ASTR Ch. 13

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When were the first planets around other Sun-like stars discovered

a decade ago

how many other planetary systems have been discovered to date?

a thousand

Which of the following methods has led to the most discoveries of massive planets orbiting near their parent stars?

detecting the gravitational effect of an orbiting planet by looking for the Doppler shifts in the star’s spectrum

Which of the following methods has not yet detected planets around other stars?

detection of reflected light by the planet

Most of the planets discovered around other stars

are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star.

How much brighter is a Sun-like star than the reflected light from a planet orbiting around it?

a billion times brighter

What is astrometry?

measuring the positions of stars on the sky

By itself, the Doppler technique provides a measure of a planet’s

minimum mass, orbital radius, orbital eccentricity

Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly

Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits.

Current techniques can measure stellar motion to less than

walking speed.

A planet’s density can be measured by combining

Doppler and transit observations.

The composition of a planet can be determined by

the Doppler technique. astrometric measurements. transit observations. spectra.

The size and shape of a planet’s orbit can be determined by

the Doppler technique.

The astrometric technique of planet detection works best for

massive planets around nearby stars

The transit method of planet detection works best for

big planets in edge-on orbits around small stars.

The reason that most extrasolar planets are found close to their parent stars is

the amount and frequency of the star’s motion are both higher.

The Doppler technique only provides a measure of the minimum mass of a planet because

only the motion of star toward the observer is measured, not the full motion.

Which planet can we see occasionally transit across the face of the Sun?


) Which planet search technique is currently best suited to finding Earth-like planets?


What are the two main differences between extrasolar planetary systems discovered to date and our Solar System?

extrasolar planet orbits tend to be closer and more eccentric than in our Solar System

A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The velocity change of the star is a measure of

the planet’s mass and orbital distance

A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The repeating pattern of the stellar motion tells us

the orbital period of the planet

A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. The shape of the periodic velocity pattern tells us

the orbital eccentricity of the planet.

The depth of the dip in a star’s brightness due to the transit of a planet depends most directly on

the planet’s size.

Why are many of the newly detected extrasolar planets called "hot Jupiters"?

Their masses are similar to Jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot.

The composition of a planet’s atmosphere be measured during a transit by analyzing

the excess absorption of starlight at specific wavelengths.

What do models suggest make up the clouds on "hot Jupiters"?

rock dust

How do we think the "hot Jupiters" around other stars were formed?

They formed as gas giants beyond the frost line and then migrated inwards.

What would happen to the planets in a solar system where the central star did not have a strong wind?

The gas in the solar nebula would create a drag on the planets and their orbits would migrate inwards.

Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for the nebular theory of solar system formation?

It has been modified to allow for planets to migrate inwards or outwards due to gravitational interactions.

Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for understanding our own Solar System

It shows that we do not fully understand the formation of our Solar System

Viewed from afar, the transit of Earth would cause the Sun’s brightness to dim by approximately one part in


If every star had an Earth-like planet in an Earth-like orbit, how many could be detected by a transit?

1 in 200

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