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Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who rigidly stuck to traditional methods and rules of art.


The rarity of an artwork, and its value, are often closely related.


THe Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. is valuable because…

Lincoln is a symbol of American values and identity.

The building that houses the Lincoln Memorial was based on the form of an ancient Greek temple. Why?

Greek architecture symbolizes values important to Americans

Girl with a Pearl Earring was painted by this Dutch artist.

Johannes Vermeer

Winslow Homer’s Prisoners from the Front was based on his personal experiences during and after the Civil War.


Winslow Homer’s Prisoners from the Front (1866) was intended to call for ________.

reconcilliation after the Civil War

Eugene Delacroix’s painting The Massacre at Chios was intended to:

Portraythe Turks as fierce murderers

Why do we presume that the head of a woman from Benin (0.18 ) was made for someone wealthy?

Because it was made from rare ivory.

The elements of art form the basic ________ of art.


THe principles of design are a kind of ________ that artists apply to the elements of art.


A flat work of art has two dimensions: ________ and width.


One definition of this element is "a mark that connects two points."


The line that defines the edge of a shape is called the ________.


The lines that create the image of the Nazca Spider "drawing" define the ________ of a ________.

Boundary and Shape

Pick the three words that would best describe a regular line.

COntrolled, Geometric, Cool-headed

Three words that can describe irregular line are:

Loose, WIld, Chaotic

A line that is a continuous mark is ________.

AN Actual Line

A line that gives viewers the impression that they are seeing a line where there is not a continuous mark is ________

AN implied line

By orienting lines so that they attract attention to a specific area of a work of art the artist is using ________.

DIrectional Line

A contour line defines the outer edge or profile of an object, and can be used to suggest a volume in space.


The orientation of a line can communicate particular feelings. Match the type of line with the feeling it communicates:
1. horizontal line (a) action
2. diagonal line (b) strength
3. vertical line (c) calm

1. c 2.a 3.b

If vertical lines communicate strength, horizontals calm, and diagonals action, then a vacation resort might want to choose a logo consisting of ________ lines in order to show peaceful repose.


A shape made of perfectly straight lines would probably be classified as ________ shape.


This type of shape is composed of unpredictable, irregular lines.


A shape on a flat picture surface that is defined by surrounding empty space is known as ________ shape.


An empty space defined by its surround is known as ________ shape.


The positive and negative shapes in M. C. Escher’s print Sky and Water I balance each other and are an example of ________.

Figure-ground reversal

A two-dimensional object is called a shape, and a three-dimensional object is known as a ________.


Because it is three-dimensional, a form has these three spatial measurements: height, width, and ________.


These four visual elements of art—form, volume, mass, and texture—are present in ________ works of art.


Forms such as pyramids, which tend to be precise and regular, are known as ________ forms.


Forms that tend to be irregular, and similar to naturally occurring objects, are known as ________ forms.


A three-dimensional surface that is designed to be viewed from only one direction is known as a ________.


This type of relief, which takes its name from the French word for low, does not imply great depth.


A sculpture designed in the round can be viewed from ________.

Nearly every angle

The element of art that defines the amount of space occupied by an object is ________.


________ volume is a space that is enclosed by materials that are not entirely solid.

An open

Our experience of objects in the natural world often leads us to assume that a large object will be heavy, but in fact this is not necessarily the case. This element of art is called ________.


Because a form exists in "real" space we can experience it not only visually, but also through the sense of ________.


When we touch an object we experience a tactile sensation that artists refer to as ________ texture.


By using ________ texture to contradict previous tactile experience, artists can invite viewers to reconsider the world around them.


The lightness or darkness of a surface is the element of art called ________.


Artists can create a sense of ________ by using light and dark values.


A series of different values that are grouped together is called a ________.

Value Range

This method of applying value to a two-dimensional artwork in order to create the illusion of three dimensional solid form is called ________.


The process of using a series of parallel lines set close to one another to differentiate planes of value in a work of art is called ________.


Hatching and cross-hatching use two-dimensional lines to communicate ________ depth.


In order to create value in his drawing Head of a Satyr, Michelangelo used both hatching and ________, a variation where the lines overlap, allowing for the depiction of darker tones.


An artist can use color to indicate depth. When a color is very pure and intense then it seems to be ________.


When objects are far away they lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because of the interference of air. Artists take advantage of this when they use the process called:

Atmospheric Perspective

An artist paints a scene with a large mountain, which lacks detail and is out of focus, and a tree, which is sharply defined and bright green. The viewer might assume that the mountain is ________ than the tree.

Further Away

The computer simulation game The Sims uses ________ perspective.


This is the system for creating an illusion of depth using three basic components: horizon line, vanishing point, and convergence lines.

Linear Perspective

One-point perspective does convey depth, but it has limited applications due to its reliance on a single ________.

Vanishing Point

This type of perspective is used when an object is being viewed from an angle rather than from directly in front.


This is the area that is visible when a viewer is staring at a fixed point in space.

Cone of vision

If you are looking straight ahead, an object that is behind you is in your cone of vision.


Ascending and Descending, by M. C. Escher, uses ________ perspective.


When the rules of perspective are applied in order to represent unusual points of view, we call this ________.


If an artist were to draw a figure whose arm was pointing directly toward the viewer, what technique would the artist have to use when drawing the outstretched arm?


This is the most vivid element of art and design.


This object can be used to separate white light into the colors of the spectrum.


If you were to look at a t-shirt that absorbed the colors violet, blue, green, yellow, and orange, what color would the t-shirt appear to be?


The traditional primary colors are ________.


When ________ colors are mixed, they make a duller and darker color because more of the visible spectrum is absorbed.


The term used for referring to the basic colors of the spectrum is ________.


The element of art that describes the relative lightness or darkness of a hue, compared to another hue, is known as ________.


A color that is lighter than its basic hue is known as a tint. A color that is darker than its basic hue is called a ________.


An artwork that uses many hues but only one value is called monochromatic.


We generally associate a color with its purest, most intense state, or its highest level of ________.


A color that is almost gray has a ________ saturation.


Colors that are on opposite sides of the color circle are radically different in wavelength and are called ________.

COmplementary COlors

When complementary colors are used next to each other in a composition, they produce a visual anomaly called simultaneous contrast. This visual effect makes the colors appear to ________ along the boundary where the two colors meet.


If you were to design an eye-catching poster using only two colors, the combination that would most stand out to passersby would be ________.

Red and Green

Colors that do not contrast strongly with each other, and which are similar in wavelength, are ________ colors


When a color is associated with hot or cold we refer to this as color ________.


Color ________ can be relative to the other colors nearby. For example, violet can be warm if we see it next to a hot color like red, or cool if we see it next to a colder color like blue.


We see this type of color when the brain receives so much color information that it is forced to simplify what we perceive.

Optical Color

The French artist Georges Seurat employed a new technique to create a jewel-like diffusion of light and vibration of color in his work The Circus . This type of painting, made up of small dots of color, is known as ________.


Most commercial color printing is achieved using four separate colors, represented by the matrix ________.


Advertisers often use this color to reach their audience because it is the most visible in the spectrum.

Lime Yellow

If you were to choose the color scheme for a health retreat, red would be a good color to pick.


Color affects the way we think and react to the world, and can be used for healing purposes. This practice is called ________.


________ in particular is an element of art that can engage the viewer and express a wide range of emotions.


Paul Gauguin’s use of the color ________ in his 1889 depiction of a crucified Christ enhances the work’s connection with the seasons, and expresses a message of optimism and rebirth.


Traditional visual arts, such as painting, are inherently static, but artists have always found inventive ways of conveying the elements of ________ and ________.


When an artist employs visual clues to suggest movement in a work of art that is static and motionless, this is known as ________.

Implied Motion

When an artist creates a work that deceives our eyes into believing there is motion as time passes, this is called ________.

THe Illusion of motion

This art movement of the 1960s relies on perceptual anomalies of the human eye to create dynamic effects.

Op art

The kind of motion that is created by showing a series of static images in quick succession is called ________.

Stroboscopic Motion

This spinning toy gives a sense of motion to a viewer when he or she looks through small slits in its cylindrical drum at a strip of changing pictures.


Disney’s Finding Nemo is an example of a series of computer-generated images played in rapid succession. This medium is called ________.


This kind of motion is occurring when we see movement in real life

Actual Motion

This type of art can only exist in one place and time in history.

Performance Art

This medium involves the human body and usually includes the artist.

Performance Art

This type of sculpture can move and change its visual form.


Alexander Calder invented the ________, a type of suspended, balanced sculpture that uses air currents to power its movement.


THe elements of time and motion are not spplicable to the art of photography


What element describes the imposition of order and harmony on a design?


The three kinds of unity are:

compositional, conceptual, gestalt

Compositional unity strikes an interesting balance between the monotony of too much similarity, and the chaos of too much ________ in a work of art.


An interior design that uses only straight lines might lack the visual interest of a more varied composition.


An artist creates an artwork made up of many different shapes, all in varying shades of blue. This artwork uses the following principles of art:

Unity and Variety

Creating visual weight and counterweight is part of an artist’s use of the element of ________ in creating a work of art.


________ balance is achieved when both sides of a composition look exactly the same.


________ balance is achieved when two halves of a composition are not mirror images of each other.


________ balance is achieved when all elements in a work of art are equidistant from a central point and repeat in a symmetrical way from side to side and top to bottom.


The kind of scale used for objects that appear larger than they are in real life is called ________ scale.


An artist might use a small scale for a portrait of a lover because it implies ________.


When an artist uses scale to indicate the relative importance of elements in a composition, he or she is employing this kind of scale.

Hierarchical Scale

This type of scale is common in the relief sculpture of ancient Egypt, where it was used to indicate social importance.


An artist would probably use distorted scale if he or she wanted to create a lifelike scene that the viewer could relate to.


The relationships between the sizes of different parts of a work make up its ________.


In two-dimensional art, this is the area in which an artist creates their work.


In ancient Egypt this part of the human body was used as a standard of measurement. Six of these equaled a cubit


This proportional system uses a ratio of 1:1.618.

Golden Section

Rectangles based on the Golden Section can be nested inside each other to create an elegant ________.


Any of the ________ of art can help focus our interest on specific areas of a work of art.


The opposite of emphasis is ________.


This is the specific part in an area of emphasis to which the viewer’s eye is drawn.

Focal Point

Artists can use ________ to organize the elements in a work and draw our attention to areas of emphasis and focal points.

Direction, Dramatic COntrasts, Placement, Line

An artwork can only have one focal point


Which two types of line shape our examination of a work of art by directing the movement of our gaze?


The recurrence of a single element in a work of art is called ________.


Which of the following can create a pattern?

woven cloth, fish scales, cracked mud,…etc

The area covered by a pattern is called the ________.


A design repeated as a unit in a pattern is called a ________.


There is rhythm in an artwork when it has at least this many points of reference.


A pattern with regular intervals creates ________ rhythm.


The principle of rhythm does not apply to photography.


What is the name for any side of a building that is intended to be looked at?


A work that depicts people or objects in a way that makes them recognizable is called ________.


An artwork can be described as non-objective if its subject matter is ________.


An allegory is

is people or events that have a consistent symbolic meaning.

Pop Art is a style of art created in the 1960s that depicts commercial and commonplace images.

The saturation of a color is its


The literal meaning of the French phrase trompe l’oeil

Trick the eye

When colors have white added to them they produce


The hue is what?

A color’s wavelength of light

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