ice.

mostly solid carbon dioxide and some water ice.

Which of the following show evidence of ancient river beds?


Which internal energy source produces heat by converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy?
both A and B
all of the above

both A and B

Which of the following best describes why the smaller terrestrial worlds have cooler interiors than the larger ones?

They have relatively more surface area compared to their volumes.

The three principal sources of internal heat of terrestrial planets are

accretion, differentiation, and radioactivity.

What process has shaped Earth’s surface more than any other?

plate tectonics

Which internal energy source is the most important in continuing to heat the terrestrial planets today?


Why does Earth have the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds?

It is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation.

When we see a region of a planet that is not as heavily cratered as other regions, we conclude that

the surface in the region is younger than the surface in more heavily cratered regions.

Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic field?


The terrestrial planet cores contain mostly metal because

metals sank to the center during a time when the interiors were molten throughout.

The geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park result from

plumes of hot mantle rising in a hot spot within a plate.

Shallow-sloped shield volcanoes are made from lava that

has a medium viscosity.

Spacecraft have landed on all the terrestrial worlds except


How large is an impact crater compared to the size of the impactor?

10 times larger

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