art final exam review ch 15

The walled, upward extension of the nave that is pierced with windows is called the
a. nave.
b. clerestory.
c. narthex.
d. apse.
e. transept.

b

Because Christianity emphasized congregational worship, a fundamental change in the
________ was needed.
a. architectural design of places of worship
b. iconography of the church
c. placement of the altar
d. hierarchy of the gods
e. All these answers are correct.

a

The cross-shaped floor plan of a church is formed by the combined shapes of the nave and
the
a. aisles.
b. clerestory.
c. narthex.
d. apse.
e. transept.

e

The major axis of a central-plan church, such as the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, is
a. octagonal.
b. rectilinear.
c. vertical.
d. diagonal
e.horizontal

c

The mosaic Christ as the Sun exemplifies early Christian artists' appropriation of ________
iconography.
a. Egyptian
b. Greek
c. Islamic
d. Roman
e. both Greek and Roman

e

Unlike their Greek and Roman predecessors, Byzantine artists preferred
a. re-creation of daily life in their art.
b. a natural, more realistic art.
c. calligraphy in their art.
d. a flattened, abstracted style of art.
e. None of these answers is correct.

d

Architects of Romanesque churches began installing ________ around the apse, which
allowed the overflow of pilgrims to circulate freely around the interior of the church.
a. scaffolding
b. ambulatories
c. underground walkways
d. transepts
e. barrel vaulting

b

______ is a pattern or patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons or bands. a. Narthex
b. Interlace
c. Illumination
d. Embroidery
e. Ambulatory

b

The art and architecture of the high Middle Ages is generally divided into two periods, the
________ and the ________.
a. Romanesque; Carolingian
b. Renaissance; Gothic
c. Romanesque; Gothic
d. Romanesque; Renaissance
e. Gothic; Carolingian

c

All the following are features of Romanesque architecture EXCEPT
a. thick stone walls.
b. barrel-vaulted stone ceilings.
c. overall massiveness.
d. large windows of stained glass.
e. round arches.

d

Gothic cathedrals are known especially for
a. the privacy and intimacy of their interior spaces.
b. their stained glass windows.
c. their heavy Romanesque walls.
d. their idyllic French countryside locations.
e. rounded arches and symmetrical towers.

b

The technique in which colored yarns are sewn to an existing woven background is called a. interlace.
b. embroidery.
c. tempera.
d. tapestry.
e. gouache.

b

The ________ is the walkway directly in front of a church that serves as the entry porch.
a. nave
b. clerestory
c. narthex
d. apse
e. transept

c

Duccio and Giotto were two artists whose innovations in ________ greatly influenced
Renaissance painting styles.
a. basing their works on religious traditions
b. introducing a flat, decorative space
c. exploring classical subject matter
d. creating figures and settings with an increased naturalism
e. Gothic sculpture

d

Abbot Suger's church near Paris, Saint-Denis, is the first ________ church ever built.
a. Gothic
b. Romanesque
c. High Renaissance
d. Carolingian
e. post-and-beam

b

The Palace Chapel at Aachen was built for ________ as his personal place of worship.
a. Saint Denis
b. Abbot Suger
c. Charlemagne
d. William of Normandy
e. Constantine

c

What purpose is served by the carved figures that adorn the entryways at Chartres Cathedral?
a. They serve as reminders that one is entering a sacred space.
b. They are structural, holding up the archways above the doors.
c. They form a narrative, telling the story of Sainte Foy.
d. They are purely decorative, serving no real purpose.
e. They form a narrative, but are purely decorative.

a

Soaring open spaces, pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stained glass
windows are characteristic of
a. Renaissance architecture.
b. Romanesque churches.
c. the church of Sainte Foy.
d. Gothic cathedrals.
e. the Palace Chapel of Charlemagne.

d

In his painting ________, the artist Duccio pioneered the use of architecture to define space
and direct movement.
a. Icon with the Crucifixion
b. Gospel Book of Durrow
c. Christ Entering Jerusalem
d. Pantokrator
e. The Lamentation

c

The transition from Romanesque to Gothic style can be seen in the ________ at Chartres
Cathedral.
a. architecture
b. reliquaries
c. mosaics
d. sculpture
e. architecture and sculpture

c

The ________ technique was used to complete the Empress Theodora and Retinue in 547
C.E.
a. collage
b. woven threads
c. fresco
d. encaustic
e. mosaic

e

The term pantokrater, used in the title of the mosaic Christ as the Pantokater, is Greek for
a. ruler of all.
b. gentle.
c. awe-inspiring.
d. holy.
e. savior.

a

The gold-hammered vessel set with gems that contained the remains of Saint Foy is called a
a. sarcophagus
b. tomb.
c. reliquary.
d. icon.
e. mosaic.

c

Compare and contrast Romanesque and Gothic styles, citing specific structures to illustrate
your points.

The High Middle Ages were was marked by a building boom of churches, and art historians refer to the period of 1050 to 1200 as the Romanesque era for stylistic features reminiscent of ancient Roman architecture including an overall massiveness, thick stone walls, and barrel-vaulted ceilings. The earliest Romanesque pilgrimage church is the Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy, in France. The church has a cross-form plan configured by the nave and the transept. Two square towers flank the entry portal and an octagonal tower marks the intersection of the transept and nave. The round arches of the windows are continued in the interior, which has a barrel-vaulted nave and groin-vaulted aisles. The cathedral at Chartres, France shows the towering quality of Gothic architecture. The unadorned masses of the Romanesque give way to the ornate, linear, vertical elements that direct the eye upward. Flying buttresses line the nave and apse to contain the outward thrust of the walls. The soaring, open interior spaces were created with ribbed vaulting and pointed arches, a departure from the rounded arches of the Romanesque.

Explain several reasons that stained glass is considered the most glorious aspect of the Gothic
cathedrals.

The glory of the Gothic Cathedrals is their stained glass windows. The tall, pointed glass mosaic windows allowed for more natural light to illuminate the interiors and bath them with gem-like colors of a mystical light. In addition to the spiritual ambience, they served a didactic purpose as each window told a story in pictures, including some from the Bible, the lives of the saints, signs of the Zodiac, and donors from all aspects of society.

Consider Christ Entering Jerusalem and The Lamentation. For each, identify the artist,
media/techniques, and subject(s). Then discuss at least three ways in which these works can be considered as transitions or bridges between typical medieval styles of painting and early Renaissance styles.

Italian artists Duccio, from Sienna, and his contemporary Giotto, from Florence, were influential in making the shift from art styles of the Middle Ages to the significantly different tyles of the Renaissance. Duccio's tempera on panel Christ Entering Jerusalem displays a departure from the flattened forms of medieval art. Duccio attempted to create believable space in a scene, and employed architecture to define the space and direct the movement. This was Duccio's almost unprecedented contribution using architecture to demarcate space rather than to function as a simple background. Giotto made a more remarkable break with art traditions in The Lamentation, a fresco panel, employing a highly original use of space. His scenes are composed as a stage, and the space in the foreground and background appears to be continuous. Giotto's presentation of the human figure displays rounded, full-bodied people who define the spatial aspect, not architecture as in Duccio's work. Both artists sought a new direction for painting in a more naturalistic, more human, and engaging representation of the physical world.

Consider the Sutton Hoo purse cover pictured in the text. Discuss this work with reference to
the site in which it was found, the culture in which it was created, the artistic style it represents, and the materials used in its creation.

Sutton Hoo was located on the island of Britain where the grave of an unknown 7th- century East Anglian king was found. One of the objects at the burial site was a gold-and- enamel purse cover with delicately-made designs. The motifs are typical of the animal style, prevalent in the art of northwestern Europe, a legacy from the migratory herdsmen. Animal- style images were accompanied by interlace, patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons and bands.

Consider the Bayeux Tapestry, pictured in the text. Identify the historical event it
commemorates. How does this work depict this event, and what point of view does it take?

A famous work of Romanesque art is the Bayeux Tapestry. It is embroidery work and resembles a long picture book 20 inches high and 231 feet long. It tells the story of the conquest of England by William of Normandy in 1066. The scene in the text illustrates a group of Anglo-Saxons making a stand on a hill against a Norman cavalry assault. Soldiers and horses tumble spectacularly, and casualties from both sides fill the lower border. Scholars have learned more about the events surrounding the Norman Conquest by studying the Bayeux Tapestry than they have from any of the literature of the time.

Consider the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, and the west façade of Chartres Cathedral.
Identify the style of each of these structures and describe the characteristics that make each one typical of its style.

...

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The walled, upward extension of the nave that is pierced with windows is called the
a. nave.
b. clerestory.
c. narthex.
d. apse.
e. transept.

b

Because Christianity emphasized congregational worship, a fundamental change in the
________ was needed.
a. architectural design of places of worship
b. iconography of the church
c. placement of the altar
d. hierarchy of the gods
e. All these answers are correct.

a

The cross-shaped floor plan of a church is formed by the combined shapes of the nave and
the
a. aisles.
b. clerestory.
c. narthex.
d. apse.
e. transept.

e

The major axis of a central-plan church, such as the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, is
a. octagonal.
b. rectilinear.
c. vertical.
d. diagonal
e.horizontal

c

The mosaic Christ as the Sun exemplifies early Christian artists’ appropriation of ________
iconography.
a. Egyptian
b. Greek
c. Islamic
d. Roman
e. both Greek and Roman

e

Unlike their Greek and Roman predecessors, Byzantine artists preferred
a. re-creation of daily life in their art.
b. a natural, more realistic art.
c. calligraphy in their art.
d. a flattened, abstracted style of art.
e. None of these answers is correct.

d

Architects of Romanesque churches began installing ________ around the apse, which
allowed the overflow of pilgrims to circulate freely around the interior of the church.
a. scaffolding
b. ambulatories
c. underground walkways
d. transepts
e. barrel vaulting

b

______ is a pattern or patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons or bands. a. Narthex
b. Interlace
c. Illumination
d. Embroidery
e. Ambulatory

b

The art and architecture of the high Middle Ages is generally divided into two periods, the
________ and the ________.
a. Romanesque; Carolingian
b. Renaissance; Gothic
c. Romanesque; Gothic
d. Romanesque; Renaissance
e. Gothic; Carolingian

c

All the following are features of Romanesque architecture EXCEPT
a. thick stone walls.
b. barrel-vaulted stone ceilings.
c. overall massiveness.
d. large windows of stained glass.
e. round arches.

d

Gothic cathedrals are known especially for
a. the privacy and intimacy of their interior spaces.
b. their stained glass windows.
c. their heavy Romanesque walls.
d. their idyllic French countryside locations.
e. rounded arches and symmetrical towers.

b

The technique in which colored yarns are sewn to an existing woven background is called a. interlace.
b. embroidery.
c. tempera.
d. tapestry.
e. gouache.

b

The ________ is the walkway directly in front of a church that serves as the entry porch.
a. nave
b. clerestory
c. narthex
d. apse
e. transept

c

Duccio and Giotto were two artists whose innovations in ________ greatly influenced
Renaissance painting styles.
a. basing their works on religious traditions
b. introducing a flat, decorative space
c. exploring classical subject matter
d. creating figures and settings with an increased naturalism
e. Gothic sculpture

d

Abbot Suger’s church near Paris, Saint-Denis, is the first ________ church ever built.
a. Gothic
b. Romanesque
c. High Renaissance
d. Carolingian
e. post-and-beam

b

The Palace Chapel at Aachen was built for ________ as his personal place of worship.
a. Saint Denis
b. Abbot Suger
c. Charlemagne
d. William of Normandy
e. Constantine

c

What purpose is served by the carved figures that adorn the entryways at Chartres Cathedral?
a. They serve as reminders that one is entering a sacred space.
b. They are structural, holding up the archways above the doors.
c. They form a narrative, telling the story of Sainte Foy.
d. They are purely decorative, serving no real purpose.
e. They form a narrative, but are purely decorative.

a

Soaring open spaces, pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stained glass
windows are characteristic of
a. Renaissance architecture.
b. Romanesque churches.
c. the church of Sainte Foy.
d. Gothic cathedrals.
e. the Palace Chapel of Charlemagne.

d

In his painting ________, the artist Duccio pioneered the use of architecture to define space
and direct movement.
a. Icon with the Crucifixion
b. Gospel Book of Durrow
c. Christ Entering Jerusalem
d. Pantokrator
e. The Lamentation

c

The transition from Romanesque to Gothic style can be seen in the ________ at Chartres
Cathedral.
a. architecture
b. reliquaries
c. mosaics
d. sculpture
e. architecture and sculpture

c

The ________ technique was used to complete the Empress Theodora and Retinue in 547
C.E.
a. collage
b. woven threads
c. fresco
d. encaustic
e. mosaic

e

The term pantokrater, used in the title of the mosaic Christ as the Pantokater, is Greek for
a. ruler of all.
b. gentle.
c. awe-inspiring.
d. holy.
e. savior.

a

The gold-hammered vessel set with gems that contained the remains of Saint Foy is called a
a. sarcophagus
b. tomb.
c. reliquary.
d. icon.
e. mosaic.

c

Compare and contrast Romanesque and Gothic styles, citing specific structures to illustrate
your points.

The High Middle Ages were was marked by a building boom of churches, and art historians refer to the period of 1050 to 1200 as the Romanesque era for stylistic features reminiscent of ancient Roman architecture including an overall massiveness, thick stone walls, and barrel-vaulted ceilings. The earliest Romanesque pilgrimage church is the Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy, in France. The church has a cross-form plan configured by the nave and the transept. Two square towers flank the entry portal and an octagonal tower marks the intersection of the transept and nave. The round arches of the windows are continued in the interior, which has a barrel-vaulted nave and groin-vaulted aisles. The cathedral at Chartres, France shows the towering quality of Gothic architecture. The unadorned masses of the Romanesque give way to the ornate, linear, vertical elements that direct the eye upward. Flying buttresses line the nave and apse to contain the outward thrust of the walls. The soaring, open interior spaces were created with ribbed vaulting and pointed arches, a departure from the rounded arches of the Romanesque.

Explain several reasons that stained glass is considered the most glorious aspect of the Gothic
cathedrals.

The glory of the Gothic Cathedrals is their stained glass windows. The tall, pointed glass mosaic windows allowed for more natural light to illuminate the interiors and bath them with gem-like colors of a mystical light. In addition to the spiritual ambience, they served a didactic purpose as each window told a story in pictures, including some from the Bible, the lives of the saints, signs of the Zodiac, and donors from all aspects of society.

Consider Christ Entering Jerusalem and The Lamentation. For each, identify the artist,
media/techniques, and subject(s). Then discuss at least three ways in which these works can be considered as transitions or bridges between typical medieval styles of painting and early Renaissance styles.

Italian artists Duccio, from Sienna, and his contemporary Giotto, from Florence, were influential in making the shift from art styles of the Middle Ages to the significantly different tyles of the Renaissance. Duccio’s tempera on panel Christ Entering Jerusalem displays a departure from the flattened forms of medieval art. Duccio attempted to create believable space in a scene, and employed architecture to define the space and direct the movement. This was Duccio’s almost unprecedented contribution using architecture to demarcate space rather than to function as a simple background. Giotto made a more remarkable break with art traditions in The Lamentation, a fresco panel, employing a highly original use of space. His scenes are composed as a stage, and the space in the foreground and background appears to be continuous. Giotto’s presentation of the human figure displays rounded, full-bodied people who define the spatial aspect, not architecture as in Duccio’s work. Both artists sought a new direction for painting in a more naturalistic, more human, and engaging representation of the physical world.

Consider the Sutton Hoo purse cover pictured in the text. Discuss this work with reference to
the site in which it was found, the culture in which it was created, the artistic style it represents, and the materials used in its creation.

Sutton Hoo was located on the island of Britain where the grave of an unknown 7th- century East Anglian king was found. One of the objects at the burial site was a gold-and- enamel purse cover with delicately-made designs. The motifs are typical of the animal style, prevalent in the art of northwestern Europe, a legacy from the migratory herdsmen. Animal- style images were accompanied by interlace, patterns formed by intricately interwoven ribbons and bands.

Consider the Bayeux Tapestry, pictured in the text. Identify the historical event it
commemorates. How does this work depict this event, and what point of view does it take?

A famous work of Romanesque art is the Bayeux Tapestry. It is embroidery work and resembles a long picture book 20 inches high and 231 feet long. It tells the story of the conquest of England by William of Normandy in 1066. The scene in the text illustrates a group of Anglo-Saxons making a stand on a hill against a Norman cavalry assault. Soldiers and horses tumble spectacularly, and casualties from both sides fill the lower border. Scholars have learned more about the events surrounding the Norman Conquest by studying the Bayeux Tapestry than they have from any of the literature of the time.

Consider the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, and the west façade of Chartres Cathedral.
Identify the style of each of these structures and describe the characteristics that make each one typical of its style.

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