art 2.9-3.2

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What is one of the main reasons that the creation of the Olmec colossal heads is so impressive?

They were created without metal tools

This Spanish artist combined a bicycle seat and handle bars into a form that was reminiscent of a bull’s head

Pablo Picasso

This sculptural process is the act of creating an environment that a viewer will experience within a space


The sculptural process in which the artist carves only in shallow depth is called ____.


Ancient Greek sculptors sometimes created cast sculptures from _____, an alloy of copper and tin


How does the American artist George Ricky ensure that his kinetic sculpture Breaking Column moves even when there is no wind?

it is motorized

Artists who model forms using soft pliable materials, such as clay or wax, sometimes employ this kind of support when creating their work

an armature

The name of this bronze-casting process relies on a modeled original form made from a pliable material. This method is know as _____.

Lost-wax casting

Which of these is not an additive process of sculpting?


Which of these is not a subtractive method of sculpting


This group of Soviet artists created an entire art movement out of the process of assembling artworks


Objects found or already existing outside of the context of art, which are used as component parts in a work or to create an entire sculpture, are called


another name for freestanding sculpture is _____

in the round

over time, exposure to the elements can add this surface coloration to metals. It can also be created with the use of chemical preparations


In freestanding sculpture, the artist entices the viewer to move around the work by creating a series of chaining _______


If an artist wanted to create a relief in which a tree appeared further away than a park bench more deeply (in high relief) would achieve this affect


all sculptures have this characteristic in common

they exist in three-dimensional space

which artist used an unconventional technique to "release" the figure; he felt that he was freeing the figure from the stone in which it had been trapped


The Physical Immobility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, by Damien Hirst, is an example of the broad range of materials that can be used in a work of art. It presents a _____ suspended in tank of formaldehyde


this artist took a urinal, turned it on its side, made some other slight alterations, and present it as an art object titled Fountain

Marcel Duchamp

The Temple of Amun-Re; an ancient Egyptian hypostyle hall built nearly 3,500 years ago, is still one of the largest religious structures in the world. It is located at _____


These windows are set high above the nave in order to allow light into large open areas, such as the interior of the Hagia Sophia


Vaults that have an exposed structural beam protruding from them for decorative purposes are called _____

Rib vaults

This architectural construction method consists of two uprights and a crossbeam


Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater cultivates an organic relationship between building and its location by:

All of the other answers

this is a ceiling based on the structural principles of the arch


the Pont du Guard is a Roman construction used for conveying water, called ____

an aqueduct

This style of architecture, which began in the 1980’s combine the hard rectangles of Modernism with unusual materials and stylistics features from the past

Post modernism

this style of medieval cathedral was based on the architecture of Rome


This type of arched span was fist used in ancient Babylon Mycenae


The visionary church leader Abbot Suger sought to intensify the spiritual experience of worshipers by revolutionizing church architecture. He was instrumental in establishing the architectural style known as _____


Architects consider this when designing a building

All of these answers

In order to create an interior space, an architect must design a distance between two supports called ____

a span

This type o window was used in Gothic cathedrals to enhance the religious experience of the worshiper


The ancient Romans perfected this type of arch and often used it in their architecture


The architect, who pioneered the use of steel in a architecture, is sometimes called the "father of Modernism"

Louis Sullivan

This building material is a mixture of cement and ground stone


the Great Pyramid of Khufu is an example of sophisticated engineering and construction


the Greek architect Kallikrates designed the Temple of Athena Nike using this style of column, named after a region in coastal Greece


A room that uses numerous columns to support a flat ceiling is know as a ______ hall


This feature of Gothic architecture allowed the weight of the ceiling to be transferred awash from the walls so that larger windows could be built

flying buttresses

this type of arch was integrated into gothic architecture in order to help direct the worshiper’s gaze upward


this American artist created a large earthwork titled Spiral Jetty in the Great Salt Lake in Utah in 1969-70

Robert Smithson

this earthwork, constructed by the prehistoric inhabitants of North America, is located in Ohio.

Great Serpent Mound

Michelangelo believed ____ to be the finest and most challenging of all the visual arts


The frontispiece of the Liber Scivias shows Hildegard of Bingen _____.

Receiving a vision from heaven

The church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, is from this period.


The structure of Romanesque churches recalls architectural elements from ____

ancient Rome

a floor plan of the Romanesque church of St. Sernin in Toulouse, Fance, resembles _____

a latin cross

which of the following is used to represent the evangelist John in the west prorate of the Church of St. Trophime, built in the 12th century?

an eagle

In a latin cross-planned church, such as Chartres or St. Sernin, what is the shorter axis located near the east end of the church called?


Which term refers to part of a church doorway?

all of the answers

on which type of medieval architecture can spires be found


What is one major difference between the figures in Cimabue’s Virgin and Child Enthroned and Giotto’s painting of the same name?

Giotto’s creates a realistic space, while Cimabue focuses on the spiritual aspect

The small pieces of glass that make up mosaics are called ______


What is the period that followed the end of the Western roman Empire known as?

middle ages

What is the central space of a cathedral called?


Which two Gothic architectural innovations allowed cathedral walls to be built higher than before?

Flying buttresses and rib vaults

Which religion commonly used calligraphy in its art


The visual appearance of Christ was similar to the appearance of pagan gods until which century

5th CE

In medieval churches, where is the scene of the Crucifixion of Christ depicted?

East end

The Dome of the Rock was built on a site scared to Jews, Christians, and Muslims


Which of the following is an element of a royal portal?


In which area of the church were women, such as Theordora, allowed?


Which roman emperor moved the center of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium? He later renamed it _____, but today it is known as ____, Turkey.

Constantine I. Constantinople; Istanbul

The earliest example of Christian art have been discovered in _____.


If you were to build a cathedral with a huge stained-glass window covering nearly an entire wall, you would use these architectural features to ensure the building’s structural stability.

Flying buttresses

What type of art decorated the interior walls of Dura Europos?


What is the medium used for the depiction of Theodora and Attendants in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy?


define the term fresco

a technique where the artists paints onto freshly applied plaster

The Palace of Knossos, belonging to King Minos, supports the myth of a half-man, half-bull trapped in a labyrinth. The powerful Minos required the Athenians to send seven young men and severn young women each year to be given to this creature. What was the creature’s name?


Which emperor aligned himself with both the pagan gods and Christianity?


In which work of art is the figure portrayed in a "contrapposto" stance?

Doryphoros of Polykleits

Many theories surround the building of Stonehenge but most scholars believe Stonehenge, 106 feet in diameter an up to 20 feet tall, served as a giant _____ or ______.

Observatory; calander

Ancient Near Eastern ziggurats served as

Temples and civic centers

Which two architectural orders are visible at the Parthenon

Doric and Ionic

What achievements characterize the beginning of civilization

all of the above

This building material, perfected by the Romans, is a mixture of cement and ground stone


The Pont du Gaur is a Roman construction used for conveying water, called

an aqueduct

Mesopotamia means "the land between the river." Which rivers does this phrase reference?

Tigris and Euphrates

The Sumerian Standard of Ur, created between 2600 and 2400 BCE, is an example of which art form?


The Great Pyrimids at Giza are constructed of ____, and construction on this scale required great mathematical and engineering skill to ensure that such an enormous structure formed a perfectly ______ shape that would stand for thousands of years

Stone; synnetrical

The Colosseum in Rome is known for being:

all of the other answers

What do the Lamassi, the human-headed winged lions that protected Ashurnasial II’s represent?

Both a and b

The light-skinned figures in the Minoan fresco Bull-leapers are


Which civilization developed cuneiform?


When was the painting at Lascaux of a bird-headed man made?

Paleolithic times

The Emperor Justinian I can be linked to which of the following major works of architecture?

all of the previous answers

The woman from Willendorf is made out of which medium?


The small pieces of glass that make up mosaics are called _____


The woman of Willendorf is quite small and was possibly used as a ____ _____-

pregnancy charm

all of the following are characteristics of Roman sculpture, except

elder members of society were rarely depicted

Menkaure and His Wife, Queen Khamerenbty was made by sculptors from which culture?


What does the following scene from the tomb of Nebamun, painted 1350 BCE, teach us about life in ancient Egypt?

all of the above

The Great Pyramid of Khufu is an an example of sophisticated engineering and construction


People who gathered at Stonehenge on the summer solstice would have seen;

The sun rise over Heelstone

what classical word means "Temple of all the Gods"


The panels of the sound box from lyre found in the Royal Cemetery of Ur are believed to show

all of the answers

Manuscripts in the Middle Ages were produced by hand and were the work of many artist, usually monks, who thought that the great effort required to create a manuscript was considered a tribute to God


Name the three religions of the Middle Ages.

Judaism, Islam, and Christianity

Which statement regarding the Lindisfarne Gospels is not true

The pages were written in Middle English

The process used to create the beaten-silver face of the twelfth-century reliquary of the Head of Saint Alexander is called __


Which of the following is a characteristic of Romanesque architecture?

rounded arches

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