astronomy #7

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the largest terrestrial and jovian planets are respectively

Earth and Jupiter

Which planets have had volcanic activity at some point in their histories

all of them

large moons orbit their planets in the same direction the planets rotate

most of the time

which of the following three kinds of objects resides closer to the sun on average

asteroids

whats unusual about our moon

It’s not the largest moon, but it’s surprisingly large relative to the planet it orbits

planetary orbits are

fairly circular and in the same plane

which have more moons on average

jovian planets

the most abundant ingredient of the sun and jupiter is

Hydrogen

are there any exceptions to the rule that planets rotate with small axis tilts and in the same direction that they orbit the sun

Venus, Uranus, and Pluto are exceptions

the cassini spacecraft

is orbiting saturn

flyby

a spacecraft on a flyby goes past a world just once and then continues on its way

orbiter

a spacecraft that orbits the world it is studying allowing longer term study

lander or probe

these spacecrafts are designed to land on a planets surface or probe a planets atmosphere by flying through it. some landers carry rovers to explore wider regions

sample return mission

a sample return mission requires a spacecraft designed to return to earth carrying a sample of the world it has studied

patterns of motion among large bodies

*all planetary orbits are nearly circular and lie nearly in the same plane *all planets orbit the sun in the same direction: counterclockwise as viewed from the north pole *most planets rotate in the same direction in which they orbit with fairly small axis tilts. the sun also rotates in this same direction *most of the solar systems large moons exhibit similar properties in their orbits around their planets ex)orbiting in their planets equatorial plane in the same direction that the planet rotates

terrestrial planets

*mercury,venus,earth,mars *smaller size and mass *higher density *solid surface *few if any moons and no rings *closer to the sun and closer together with warmer surfaces

jovian planets

*jupiter saturn uranus neptune *larger size and mass *lower density *made mostly of hydrogen helium and hydrogen compounds *no solid surface *rings and many moons *farther from the sun and farther apart,with cool temperatures at cloud tops

hydrogen compounds

compounds containg hydrogen such as water h2o ammonia nh3 and methane ch4

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