astro exam 1 chapter 5

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Suppose you have a 100-watt light bulb that you leave turned on for one minute. How much energy does it use?

6,000 joules

Which of the following statements is true of green grass?

It absorbs red light and reflects green light.

Suppose you are listening to a radio station that broadcasts at a frequency of 97 Mhz (megahertz). Which of the following statements is true?

The radio waves from the radio station are causing electrons in your radio’s antenna to move up and down 97 million times each second.

Gamma rays have a very small ______.


Suppose a photon has a frequency of 300 million hertz (300 megahertz). What is its wavelength?

1 meter

Which of the following best describes why we say that light is an electromagnetic wave?

The passage of a light wave can cause electrically charged particles to move up and down.

Which of the following statements about X rays and radio waves is not true?

X rays travel through space faster than radio waves.

Each of the following describes an "Atom 1" and an "Atom 2." In which case are the two atoms different isotopes of the same element?

Atom 1: nucleus with 7 protons and 8 neutrons, surrounded by 7 electrons; Atom 2: nucleus with 7 protons and 7 neutrons, surrounded by 7 electrons

Suppose you had molecular oxygen (O2) chilled enough so that it was in liquid form. Which of the following best describes the phase changes that would occur as you heated the liquid oxygen to high temperature?

It would evaporate into a gas, then the molecules would dissociate into individual oxygen atoms, then the atoms would become increasingly ionized as you continued to raise the temperature.

Consider an atom of oxygen in which the nucleus contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons. If it is doubly ionized, what is the charge of the oxygen ion and how many electrons remain in the ion?

Charge = +2; number of remaining electrons = 6.

Which of the following statements about electrons is not true?

Electrons orbit the nucleus rather like planets orbiting the Sun.

Which of the following conditions lead you to see an absorption line spectrum from a cloud of gas in interstellar space?

The cloud is cool and lies between you and a hot star.

No object produces a perfect thermal radiation spectrum, but many objects produce close approximations. Which of the following would not produce a close approximation to a thermal radiation spectrum?

a hot, thin (low-density, nearly transparent) gas

Which of the following statements about thermal radiation is always true?

A hot object emits more radiation per unit surface area than a cool object.

Betelgeuse is the bright red star representing the left shoulder of the constellation Orion. All the following statements about Betelgeuse are true. Which one can you infer from its red color?

Its surface is cooler than the surface of the Sun.

The planet Neptune is blue in color. How would you expect the spectrum of visible light from Neptune to be different from the visible-light spectrum of the Sun?

The two spectra would have similar shapes, except Neptune’s spectrum would be missing a big chunk of the red light that is present in the Sun’s spectrum.

All of the following statements about the Sun’s corona are true. Which one explains why it is a source of X rays?

The temperature of the corona’s gas is some 1 to 2 million Kelvin.

Laboratory measurements show hydrogen produces a spectral line at a wavelength of 486.1 nanometers (nm). A particular star’s spectrum shows the same hydrogen line at a wavelength of 486.0 nm. What can we conclude?

The star is moving toward us.

Suppose that Star X and Star Y both have redshifts, but Star X has a larger redshift than Star Y. What can you conclude?

Star X is moving away from us faster than Star Y.

If we observe one edge of a planet to be redshifted and the opposite edge to be blueshifted, what can we conclude about the planet?

The planet is rotating.

Studying a spectrum from a star can tell us a lot. All of the following statements are true except one. Which statement is not true?

The total amount of light in the spectrum tells us the star’s radius.

Suppose that two stars are identical in every way – for example, same distance, same mass, same temperature, same chemical composition, and same speed relative to Earth – except that one star rotates faster than the other. Spectroscopically, how could you tell the stars apart?

The faster rotating star has wider spectral lines than the slower rotating star.

What is the difference between energy and power?

Power is the rate at which energy is used, so its units are a unit of energy divided by a unit of time.

Visible light from a distant star can be spread into a spectrum by using a glass prism or ______.

a diffraction grating

Suppose you watch a leaf bobbing up and down as ripples pass it by in a pond. You notice that it does two full up and down bobs each second. Which statement is true of the ripples on the pond?

They have a frequency of 2 hertz.

Suppose you know the frequency of a photon and the speed of light. What else can you determine about the photon?

its wavelength and energy

When considering light as made up of individual "pieces," each characterized by a particular amount of energy, the pieces are called _________.


From shortest to longest wavelength, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio

Which forms of light are lower in energy and frequency than the light that our eyes can see?

infrared and radio

If we say that a material is opaque to ultraviolet light, we mean that it _________.

absorbs ultraviolet light

Suppose you built a scale-model atom in which the nucleus is the size of a tennis ball. About how far would the cloud of electrons extend?

Several kilometers

Which of the following best describes the fundamental difference between two different chemical elements (such as oxygen and carbon)?

They have different numbers of protons in their nucleus.

Consider an atom of carbon in which the nucleus contains 6 protons and 7 neutrons. What is its atomic number and atomic mass number?

atomic number = 6; atomic mass number = 13

An atom which has 4 protons and 6 neutrons will be electrically neutral if it contains ______.

4 electrons

Sublimation is the process in which ___________.

molecules go directly from the solid phase to the gas phase

Which of the following transitions within an atom is not possible?

An electron begins in an excited state and then gains enough energy to jump to the ground state.

An atom that has fewer electrons than protons is called a/an _________.


Suppose you look at a spectrum of visible light by looking through a prism or diffraction grating. How can you decide whether it is an emission line spectrum or an absorption line spectrum?

An emission line spectrum consists of bright lines on a dark background, while an absorption line spectrum consists of dark lines on a rainbow background.

Thermal radiation is defined as _________.

radiation with a spectrum whose shape depends only on the temperature of the emitting object

According to the laws of thermal radiation, hotter objects emit photons with _________.

a shorter average wavelength

Suppose you want to know the chemical composition of a distant star. Which piece of information is most useful to you?

the wavelengths of spectral lines in the star’s spectrum

The spectra of most galaxies show redshifts. This means that their spectral lines _________.

have wavelengths that are longer than normal

You observe a distant galaxy. You find that a spectral line of hydrogen that is shifted from its normal location in the visible part of the spectrum into the infrared part of the spectrum. What can you conclude?

The galaxy is moving away from you.

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