Art Appreciation Chapter 2- –

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Horizontal lines mostly suggest ______.


Diagonal lines imply______.


Value in art refers to _____ and ______.

lightness and darkness

An achromatic value scale doesn’t utilize ______.


Chiaroscuro was first used by fifteenth century ______ painters to give the illusion of rounded forms on a flat surface.


Another name for atmospheric perspective is ____ perspective.


Every color has three properties: hue, value, and ___.


Black and white added to colors creates ____ and ___.

shades and tints

Intensity refers to a color’s ____ or _____.

brightness or dullness

Analogous colors are _____ each other on the color wheel.

next to

Regular shoes are ____; irregular shapes are _____.

geometric and organic

The space in paintings is referred to as ____


Rhythm in art is demonstrated by the ____ of one or more of the elements of art.


Generally speaking, architectural structures are practical, aesthetic, meaningful, and ____.


Load bearing construction is usually characterized by

few openings in the walls

Post and lintel construction is shown by

the Parthenon

The Greek ___ order was considered ____; the Ionic order was considered ______.


The ____ was most noted for its dome.


Eaves and ____ go together in construction.


Pendentives and squinches are associated with _____.


Steel-framed construction has been likened to _____.

a skeleton

The Parthenon is an example of a building with ____ balance.


Ornamentation in architecture is the ____ of forms or surfaces beyond structural necessity.


Recent innovation in structural systems include____.

reinforced concrete

Ornamentation in architecture usually functions symbolically or ____.


One of the earliest forms of load-bearing construction os the ___ method of construction

post and lintel

___ patterns occur all around us in nature.


A line that describes volume across the surface of an object or shape is called a ____ line.


_____ Is the creation of one or more focal points in a work of art


Cross-hatching is used to create ___ in a work of art.


To create an illusion of volume and natural light, artist use ___- to manipulate gradation in value.


In the ___ color system, artist mix pigments to control the light that is reflected from them


___ textures mimic reality.


____ patterns have regular elements spaced are regular intervals


A rose window in a cathedral is a good example of organizing a composition using ___ balance


Trusses are ___ shaped construction supports.


Artist drawing only the outlines of an object are using ___ lines.


The use of red and green at Christmas is an example of ___ colors.


Lines can be either actual or


Balance that involves a mirror-like repetition on wither side of a central axis is called ____ balance.


Neutral colors, such as cream, tan, or beige, are very ____ intensity colors.


Visual texture consist of physical surface variations that can be experienced by the sense of touch


Gesture lines are a type of line with an expressive character


Buttressing occurs when a straight row of arches are placed side by side


Geodesic domes are a type of small dome used in early Roman residential architecture.


Rectangular glass covered, boxlike building are examples of the International style in architecture


The wedge shaped stones in arches are called piers


The various branches of art-making activity, like painting or sculpture, are called _____


A graphite rod in a wood or metal holder is called


The surface or material that underlines a two-dimensional work of art is called the _____.


A silverpoint drawing is

made by using a think stylus made of silver

In _____ printing, areas that are not to be printed are cut away from the printing surface, so the areas to be printed are left higher


A ___ print is an example of a relief print


The word "intaglio: comes from the Italian verb meaning _____

to cut into

_____ is a type of printmaking process that uses a slab of limestone or metal and oily crayons, pencils, or liquid


Some of the oldest surviving paintings were made on

clay vessels

Tempera paint is often used to create

sharp lines and details

____ sculptures are meant to be viewed from all sides


A marble sculpture made by cutting away stone is made in a _____ process.


Except or very small sculptures, all cast sculptures are created using the ___ method of casting

lost wax

The ____ is an early type of photographic process


The actual material substances used to create an artwork are called ____


___ is a carbon stick created from burnt wood and is commonly used to make drawings


The intense colorful powders used to make paints are called ____


___ painting is an ancient medium that uses pigments mixed with hot beeswax


___ paints, a combination of pigments and a synthetic polymer liquid binder, were invented in the twentieth century.


Often used for large murals, fresco paintings are always painted on


Traditional tempera paint consist of pigments mixed with ____, which acts as a binder.

egg yolk

Photomontage is related to ___, which can be made of almost anything that can be glued to a surface


In kinetic sculptures, ___ is required to make the sculpture complete


Modeling is often considered an ____ process, because material is built up to create sculptural form.


An assembled artwork made with a variety of techniques and material is categorized as a ___ piece.

mixed media

Mixed media artworks designed for a specific interior or exterior space are called ___


A ___ is a live-action event that is staged as an artwork.


____ are finely skilled handwork in media success j ad ceramics, glass, wood, metal, and fibers


Gesso is a white, paint-like substance that is brushed into paper to canvas to serve as ground for painting or drawing


From a historical art perspective , drawing is one of the newest forms of art making


Printmaking excludes any medium that can produce multiple copies of an image or a design


Unlike most printmaking process, monoprinting is a type that makes only one copy of an image


Slip is an acid-resistant resin used to make aquatints


Tempera, gouache, and watercolor are all water-based paint media


Because oil paints dry quickly, it is difficult for artist to make changes to their paintings.


Gouache is a type of watercolor, which has Chinese white chalk added to it to create an opaque surface


Ceramics are found in almost every culture, from ancient times to the present


Some contemporary artist use the craft of quilting as an art medium


Lascaux’s images probably had a ______ purpose linked to natures bounty.


Prehistoric artist painted images in the ___ of caves.


Australian Aboriginals painted "contour maps" indicating food and water locations; these may were then ___ after a ritual celebration.


Coe’s Her is No Escape is from a series condemning the meat industry called ____


The ancient Chinese made ___ vessels for storing wine.


As its name suggest, the ancient Greek ___ was used for carrying and storing water.


The Pomo tribal baskets, covered with feathers and shells, were made as ceremonial ___


Warhol’s work, such as Heinz 57 tomato Ketchup, celebrated the commercial art of ___


Salt was considered so valuable that it was a source of wealth; the European nobility used elaborate saltcellars as a ____

Status Symbol

Jan Davids de Heem’s A Table of Desserts reflects cultural and ___ beliefs.


Mu Qi’s Six Persimmons emphasizes ____ in life

meditation and simplicity

An important component of European still life painting was the idea of ____

food as beauty

In the early twentieth century, still life paintings were not concerned with

food as opulence

Ritual meals do NOT include

Sunday brunch

The House of Julius Polybuis had a front atrium with a pool, called the ____, for collecting rainwater.


Examples of ancient communities in which homes were close together in the same style include Catal Huyuk and ___

Pueblo Bonito

Trajan’s Market has tavernas whose form and arrangement suggest a

shopping mall

The architect ____, who designed one of the first innovative tall buildings of the twentieth century, believed that "form follows function" in architecture

Louis Sullivan

Greek ceramics are known for ____ painting, in which a thin coating of black firing clay covers the red clay of the vessel and details are scratched into the surface with a needle.

black figure

A ___ is a vessel designed specifically to contain salt.


The pop artist ___ created sculptures that look like mass-produced cardboard packaging for common grocery store items using silk-screened wood

Andy Warhol

Paintings reflecting the beliefs of ___, such as Mu-Qi’s Six Permissions from 1269, emphasizes the importance of simplicity and meditation in life

Zen Buddhism

A ___ painting is work of art, which uses a still life as a metaphor for the inevitability of death


The Venus of Willendorf is a statue of ___

an anonymous fertile woman

The idol from Amargos is a statue of ____-

A venus fertility statue

Figure of a Diety; A’a Rurutu the Austral Islands in central Polynesia was an ancestor diety and represented a

creator in the act of creating human beings

The Bamana fertility figure from Mali contains

geometric forms

The paintings in the Villa of Mysteries were done by the ___


The Primordial Couple of the Doyon represents ___

the father and mother of all

There are many symbols in Jan van Eyck’s The Wedding, including ____


The Japanese shunts prints are translated as ______

Spring pictures

An odalisque was a member of ___

a harem

Georgia O’Keeffe’s works are often extreme close ups of


In prehistoric time fertility was ____

an important concern

The Moche, the Maya, and Alice Need did versions of ___

Pregnant women

Brancusi’s Torso of a Young Man is ____

very abstract

Louise Bourgeois’ Bling Man’s Bluff is a sculpture of ___

bulbous forms

The ancient cities required ____ in order to function

major rivers

In Mesopotamia, ____ symbols developed into the first writing


Early cities in the New Stone Age fostered the

division of labor

In Mesopotamia, the early cities states were between the Tigris and the


In 3000 BCE, Native American artisans settled around Lake ___


The Indud River Valley is in present day


Moche pottery is characterized by ___-

naturalistic imagery of everyday life

Historically in India, images of ideal erotic sexuality were ______

common in temples and miniature paintings

In nineteenth century Europe, paintings were an acceptable way to present images of nude women.


When an artist paints thickly and directly onto the canvas, the work is called an ___ painting

alla prima

Many critics have associated Georgia O’Keeffe’s imagery with ___-

the female body

Stiff, angular female figures from the Cycaldic Islands, often called ___, were found in burial sites.

plank idols

Oceanic sculptures such as God Te Ronga and His Three Sons were carved for religious rituals by specialist called Ta’unga, which is also the word for


Potawatomi figure like carvings were used as "medicine" to

alleviate menstrual pain

A ______ ia associated with creation myths and is the mother and father of all humankind

primordial couple

An ____ is a member of a Turkish harem


Near the confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers, the ___ built large, truncated pyramid mounds topped with temples


Some of the earliest artifacts believed to relate to human fertility come from the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of history


The Venus of Willendorf is a monumental, Paleolithic sculpture found near the village of Willendorf, Austria.


Regardless of time period or culture, fertility figures are universally female


Many of the fertility figures from Oceanic cultures illustrate the significance of family lineage


Polynesian fertility figures were used by everyone in the culture, regardless of rank or power


Aztec marriage ceremonies took place in the groom’s home in front of the hearth


The Mississippians built large truncated pyramid mounds topped with temples


Images of deities ___

are universal

Most Early deities represented ____

a female fertility goddess

The Snake Goddess is from


From ancient Egypt came the convention of repressing deities as ____


The Hindu god Brahman can never be____


The Buddhist concept of heaven on paradise is called


A Buddhist stupa, at first a mound tomb, was transformed into a relic____

of a Buddha

Later statuses of Buddha emphasized


The nearest analogy to a Bodhisattva would be

a saint

When Christianity becomes the official state religion, Christ was shown as _____

a king or ruler

The special rituals of the Kwakiuti

held annually

Mexican votive paintings are called


Depictions of ritual sacrifices were shown in many cultures, including ____

Christian and Mesoamerican

The Hopi make spirit dolls called


A mandala is an attempt to show ____

the cosmos

The images of Michelangelo’s Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel present ___

the origin of the universe

The Ziggurat of Ur is an

artificial mountain

Many religious structures, from Stonehenge to the Pantheon, use ___ to convey their power.


A journey to a special shrine is called a ___


The Parthenon frieze probably shows ______

the Panathenaic Festival

The deities of ancient Egypt were mostly personifications of _____

natural forces

The Hindu God____ is the unity in which all opposites meet the source of good and evil, male and female.


Minarets are associated with ___ structures


In the Islamic religion, ___ is never depicted in visual form


The ancient ___ believes that Gaia, the Earth Goddess, was the beginning of all life on Earth


In the Hindu religion, there are many gods, but this is not considered to be ___ because they are all manifestations of the same being.


Buddhist and Hindus believe that human beings are ___ until they attain nirvana


A ____ was originally a mound tomb, but eventually it became a monument, which contains the relics of a Buddha


A ___ is a living bring who has attained Buddhahood but chooses to remain on Earth to help others.


___ is one of the oldest religions of the Western world and is the foundation of Christianity and Islam


In Mexico, small votive paintings called ___ are left at religious shrines as a prayer or an offering


The ____, representing the cosmos, begins with a circle, which symbolizes the void before creation.


In Egypt, ____ were believed to be the actual dwellings of the gods and were modeled after the residences of of nobles and pharaohs


In some religions, followers believe that deities can present in a work art.


In many religions, simple geometric shapes can symbolize a God


Because the Greeks considered themselves superior to other religions that worshipped trees or mountain, Greek gods are generally personified as human-animal hybrids


In Hinduism a mudras is a symbolic hand gesture signifying imbalance


The Christian tradition has many kinds of images of God


In Bali, religion is devoid of any artistic expression or depiction


In Mayan culture, bali players were important members of society, and ball games were seen as important religious rituals


The Longmen caves in China, a Buddhist pilgrimage comprised of a complex of cave shrines, were supported by imperial patronage.


Over a 3000 year period, Egyptian temple design had more changes and technological breakthroughs than any other concurrent culture.


Gothic cathedrals were all funded by and built in cities


Mortality mean ____

being subject to death

The earliest tombs were


One example of a Stone Age tomb is


The Egyptians used the pyramid form to create the meeting place

between life on earth and eternity

The Egyptians painted important people with their heads in profile and their eyes

in frontal position

The Etruscan tombs were very much like


The soldiers from Pit 1 from the tomb She Huangdi, China, are made of ___


The Moche tomb revealed that gold and solver were

only for the elite

Greek grave markers usually showed

quiet, everyday moments

The Romans felt that family tombs

Should be as ostentatious as possible

The bronze canopy in St. Peter’s in Bernini is called a


Probably the most famous Islamic mausoleum is the

Taj Mahal

A small shrine that contains the remains of a holy person is called a


In Africa, ___ are venerated in sculptures


European cemeteries were often organized in the ___ system or a picturesque, romantic one.


The ____ Day of the Dead celebration is a remembrance of all the dead


Memorial festivals held in New Ireland are called


The AIDS Memorial Quilt

changes every time it is displayed

Tribute in Light was displayed in

New York

Ancient tombs were often oriented to the movement of

celestial bodies

Newgrange, in Ireland, was rediscovered

in 1699 by a man quarrying for building stone

Egyptian pharaohs were believed to be descendants of the most powerful god, the

Sun God

A ___ is a city of the dead


Etruscan tomb chambers were carved directly out of soft bedrock called


Ruled by warrior-priest from 150-800 CE, the ___ civilization extended for more than 400 miles along the Pacific Ocean in, what is now, modern Peru


The tombs of the ___ from Scandinavia, reflect how important sea travel was to their civilization


In ancient ____, the dead were buried along roadways, outside the city walls, in highly visible funerary monuments to illustrate the individuals fame or standing in society.


Early Christians buried their dead in vast underground networks called_____


In 313, under Emperor ___, Christianity became the official religion of Rome


The wealthy and powerful among Islamic societies were sometimes buried in mausoleums adjoining


___ are bones, tissues, and possessions of deceased holy persons that are preserved and venerated


___ was a major art and cultural movement of the nineteenth century that emphasized a return to a simple, rural way of life


The Day of the Dead is a popular celebration, mixing Christianity and ___ beliefs.


The ancient Egyptians funerary monuments took the form of pyramids, which were geometric mountains


The Great Pyramids in Egypt have large interior chambers, which were used for public burial rituals


The pyramids of pharaohs Menkaure, Khafre, and Khufu are the largest amount all the periods and are situated in the west bank of the Nile.


The garden was a pleasure in Egyptians life and was featured in their imagery of the afterlife


The soldiers from the funeral complex of Shi Huangdi in China are all standardized figures with similar bodies, gestures, and faces


Modern cemeteries developed in response to an increase in urban populations and concerns about pollution and sanitation


The clay soldiers from the tomb of Shi Huangdi were originally painted in vivid colors


The ancient Greeks developed the earliest commemorative funerary architecture in Europe and the Middle East


The Romans developed the concept of cemeteries with small plots marked by upright monuments


Early Greek grave markers were originally painted with vivid colors


By the rule of Henry VII of England, all church burials were banned because tombs were overwhelmingly church interiors.


Artistic devices used to glorify a ruler’s image an idealized image and


In the Egyptian sculpture Menkaure and His Wife, Queen Khamerernebty, the figures are shown

standing side by side

The twelve figures flanking Emperor Justinian in this image allude to

the twelve apostles

The Crowned Head of an One demonstrated the Yoruba and Benin skill in


In ancient Hawaii, only royalty could own or what precious objects made of


Royal kabila were simple

fly whisks

Triumph of the Will was a film glorifying


Palaces are different from ordinary residences by

their grand size

Achaemenid architecture is especially distinguished by

its grand use of columns

Versailles was built in the ___ style


The Lamassu was a figure that stood on

five legs

The Houses of Parliament were built in the ___ style

Gothic Revival

The Maori Meeting House represented the ___ of a great ancestor


To remember military victories, the Romans built


The Benin Plaque with Warrior and Attendants represented the king’s


Picasso’s Guernica dramatized the 1937 destruction of the Basque capital during the

Spanish Civil War

The Palette of King Narmar glorifies


The Assyrians dominated the Near East for over three hundred years and were known for their

ruthlessness and brutality

A fantastic creature, the Lamassu had the head of a


England’s Houses of Parliament used new building materials such as

cast iron

The first to photograph war, ____ made 3,500 photographs covering both sides of the U.S. Cicil War

Mathew Brady

___ have symbolized peace in Western art

doves, Winged allegorical figures, women

A ruler’s image is often ____, meaning it is depicted without flaws and often with youthful vigor


The Palette of king Narmer represents the forceful ___

unification of Egypt

To emphasize Christianity in the image The Emperor Justinian and his Attendants, a soldier’s shell displays the ___. an ancient symbol of Christ


The film ___ established Adolph Hitler as the fist media hero of the modern age

The Triumph of the Will

Abandoned prior to Spanish conquest, the ___ created Palenque, a large palace complex with high platforms and relief sculpture


The ___ in China was but;t as a sign of Imperial power and as an instrument to maintain power

Forbidden City

The seat of power for King Louis XIV of France, ___ was originally Louis’s grandfather’s hunting lodge


The ___ of China, considered to be a "wonder of the world" is a monumental example of a war architecture

Great Wall

Known for its cinematic technique, the film The Battleship Potempkin used ___ to allow viewers to piece together the story from fleeting images


Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veteran’s Memorial in Washington, D. C., was designed to glorify the Vietnam War


Guernica was a temporary memorial honoring the victims of September 11


Emperor Justinian’s wife, Theodora, was depicted as having equal rank and power to her husband


Hawaiian royal objects were made of materials that were taboo to all other excepts royalty


The imagery in Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will was strictly documentary and was not manipulated by the director


King Louis XIV of France was also called the Sun King because he identifies himself with the god Apollo


The Palette of King Narmer was used for mixing black eye makeup worn by ancient Egyptian men and women


In Marina Abramovic’s performance piece, The Artist Is Present, the artist’s body and the ___ are the art piece.

actions of the audience

In Medieval Europe, human nature was held in high self esteem, and images of the body symbolized by the purity of God’s devine realm.


Italian Renaissance artist were strongly influenced by Hellenistic and Roman sculptures that were being excavated in central Italy


Chuck Close is a painter known for making highly idealized figurative paintings based in classical notions of ideal beauty


Nancy Burson achieved a grainy, fuzzy look in her photographic series Faces by using a cheap plastic camera


An ____ figure, such as Doryphoros, is often used to represent ideas about the essence of humanity, rather than depicting a specific individual


In ____ greece, figures were often in theatrical poses as though they were on stage in front of an audience.


During the Renaissance, the ___ as an ideal form became popular again


In the nineteenth century, new technologies such as ____ changed the understanding of the human body and the way art was made


A successful portrait in art is usually considered someone’s likened, not only in face but also in ____


The first attribute of a specific portrait is usually _____ features, rather than the broadly stylized features evident in generic figures


A ____ pose depicts a figure standing naturally, with one foot forward and one leg bearing most of the figures weight


___ is known for the use of stop motion photography to document the physical movement of humans and animals

Eadweard Muybridge

Many are nineteenth century European artist ere strongly influenced by Japanese prints and paintings


Ritual tattooing was often used on the eastern islands of the South Pacific as part of initiation rites that prepared an individual for adulthood


A full body portrait is always a life size depiction of an individual


Polykleites invented and applied a system of mathematical proportions called the Canon for the depiction of Greek figures


Violas series titled The Passions is based on ___ paintings of figured in sorrow, ecstasy, or astonishment

Modern and Postmodern

The Study for the Portrait of Okakura Tension showed the Japanese characteristics of ____

flat shapes and contour lines.

The first attribute of a specific portrait is usually ____ features, rather than the broadly stylized features evident in generic figures


Double Mask from the Ejagham People of the Cross River area of Cameroon was worm during rituals that promoted _____

initiation rites for warriors

According to Protagoras, man is the ___ of all things


Doryphoros translate to

spear bearer

The Dutch artist ____ made at least 62 self portraits, often identifiable by the subject matter and his palette of earth tones, dull reds and luminous yellows

Rembrandt van Rijn

The publication of ____ theories of repression and neurosis influenced many artist of the late nineteenth century

Sigmund Freud’s

In Pollocks Lucifer, the style of painting called ____ invalid the motion of the artist entire body

action painting

Van Gogh’s portrait of Dr. Gachet features ___ to shoe the artist state of mind

thick paint

Many African sculptures considered the head and ___ ad most important


Laocoon and His Sons revealed ___ Greek attitudes about the body during the Hellenistic period


The Doryphoros is idealized in several ways, including ____

its restrained emotions

Traditional African sculpture portrays the frontal view as ___


The Egyptian ____ style was a new aesthetic, which rejected the rigid, abstract style of the past for a more flowing, elegant, naturalistic approach


Vincent Van Goghs Portrait of Dr. Gachet was a vehicle for commentary about

the suffering inherent in modern, urban life

___ was known for using self portraits to comment on the factors shaping her life, including her ancestry and her chronic pain

Frida Kahlo

___ photographs reflect socially prescribed roles and explore the nature of stereotypes

Cindy Sherman

Medieval Chinese felt the ___ was more important than the ___


Eadweard Muybridges photos of human bodies revealed his ___ attitude towards the human body


Because fantastic creatures do not exist, they can serve as


The ancient Greeks created woman-headed birds called


Satyrs were men with ____ attributes and were prone to drunkenness and sexual excess

goat or horse

The unicorn was supposed to be a horse with some ____ features.


The unicorn became a symbol for


A shaman was believed to be ____ between humans, animals, and spirits.

a bridge

____ are metaphors for humans in Thai, Hindu, and Buddhist art.


Chris Ofili, a British artist of Nigerian descent, often uses elephant ____ in his art.


Ashurbanipal II Killing Lions is an example of ____ relief carving.


Pear Blossoms is a lyric painting by Qian Xuan that is accompanied by

lines of poetry

Landscapes were popular in China and Japan because

cities were noisy, polluted and crowded

John Constable’s works, while Romantic in essence, were the foundation for the


In the later years of his life, Claude Monet’s paintings approached abstraction, as ____ became more important than imagery


Ansel Adams’ photographs emphasized the beauty of nature as

untouched by humans

Gardens were very popular among the ruling class of

All of the above

Flowers were often symbols for the Christian religion in earlier times; for example, the iris represented ____.


Many Islamic gardens stood for ____.


Visitors to the Zen Garden of Contemplation in Japan are expected to

sit still and meditate

Lightning Field is regarded as a(n) ____ piece, since most people have seen it through photographs rather than in person.


In areas of Peru and Bolivia, the ____ is highly regarded because it can signify weather changes and can predict rainfall.


Robert Smithson created earthworks because ____.

He was interested unmoving his art outside the gallery system

Popular in late medieval literature, the ____ is a horse with some goat features and a long, single horn projecting from its forehead.


Invented by the Greeks, ____ are man-headed horses known for their lustfulness.


A ____ is a person with supernatural powers, believed to be a bridge among the human, animal, and spirit worlds.


Inspiration for Chinese and Japanese ____ paintings often came from poetry or the beliefs of Daoism, which held nature in high esteem.


The Impressionist artist ____ was well known for his paintings of natural scenes such as water lilies and haystacks.

Claude Monet

In Japan, flowers are viewed as a vehicle for greater understanding, and ____ is considered an important art form, on the level of painting, calligraphy, and pottery.

flower arranging

Contemporary ____ are large-scale environmental pieces in which the earth is an important component.


Popular in the United States and Europe in the 1960s, the ____ movement experimented with patterns to affect visual perception.

OP art

Animals appear in art in every culture.


Unicorns were first described in ancient Greece and Rome.


The narwhal was a Medieval beast with twisted features that represented degraded human nature.


In Assyrian culture, the king would kill lions in a public spectacle, called the royal lion hunt, to show his courage and illustrate his power.


The Incan civilization in Peru produced huge animal drawings by scraping the desert floor to reveal the lighter-colored sand beneath it.


The European painter John Constable painted his large landscapes outdoors from direct observation.


Ansel Adams’ photographs helped raise public support for national parks and for the environmental movement in general.


The bouquets Dutch artist Jan Bruegel painted never existed in real life.


Due to technological advances in photography, medical books no longer contain drawn illustrations.


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