Art 9

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In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge photographed a galloping horse, and discovered that galloping horses occasionally have all four hooves ______________.

Muybridge’s experiments led to stop-motion photography, which allowed a subject to freeze for one moment.

off the ground

The use by artists of the camera obscura (literally dark room) began in the __________________.

The principle of the camera obscura was discovered very early in history, but it was not until the Renaissance that a practical device was developed to harness those principles.

Italian Renaissance

Artists like Peter Campus became interested in video because video signals could be ________.

Artists took quickly to video because of its immediate results in capturing an image and the ability to manipulate video signals to affect interesting artistic outcomes.

electronically manipulated into interesting images

Artists primarily used the ___________ to produce naturalistic drawings of the world.

Artists concerned with making optically convincing-representations through perspective and chiaroscuro welcomed this improved camera as a drawing tool.

camera obscura

The creation of a photographic body of work around an event, place, or culture is known as _______.

A purpose of photography is to bear witness and document, and photojournalism allowed the public to see a story, not just an individual illustration of an event.


Andy Warhol’s film Empire is a film about ______________.

Warhol’s films resemble his paintings of the time, which challenge our idea that something will "happen."

watching time pass

A major difference between the work of a "pure" or "straight" photographer, such as Alfred Stieglitz, and the work of a documentary photographer, such as Dorothea Lange, is the different _________ of each photographer.

Stieglitz believed that for photography to be an art it must be true to its own nature and not try to be painterly. Lange’s work was intended to document and inform, and her photographs created a visual journal of the affects of the Great Depression.

the different intentions of each photographer

A daguerreotype was an early photographic method created using a _________ covered with silver iodine.

Daguerre made a breakthrough for photography by recording an image that was clear and sharp and could be duplicated easily.

copper plate

Early examples of art photography often imitated the narrative form of _____________.

The existing art photography most resembled was painting as many early photographers turned to painting as a model.

the narrative form of painting

The Farm Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture paid photographers to document the ________________.

The FSA subsidized photographers and sent them out to record conditions across the nation to document what happened during the Great Depression.

the great depression

The Dada movement was formed as a reaction to what war?

The Dadaist movement, which was formed as a reaction to the unprecedented slaughter of ____, refused to make sense in traditional ways, creating "anti-art."

World War 1

________ is closely associated with Alfred Stieglitz’s assertion that for photography to be an art, it should be true to its own nature.

The Steerage

Despite an enthusiastic public acceptance, the success of the daguerreotype was limited by the inability to make __________ images from one negative.

The daguerreotype’s image produced a positive image, which is unique and cannot be reproduced since the plate is the photograph.

the inability to make multiple images from one negative

Julia Margaret Cameron is renowned for her ______________.

Daguerre’s invention caused the general public to see the potential of photography, especially for portraits, and Julia Cameron became one of the finest portraitists of the time.


In 1888 the Kodak camera changed the history of photography by making photography easily accessible to the ___________________.

general public.

Man Ray created mysterious images, called _________, which looked like ordinary photographs but did not require a camera to record them.


Man Ray discovered that an object placed on light sensitive paper would leave its mark in the form of a shadow when exposed to light, and developed a technique called the _____________.


A(n) _________ is a director whose films are marked by a consistent, individual style, and is closely involved in conceiving the idea for the film’s story and writing the script.

During the 1920s, the expression "art cinema" came into use producing independent movies that didn’t conform to popular storytelling techniques. The directors were recognized for their individualistic style and were named after the French word for author.


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