Astronomy- Chapter 8

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Photosphere

The light we see from the Sun comes from which layer? A) Troposphere B) Chromosphere C) Photosphere D) Ionosphere E) Corona

5,800 K

The temperature of the layer of gas that produces the visible light of the Sun is A) 3,500 K B) 5,800 K C) 12,300 K D) 300,000 K E) 15 million K

The Sun doesn’t have a solid surface

Why couldn’t you stand on the Sun’s surface? A) The Sun has no surface at all…the photosphere is an illusion. B) You could stand on the surface. C) The Sun doesn’t have a solid surface. D) The Sun’s surface is too highly magnetized for anything to survive there. E) You could stand on it, if a sufficiently protective spacesuit could be designed.

Jupiter

The density of the Sun is most similar to which object? A) Halley’s Comet’s nucleus B) The Earth C) Mercury D) The Moon E) Jupiter

corona

The area in the Sun’s atmosphere located above the chromosphere (1,500 – 10,000 km) where the temperature rises dramatically is called the A) photosphere. B) corona. C) solar wind. D) transition zone. E) convection zone.

the total energy emitted by the Sun in all directions

The luminosity of the Sun is a measure of A) the energy received by the Sun on Earth’s surface. B) the energy received by the Sun at the location of Earth. C) the energy received by the Sun at any location in the solar system. D) the energy emitted by the Sun at the photosphere. E) the total energy emitted by the Sun in all directions.

Radiative zone, convective zone, chromosphere

From inside out, which is in the correct order for the structure of the Sun? A) Core, convective zone, radiative zone B) Photosphere, radiative zone, corona C) Radiative zone, convective zone, chromosphere D) Core, chromosphere, photosphere E) Convective zone, radiative zone, granulation

gravitation and pressure

Hydrostatic equilibrium in our Sun is the balance between A) convection and radiation. B) convection and gravitation. C) pressure and radiation. D) radiation and gravitation. E) gravitation and pressure.

the interior structure of the Sun

The vibrations of the Sun reveal information about A) the temperature of the core of the Sun. B) the structure of the atmosphere of the Sun. C) the interior structure of the Sun. D) the production of energy in the Sun. E) the magnetic field of the Sun

the Sun is more dense at its core than at its surface

The above diagram indicates that A) the Sun is most dense somewhere between its surface and its core. B) the Sun is least dense somewhere between its surface and its core. C) the Sun is more dense at its surface than at its core. D) the Sun is more dense at its core than at its surface. E) the Sun has about the same density throughout its interior

the Sun is hotter at its surface than at its core

The above diagram indicates that A) the Sun is hottest somewhere between its surface and its core. B) the Sun is coolest somewhere between its surface and its core. C) the Sun is hotter at its surface than at its core. D) the Sun is hotter at its core than at its surface. E) the Sun has about the same temperature throughout its interior

is balanced by the inward gravitational pressure

The outward pressure of hot gas in the Sun A) is balanced by the inward gravitational pressure. B) is increasing the Sun’s diameter. C) is cooling the photosphere. D) is responsible for variations in the sunspot cycle. E) weakens the magnetic field

that the standard solar model accurately models the observed solar vibrations

Studies by the Global Oscillations Network Group, along with satellite observations, indicate A) that the standard solar model requires substantial modification. B) that all stars show the same kind of vibrations that our Sun does. C) that there is an unknown energy transport mechanism in the Sun. D) that there is less convection in the Sun than predicted by the standard solar model. E) that the standard solar model accurately models the observed solar vibrations.

Radiation, convection

What two energy transport mechanisms, in order from outside the core to the surface, is found in the Sun? A) Convection, conduction B) Radiation, convection C) Conduction, radiative diffusion D) Radiation, conduction E) Conduction, convection

Convection

By what mechanism does solar energy reach the Sun’s photosphere from the layer just underneath it? A) Differentiation B) Ionization C) Radiation D) Convection E) Conductio

1,000 km

What is the size of a typical granule or convection cell seen in the photosphere? A) 10,000 km B) 1,000 km C) 100 km D) 10 km E) 1 km

granulation

The pattern of rising hot gas cells all over the photosphere is called A) filaments. B) granulation. C) sunspots. D) convective projections. E) prominences.

red

When the chromosphere can be seen during a solar eclipse, it appears A) invisible. B) violet. C) blue. D) yellow. E) red

Coronal holes

From where does most of the solar wind flow? A) Granules B) Sunspots C) Flares D) Prominences E) Coronal holes

The corona is much hotter than layers of the Sun that are closer to the solar interior

What is it about the Sun’s corona that astronomers don’t understand? A) No one knows why that part of the Sun’s atmosphere does not drift away into space. B) During total solar eclipses, the corona sometimes disappears from view. C) The corona seems to absorb 2/3 of the neutrinos that pass through it. D) The corona is much hotter than layers of the Sun that are closer to the solar interior. E) The Sun’s corona extends to the outer reaches of the solar system.

red, due to ionized hydrogen at lower pressure

When we glimpse the chromosphere at the start and end of totality, its color is A) green (the famous flash). B) yellow, like the photosphere below it. C) red, due to ionized hydrogen at lower pressure. D) blue, due to the ionization of nitrogen by the magnetic fields. E) white from the moonlight

91%

The percentage (by number of atoms) of the Sun that is hydrogen is about A) 91%. B) 71%. C) 27%. D) 9%. E) less than 1%

About 11 years

How long does the sunspot cycle last, on average? A) Between 25 and 35 days B) 365.25 days C) About seven years D) About 11 years E) About 76 years

granulation in the photosphere

Visible sunspots lie in the A) chromosphere. B) transition zone. C) corona. D) radiative zone. E) granulation in the photosphere.

two weeks

As the Sun rotates, an individual sunspot can be tracked across its face. From eastern to western limb, this takes about A) 12 hours. B) a week. C) two weeks. D) a month. E) 5.5 years.

Maunder Minimum from 1645-1715

The most striking example of solar variability was the A) Dust Bowl drought of the 1930s. B) Maunder Minimum from 1645-1715. C) Sporer Minimum that doomed the Anasazi. D) fall of Rome. E) Joseph’s seven lean years in the Old Testament.

come in pairs, representing the north and south magnetic fields

Sunspots A) are always found close to the Sun’s poles. B) come in pairs, representing the north and south magnetic fields. C) were most numerous during the Maunder Minimum. D) travel over the surface of the Sun from pole to pole. E) are relatively constant in number every year.

They are extremely hot, but cooler than the surrounding areas of the Sun

Sunspots are dark splotches on the Sun. Which statement is TRUE? A) They are hotter than the surrounding areas of the Sun. B) They are extremely cold objects, as cold as Pluto. C) They are extremely hot, but cooler than the surrounding areas of the Sun. D) They are solid bodies floating on the surface of the Sun. E) They are associated with areas of very low magnetic fields.

They would shine bright orange in color, like Arcturus

How would sunspots appear if you could magically remove them from the Sun? A) They would appear blue-white, like Sirius but brighter. B) Because sunspots are dark spots, they would be invisible against the blackness of space. C) They would shine bright orange in color, like Arcturus. D) They would not appear any differently than on the surface of the Sun. E) They would shine only with reflected sunlight, appearing similar to Venus.

There are likely to be an above average number of flares and prominences

While observing the Sun, you note a large number of sunspots. What can you conclude? A) The Sun is less luminous than usual. B) This is a period of low solar activity. C) Earth’s climate will be unusually cold. D) The Sun’s rotation is slower than average. E) There are likely to be an above average number of flares and prominences.

eleven years

The numbers of sunspots and their activity peak about every A) 36 days. B) six months. C) year. D) eleven years. E) 76 years.

The complete sunspot cycle, including magnetic field reversals

On the Sun, what takes approximately 22 years to happen? A) The Sun takes that time to rotate on its axis. B) The complete sunspot cycle, including magnetic field reversals. C) Solar vibrations begin every 22 years. D) Solar activities goes from its maximum to minimum. E) The corona reaches its maximum temperature and ejects gas every 22 years.

prominences

Loops of glowing hydrogen seen hanging over the solar limb during totality are A) solar rainbows. B) haloes. C) prominences. D) filaments. E) flares

is more irregular

During a period of high solar activity, the corona A) disappears. B) is more irregular. C) cools almost to the temperature of the photosphere. D) becomes smooth and even. E) shrinks to half its normal size

Aurora

Which of these are NOT associated with the active Sun? A) Sunspots B) Prominences C) Granulation D) Flares E) Aurora

Simultaneously

Suppose a large flare is detected optically. How long until radio interference arrives? A) Simultaneously B) 8.5 minutes later C) About 12 hours D) About four days E) No relation between the two

10 million K

The critical temperature the core must reach for a star to shine by fusion is A) 5,800 K. B) 11,000 K. C) 127,000 K. D) 10 million K. E) 100 million K.

It is converted to energy

In the proton-proton cycle, the helium atom and neutrino have less mass than the original hydrogen. What happens to the "lost" mass? A) It is recycled back into hydrogen. B) It is ejected into space. C) It is converted to energy. D) It is transformed into electrons. E) Conservation of mass dictates no mass can be lost.

the strong force fusing hydrogen into helium

The primary source of the Sun’s energy is A) oxidation of carbon in the core. B) gravitational collapse of the helium coreward. C) dark energy. D) the strong force fusing hydrogen into helium. E) the weak force creating energy from uranium decay

an anti-electron

In the proton-proton cycle, the positron is A) massless. B) a spin conservation particle. C) an anti-electron. D) the chief means energy reaches the photosphere. E) intermediate between the proton and neutron in mass.

Electromagnetic repulsion

What natural barrier tries to prevent two protons from combining? A) Dark energy B) Antigravity C) Electromagnetic repulsion D) The weak nuclear force E) The strong nuclear force

10 million K

The critical temperature to initiate the proton-proton cycle in the cores of stars is A) 3,000 K. B) 5,800 K. C) 2,300,000 K. D) 10 million K. E) 100 million K

4 protons = 1 helium 4 + 2 neutrinos + gamma rays

Which is the net result of the proton-proton chain? A) 4 protons = 1 helium 4 + a positron + a neutrino + gamma rays B) 2 protons = deuterium + a positron + an antineutrino + X-rays C) 4 protons = 2 helium 2 + 2 positrons + ultraviolet radiation D) 4 protons = 1 helium 4 + 2 neutrinos + gamma rays E) 6 protons = 2 helium + 3 positrons + 3 neutrinos + gamma rays

1.80 × 1017 J

The speed of light is 3.00 × 108 m/s. If 2.00 kg of mass is converted to energy, how much energy will be produced? A) 1.80 × 1017 J B) 6.00 × 108 J C) 1.50 × 108 J D) 6.00 × 104 J E) 9.00 × 1016 J

10 million K

The critical temperature the core must reach for a star to shine by fusion is A) 5,800 K. B) 11,000 K. C) 127,000 K. D) 10 million K. E) 100 million K.

Cannot interact at all with normal matter

Which of the following is NOT a property of neutrinos? A) Can change forms in the eight minutes from the Sun’s core to us B) Almost massless C) Can travel very close to the speed of light D) Neutral in charge E) Cannot interact at all with normal matter

neutrinos changed form to undetected types of neutrinos

Initially, fewer neutrinos were detected than predicted by theoretical models because A) neutrinos changed form to undetected types of neutrinos. B) the wrong liquid was being used in neutrino detectors. C) particle physicists did not understand the proton-proton chain. D) the proton-proton chain does not actually produce neutrinos. E) neutrinos take many years to pass out of the sun from its core

droughts in North America

There appears to be a correlation between the 22-year solar cycle and A) droughts in North America. B) asteroid impacts on Earth. C) change of which political party has the majority in the U.S. Congress. D) the length of Mercury’s day. E) the length of Saturn’s year.

a few minutes

Neutrinos travel from the Sun’s core to the Earth in A) millions of years. B) thousands of years. C) a few days. D) a few hours. E) a few minutes.

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