APUSH Test Ch. 32-37

Return to Normalcy

Harding's campaign slogan in 1920. Part of a movement against progressivism and resulted in ultra-conservative politics of 1920s

Andrew Mellon

Harding's Sec of Treasury, multi-millionaire from Pittsburgh aluminum industry

Esch-Cummins Transportation Act (1920)

(1)This act provided for the return of RRs to private businesses to promote efficiency. (2)Gave the ICC increased powers to set rates and guarantee profits from consolidations. (3) Created a Railway Labor Board to mediate disputes among interstate carriers

Merchant Marine Act (1920)

This act authorized the U.S. Shipping Board to dispose of 1,500 US ships by either selling them or loaning them to ship builders

Veteran's Bureau (1921)

This organization was created to administer pensions and give free hospitalizations to veterans disabled in WWI

American Legion

Organized by TR Jr. in Paris after WWI; It became distinguished for its patriotism, conservatism, and anti-radicalism. Notorious for its aggressive lobbying for veterans' benefits

Adjusted Compensation Act (1924)

Granted veterans a 20 year endowment policy (compensation for serving in the army) that could be used as capital to borrow & from the gov. After the Bonus Army pressured Congress (1936), veterans were fully paid for their certificates

Washington Disarmament Conference (1921-22)

Intended for naval disarmament of those who participated and the examinations of the Far East Situation (Japanese Expansion). Produced 3 treaties: (1) Four Power, (2) Five Power Naval Treaty, (3) Nine Power

Four Power Treaty

Treaty that preserved the status quo in the Pacific

Five Power Naval Treaty (1922)

Treaty that limited the total battle ship tonnage

Nine Power Treaty (1922)

guaranteed the Open Door Policy in China

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

Pact of Paris signed by 62 nations agreeing to use war only for defense. BAD: gave the world a false sense of security; virtually useless b/c anyone could come up with a reason for self-defense

Herbert Hoover

He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. Hoover was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.

Albert B. Fall

He was Secretary of the Interior during Harding's administration, and was a scheming anticonservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.

Robert La Follette

A senator from Wisconsin who ran for the presidency of 1924 on the Progressive party's ticket. Their platform called for government ownership of the railroads and relief for farmers and it lashed out at monopolies. He lost however to Coolidge.

Calvin Coolidge

became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.

John W. Davis

Democratic convention nominee in 1924 against Coolidge. He was a wealthy lawyer connected with J.P. Morgan and Company. Coolidge easily defeated Davis.

Albert E. Smith

He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudice toward Catholics.

Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923)

Supreme Court case decision reversing the ruling in Muller v. Oregon which had declared women to be deserving of special protection in the work-place

Depression of 1920-21

Causes: demobilization of army, quick return of business to private hands, & strikes. Business failures created by outpouring of wartime savings on cars and homes and loss of Euro markets and war contracts. Left 5 mill unemployed and an agricultural depression that continued thru the decade

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law

Boosted tariff to 38.5% (almost as high as Payne-Aldrich Tariff 1909). Tax on farm produce increased. Principle: the general rates were designed to equalize the cost of American and foreign products. Promised flexibility b/c it authorized President to reduce or increase duties. BAD: other nations responded w/ tariffs just as high

Teapot Dome Scandal (1921)

Sec of Interior Albert Fall convinced Sec of Navy Edwin Denby to lease naval oil reserved at Teapot Dome to oilmen Harry Sinclair and Edward Doheny for a bribe of $100,000. Sinclair and Fall were given prison terms

Harding Scandals

In 1923, Charles Forbes (director of Veteran's Bureau) was found guilty of stealing $200 mill in connection w/ the building of veterans' hospitals. In 1924, the Senate investigation committee found attorney General Henry Daugherty guilty of selling illegal liquor permits

Capper-Volstead Act

This act exempted farming cooperatives from anti-trust legislation

McNary-Haugen Bill

Bill designed to keep agricultural prices up by giving government the right to buy a crop surplus and sell it abroad

Progressive Party (1924)

Liberals and Socialists joined to form this party and nominated La Follette as their presidential candidate. Their platform pushed for gov ownership of RRs, relief for farmers, the dismantling of monopolies, and other progressive reforms

World Court

Set up by the League of Nations to settle international disputes. The US refused to join because of its strong desire for isolationism, thus weakening the power of the court

European reasons for refusing to pay debts owed to the US

French and English had held the line before the US entered the war (costing them people). The money lent to F and E should be part of USA's "war costs". America's post-war tariffs made it almost impossible for them to sell the goods to earn the $ to pay their debts

Dawes Plan (1924)

Proposed by Charles Dawes & attempted to facilitate German reparation payments. By loaning $100 mill in gold bullion to Germany, the US and its other Allies hoped to stabilize the Germany economy so that the Germans could pay off their debts

Agricultural Marketing Act (1929)

Designed to help the farmers help themselves, largely through producers' cooperatives. It set up a Federal Farm Board

Federal Farm Board

Helped farms by designating $500 mill that could be loaned to farming cooperatives

Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)

Raised tariffs to an average of 59% on all imports and destroyed trend of low international trade barriers. This upset foreigners and led to economic isolationism in the US. This replaced the Dingley Tariff as the highest ever in US history; fostered the spirit of economic nationalism that helped precipitate WWII

Black Tuesday (Oct 29, 1929)

Following a rise in British interest rates and the dumping of many stocks on the market, on this day 16 mill shares were sold. Many people lost everything b/c they had invested w/ other market $

Wall Street Crash

This crash was caused by over-speculation in the stock market, a decline in overseas trade, an agricultural depression & unemployment (b/c mechanized labor). Left the economy susceptible to a depression. Millions were ruined by the Crash. W/i 3 years, 5,000 banks closed. By 1932, 15 mill people were unemployed

Great Depression

After the Wall street crash of 1929, the country went into an unprecedented depression. Prices fell and the collapse of public confidence showed purchases of industrial and farm products

Reasons for the Great Depression

Overproduction by farm & factory; too much $ in too few hands; over expansion of credit; drought in Mississippi Valley in 1930 ended in many farm being sold for taxes

"Hoover blankets"

old newspapers

"Hoovervilles"

Slums inhabited by the homeless families of the depression. Named after Hoover b/c he was president and didn't think the answer was to provide direct aid to people

Norris Muscle Shoals Bill

This bill proposed the development of the TVA. TVA would build power plants that would compete w/ private companies and force private plants to lower prices. Vetoed by Hoover but implemented by FDR

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)

corporation that had $500 mill that could be used to provide relief to corporations, banks, and RRs. It was created on the theory that stability at the top would eventually benefit all people, but it did not halt the depression

Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act (1932)

It outlawed yellow dog contracts that were intended to restrict strikes

Bonus March (1932)

10,000 WWI veterans who marched on Washington and demanded their entire adjusted compensation bonuses. They received their bonuses but were sent out forcefully by General MacArthur. This incident made the Hoover admin appear insensitive to the problems brought on by the depression

Hoover-Stimson Doctrine

This was the US response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1932. It states that the US would not recognize any territory seized by force

Good Neighbor Policy

Hoover's attempt to abandon the US intervention policy in Latin America. He removed troops from Latin American countries and made a goodwill tour of LA, both of which greatly improved US relations w/ these countries.

FDR

--- governor of NY -- 5th cousin to Theodore Roosevelt --- wealthy family -- went to Harvard -- served as secretary of the navy -- was suave and conciliatory -- handicapped --came up with New Deal --- elected as a democrat President in 1932 --elected 4 times (only one to do so) --dealt with Great Depression and WWI

Eleanor Roosevelt

Wife of Franklin Roosevelt; she traveled everywhere with him on behalf of all his campaigns; she became the most active First Lady in history. She fought for the rights of all Americans.

New Deal

After Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1933, he decided the U.S. must improve economically to recover from the Great Depression. This policy focused on relief, recovery, and reform. Short term goals were relief and immediate recovery. Permanent recovery and reform were done by long-range goals. Programs were established to improve unemployment, regulate minimum wage, and reform many other social issues.

Brain Trust

Small group of reform minded intellectuals, mainly young college professors. Considered much of the New Deal legislation and worked as a kitchen cabinet for Franklin Roosevelt.

Three R's

Roosevelt's New Deal programs aimed at relief, recovery, and reform. Roosevelt's plan was announced on March 4, 1933 to lift the burden of the Great Depression.

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act (1933)

In 1933, this act allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange.

CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)

Organization created by the Unemployment Relief Act of 1933. It provided employment in government camps for 3 million uniformed single, young men during the Great Depression. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.

Harry Hopkins

The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). A friend and advisor to President FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30's and 40's in such issues as unemployment and mortgages

Father Coughlin

Anti-New Deal Catholic Priest; began broadcasting in 1930; called the "microphone messiah"; slogan was "Social Justice"; silenced in 1942 when his broadcasts became too radical.

Huey "King Fish" Long

Nickname "Kingfish"; Senator of Louisiana. He pushed his "Share Our Wealth" program, which would make "Every Man a King". He planned to run against FDR in the 1936 elections, but he was assassinated.

Dr. Francis Townsend

He was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over. This plan was a type of pension for older Americans. He had a lot of followers. This people thought FDR wasn't doing enough.

WPA (Works Progress Administration/ We Poke Along ;)

Congress created this in 1935 as an agency that gave jobs to people who needed them. They worked on bridges, roads, and buildings. They spent 11 billion dollars and gave almost 9 million people jobs. It was one of the New Deal Agencies

Frances Perkins

First woman appointed to a cabinet position. Appointed by FDR, she became Secretary of Labor. She received a lot of undeserved criticism from male politicians and businessmen

Harold Ickes

"Honest Harold"; Secretary of the interior; became head of the Public Works Administration (PWA); dealt with industrial recovery and unemployment relief by creating jobs (over thirty-four thousand project jobs for workers). His determination to prevent waste prevented maximum relief.

21st Amendment

ended prohibition and allowed the distribution and drinking of alcoholic beverages to commence once again

Parity

A plan to help farmers injured from low prices and over-production. From 1909-1914, farms had enjoyed a period of prosperity. Parity was the price placed on a product that gave it the same value, in buying power, that it had from 1909-1914. The AAA paid farmers to reduce production. The payment for this came from taxes gotten from the makers of expensive farm equipment.

Social Security Act (1935)

It created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers. They would receive this money in a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with dependent children would also receive this money.

TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)

First Government owned corporation. Started to create jobs and build dams in the Tennessee River Valley to supply electricity to poorer areas after the depression.

George W. Norris

He was a Senator from Nebraska, whose steadfast vision and zeal helped an act creating the Tennessee Valley Authority to be passed in 1933.

Wagner Act

Same as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) and set up the National Labor Relations Board and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.

John Lewis

John L. Lewis was the leader of the United Mine Workers. He also formed the CIO (Committee for Industrial Organization). He led a "sit-down" strike on General Motors at Flint, Michigan in 1936. Unionists from the Republic Steel Co. wanted to join the CIO, and a fight broke out in 1937

Fair Labor Standards Acts (Wages and Hour Bill)

Act that set minimum wage, overtime pay for work over 40 hours in one week, and kids under age 16 could not work

CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations)

this labor union formed in the ranks of the AFL. It consisted of unskilled workers. The AFL got scared of their influence on workers and suspended all members of the CIO. In 1938 it broke with the AF of L. By 1940 it had 4 million members.

Alfred Landon

He was the republican candidate in 1936. This honest and wealthy man from Kansas lost greatly to the Democrat Franklin Roosevelt. He had stressed balancing the budget.

Liberty League

Organization that consisted of the conservatives that opposed the New Deal introduced by FDR. Their common opinion was that FDR was pushing the United States too close to socialism. They saw the New Deal as being more apt to hurt United States economics than to help it. (Herbert Hoover and General Motors)

20th Amendment

changed the calendar of Congressional sessions and the date of the presidential inauguration (January 20th). In short, it shortened the length of lame duck periods for the presidency

Court Reorganization Bill (1937)

Roosevelt proposed a bill that would allow the President to appoint up to six additional SC judges to prevent further conservative rulings

Hundred Days

a period in which an unprecedented amount of legislation was created

NRA (National Recovery Administration)

assist labor and industry through centralized planning mechanisms that monitored worker's earnings and hours to distribute work and established codes for "fair competition" to ensure that similar procedures were followed by all firms

Schechter Decision

Congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive. Congress couldn't control interstate commerce like local fowl businesses

PWA

goal of long-range recovery through employment in local projects (construction etc)

Grand Coulee Dam

largest structure built by humans since Great Wall of China (product of WPA)

AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration)

plan designed to raise crop prices by paying farmers not to farm

Subsidized Scarcity

decreasing supply so prices return to normal (pre-depression)

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (1936)

withdrew acreage from farming; farmers planted soil conserving crops

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (1938)

if farmers obeyed soil conservation act, they would receive benefits of parity; give farmers more substantial share of national income

John Steinbeck

Wrote the Grapes of Wrath; proved to be the Uncle Tom's Cabin of its generation

Resettlement Act

relocated farmers to better land

Federal Securities Act

required promoters to honestly tell buyers the condition of their stock

Securities and Exchange Commission

watchdog over the Stock Market

Good Neighbor Policy

This was established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America. It took much of the American military out of these countries. It also nullified the Roosevelt Corollary.

Reciprocal Trade agreements Act (1934)

The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.

Buenos Aires Conference (1936)

It confirmed earlier pledges of collective security and pledged the North and South American nations to consult together on peace measures whenever war threatened any one of them

Benito Mussolini

The Facist dictator of Italy. He sought to create a new empire, much like the Roman one. He became an ally with Adolf Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis, and led his forces against the Allied powers in WWII. He was overthrown and beheaded in 1943, after the fall of Sicily during the war.

Adolf Hitler

A very crude leader that took advantage of a disillusioned and depression-stricken nation. After the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI, Hitler lead the nation into WWII under the "big lie." He was a manipulative and feared dictator that vented his anger on the Jewish Nation.

Nazi Party

was established in Germany with much of the same beliefs as the Fascists. Nazis believed that the state is more important than the individual and that there should be a strong central government with absolute power. Adolph Hitler is known for leading the Nazi Party. Hitler is also credited with taking the Fascist beliefs a step further and adding the racism into the beliefs. Nazis believed that white people with blonde hair and blue eyes made up a superior race of humans that would one day rule the world.

Ethiopia and Haile Selassie

emperor of Ethiopia who pleaded with the League of Nations to save his country from Italy's aggression. A trade embargo was initiated by the League, but it was not enforced.

Nye Committee (1934-36)

This Committee investigated arms manufacturers and bankers of World War I. Claimed they had caused America's entry into WWI. Public opinion pushed Congress to pass the Neutrality Acts to keep us out of WWII.

Francisco Franco

With the help of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, he overthrew the Loyalist regime and became the dictator of Spain in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939.

Sino-Japanese War (1937)

Japan's invasion of Manchuria started not only this war but also WWII. Coastal China was given to Japan as an appeasement after the war

Final Solution

Hitler's solution to Germany's problems was the elimination of all non-Aryans, especially Jews

Blitzkrieg

German for "lightning war". This tactic was used by the German army against Poland. It was the expeditious mobility of ground troops and air support to defeat the enemy ASAP

Cash and Carry

Only way that Europe could buy American war materials in World War II. They would have to transport the munitions in their own ships and they could only purchase the munitions with cash.

Phony War

During World War II Hitler removed his forces from Poland to focus his efforts in France and Britain. All of Europe fell rather silent at the shock of Hitler's move. This silence and period of inactivity in Europe came to an end when Hitler again moved his forces, and attacked the weaker Norway and Denmark. The period of silence in Europe was known as the phony war.

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

Wendle Willkie

Republican presidential candidate versus Roosevelt in the election of 1940. He lost, but put up a good "race."

Lend Lease Act (1941)

A law passed in March of 1941 by sweeping majorities in both houses of Congress. This law said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war overseas from the U.S.

Neutrality Acts

Congress made an effort to legislate the nation out of war. The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent

Atlantic Charter

This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II.

Public Utility Holding Company Act (1935)

prevented bloated growth except where it might be economically useful

Federal Housing Administration

gave small loans to householders for building new houses and improving their own. very successful

US Housing Authority (1937)

lend money to states or communities for low cost construction

John L. Lewis

head of the Committee for Industrial Organization

Committee for Industrial Organization

unskilled labor union; utilized sit-down strike; disliked by skilled labor unions

Sit-down Strike

workers wouldn't leave factory (prevented scabs from being hired or strike breakers)

Court packing scheme

Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice over 70 years old who wouldn't retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.

Roosevelt Recession

his gov policies caused a nose-dive as Social Security dug into payrolls and the administration cut spending out of reverence for the orthodox economic doctrine of a balanced budget

Keynesianism

an economic theory based on John Keynes holding that central banks should adjust interest rates and govs should use deficit spending and tax policies to increase purchasing power and hence prosperity

Reorganization Act (1939)

gave pres limited powers for administrative reforms including the key new Executive office in the White house

Hatch Act (1939)

act that barred federal administrative officials from active political campaigning and soliciting. Forbade use of gov funds for political purposes

Criticisms of the New Deal

wasteful, trying to make a Bolshevik rule in USA, picking biased/incompetent people to guide him; acted w/o looking; gov gaining too much power

New Deal successes

goal was relief (not economy); federal gov was responsible for not letting people starve; purged USA's capitalism to save it from itself

London Economic Conference (1933)

60 nation economic conference organized to stabilize international currency rates. FDR's decision to revoke USA's participation contributed to a deepening world economic crises

Hawes-Cutting Act (1933)

this act gave the Philippines independence in ten years but allowed the US to retain military and naval bases on the island

Johnson Debt Default Act(1934)

steeped in ugly memories of WWI, this spiteful act prevented debt-ridden nations from borrowing further from the US

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, & 37

shortsighted acts that were passed in order to prevent American participation in a European war. Among other restrictions, they prevented Americans from selling munitions to foreign belligerents

Quarantine Speech (1937)

speech made by FDR in which he called for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" land hungry dictators, presumably through economic embargoes. The speech flew in the face of isolationist politicians.

Australian Anchluss (1938)

the bloodless annexation of Austria by Germany

Montevideo Conference (1933)

US delegates formally endorsed nonintervention at this conference

Joseph Stalin

totalitarian dictator of USSR; executed hundred of thousands of dissenters and banished millions to Siberian labor camps.

"Merchants of Death"

this was the name for the munitions manufacturers before WWII given by the American people

Spanish Civil War (1936-39)

Hitler's testing ground for his new equipment; a dress rehearsal for WWII. Spanish rebels led by Franco. Rebels aided by Hitler and Mussolini.

Abraham Lincoln Brigade

American men and women (3,000) who aided Spain in battle against Franco and the rebels

Panay Incident

Japanese aviators bombed the Panay (American gunboat in Chinese waters). Tokyo apologized and prevented war (unlike the Maine). Led to humiliation of American civilians in China.

Appeasement

the policy followed by leaders of Britain and France at the 1938 conference in Munich. Their purpose was to avoid war but they allowed Germany to take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia

Hitler-Stalin Pact (Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) (1939)

Treaty signed in August 1939 in which Germany and the Soviet Union agreed not to fight each other. This fateful agreement paved the way for German aggression against Poland and the Western democracies

Invasion of Poland

After the nonaggression pact, Hitler demanded from Poland a return of the areas wrested from Germany after WWI. When they failed to deliver, he sent his troops into Poland; led to Britain and France honoring their commitments to Poland

When does the narwhal bacon?

midnight

Havana Conference (1940)

US agreed to share w/ its 20 new world neighbors the responsibility of upholding the Monroe doctrine

Kristallnacht

"the night or broken glass"; mobs ransacked Jewish shops and synagogues.

War Refugee Board

saved thousands of Hungarian Jews from deportation to death camps

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

appealed to interventionists (direct aid to the British); and isolationists (all methods short of war)

Destroyer Deal

US gave 50 WWI warships to Britain b/c they were being blockaded by Germany; in return, British promised 8 base sites, strategically located, for 99 years; achieved by Presidential agreement (no congress)

Thomas E. Dewey

The Republican presidential nominee in 1944, Dewey was the popular governor of New York. Roosevelt won a sweeping victory in this election of 1944. Dewey also ran against Harry Truman in the 1948 presidential election. Dewey, arrogant and wooden, seemed certain to win the election, and the newspapers even printed, "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" on election night. However, the morning results showed that Truman swept the election, much to Dewey's embarrassment.

Arsenal of Democracy

FDR promised to supply arms to Allies; "send guns not sons"

Two events that marked the course of WWII before Pearl Harbor

Fall of France (June 1940) & Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union (June 1941)

Atlantic Conference (1941)

FDR and Churchill signed this covenant outlining the future path towards disarmament, peace, & a permanent system of general security. Its spirit would animate the founding of the United Nations & raise awareness of the human rights of individuals after WWII

Self-determination

allowing the members of a country to decide whether or not they want to annex etc.

Pearl Harbor

Dec 7, 1941; Black Sunday; "a date which will live in infamy"; an American naval base in Hawaii where Japanese destroyed numerous shops, and caused 3,000 casualties. Propelled the US into war

Why war?

US wanted to stay out but didn't want Britain to fall; halt Japanese conquests in the Far East (threatened American trade, security, & international peace)

Executive Order #9066

FDR's order to move Japanese in American to isolation camps

Korematsu v. US (1944)

upheld constitutionality of Executive Order 9066

War Production Board (WPB)

This board halted the manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars. It assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials. It imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing because, due to the Dutch East Indies ending their exports of natural rubber to the U.S., they wanted to conserve rubber. They also built fifty-one synthetic rubber plants.

Second Front

was the invasion of western Europe by the US ,British, and French in 1944. This invasion was to take pressure off the Russians and divide the Germans. It was established by the D-Day Invasion.

D-Day

June 6, 1944; was the first day of the Normandy landings which started the invasion of western Europe and liberated France from the Germans.

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day. The German government surrendered unconditionally during WWII on May 7, 1945

Potsdam Conference

Held near Berlin in 1945 with Truman, Stalin and Clement Atlee who issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed. This is where Truman learned about the Atomic Bomb.

V-J Day

Victory in Japan Day was celebrated on August 15, 1945 after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan. The celebrations continued through the official end of World War II on September 2, 1945 when Japan officially surrendered.

Office of Price Administration

FDR created this in order to prevent inflation in the economy during WWII.

Fair Employment Practice Commission

Roosevelt established this initially to give fair employment to blacks. Eventually, and to this day, its purpose is to protect and serve all races, sexes, ages, and ethnicities involving employment.

Truman

He took over the presidency during World War II with the death of Roosevelt. He was called by many the "average man's average man" for his appearance and personality, and he was one of the only presidents without a college education. He was an artillery officer in World War One. He was responsible for the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan to end World War II.

Eisenhower

He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of 1942.He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944). He ran for the Republican ticket in the 1952 and the1956 elections and won. He was very well liked by the public.

George Patton

"Blood 'n' Guts"; commanded lunges across France by American armored tank division; commander during WWII

ABC-1 Agreement

between US and GB that should the US enter WWII, the two nations and their allies would coordinate their military planning, making a priority of protecting the British Commonwealth. "Getting Germany first".

War Labor Board

est by FDR to mediate disputes between labor and management that might have led to war stoppages and thereby undermining the war effort.

Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943)

passed b/c of worries about the effects that labor strikes would have on war production; this law allowed the gov to seize and operate plants threatened by labor disputes. Criminalized strikes against gov-run companies

Bracero program (1942)

established by agreement w/ Mexican gov to recruit temporary Mexican agricultural workers to US to make up for war-time labor shortages.

Chester Nimitz

served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet into in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.

CORE (Congress of Racial equality)

Nonviolent civil rights organization founded in 1942 and committed to the "Double V" - victory over fascism abroad and racism at home.

Battle of Midway (1942)

a pivotal naval battle fought near the island Midway in June 1942; victory halted Japanese advances in the Pacific

Rosie the Riveter

represented the working woman

Office of Scientific Research & development

gov gave $ to universities to fun research

Chiang Kai-Shek

Chinese general

Battles of Bataan and Corregidor

USA & Filipino held off Japanese. USA surrendered. Bataan Death march to POW camps. Defeat left Japan in complete control of Philippine Archipelago

Leapfrogging

American forces shout reduce the fortified Japanese outposts on their flank. Eventually turned into Island hopping (only taking out the most vital Japanese fortifications then installing air bases on them)

Marshall Rommel

leader of German forces. "Desert fox"

Montgomery and El Alamein (1942)

Montgomery delivered a withering attack here. W/ help of American tanks, he drove enemy back to Tunisia.

Stalingrad

disaster for Germany; freezing cold

Casablanca Conference (1943)

FDR and Churchill agreed to step up to the Pacific war, invade Sicily, increase pressure on Italy, and insist upon "unconditional surrender of the enemy"

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APUSH Test Ch. 32-37

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Return to Normalcy

Harding’s campaign slogan in 1920. Part of a movement against progressivism and resulted in ultra-conservative politics of 1920s

Andrew Mellon

Harding’s Sec of Treasury, multi-millionaire from Pittsburgh aluminum industry

Esch-Cummins Transportation Act (1920)

(1)This act provided for the return of RRs to private businesses to promote efficiency. (2)Gave the ICC increased powers to set rates and guarantee profits from consolidations. (3) Created a Railway Labor Board to mediate disputes among interstate carriers

Merchant Marine Act (1920)

This act authorized the U.S. Shipping Board to dispose of 1,500 US ships by either selling them or loaning them to ship builders

Veteran’s Bureau (1921)

This organization was created to administer pensions and give free hospitalizations to veterans disabled in WWI

American Legion

Organized by TR Jr. in Paris after WWI; It became distinguished for its patriotism, conservatism, and anti-radicalism. Notorious for its aggressive lobbying for veterans’ benefits

Adjusted Compensation Act (1924)

Granted veterans a 20 year endowment policy (compensation for serving in the army) that could be used as capital to borrow & from the gov. After the Bonus Army pressured Congress (1936), veterans were fully paid for their certificates

Washington Disarmament Conference (1921-22)

Intended for naval disarmament of those who participated and the examinations of the Far East Situation (Japanese Expansion). Produced 3 treaties: (1) Four Power, (2) Five Power Naval Treaty, (3) Nine Power

Four Power Treaty

Treaty that preserved the status quo in the Pacific

Five Power Naval Treaty (1922)

Treaty that limited the total battle ship tonnage

Nine Power Treaty (1922)

guaranteed the Open Door Policy in China

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

Pact of Paris signed by 62 nations agreeing to use war only for defense. BAD: gave the world a false sense of security; virtually useless b/c anyone could come up with a reason for self-defense

Herbert Hoover

He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. Hoover was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.

Albert B. Fall

He was Secretary of the Interior during Harding’s administration, and was a scheming anticonservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.

Robert La Follette

A senator from Wisconsin who ran for the presidency of 1924 on the Progressive party’s ticket. Their platform called for government ownership of the railroads and relief for farmers and it lashed out at monopolies. He lost however to Coolidge.

Calvin Coolidge

became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.

John W. Davis

Democratic convention nominee in 1924 against Coolidge. He was a wealthy lawyer connected with J.P. Morgan and Company. Coolidge easily defeated Davis.

Albert E. Smith

He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudice toward Catholics.

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital (1923)

Supreme Court case decision reversing the ruling in Muller v. Oregon which had declared women to be deserving of special protection in the work-place

Depression of 1920-21

Causes: demobilization of army, quick return of business to private hands, & strikes. Business failures created by outpouring of wartime savings on cars and homes and loss of Euro markets and war contracts. Left 5 mill unemployed and an agricultural depression that continued thru the decade

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law

Boosted tariff to 38.5% (almost as high as Payne-Aldrich Tariff 1909). Tax on farm produce increased. Principle: the general rates were designed to equalize the cost of American and foreign products. Promised flexibility b/c it authorized President to reduce or increase duties. BAD: other nations responded w/ tariffs just as high

Teapot Dome Scandal (1921)

Sec of Interior Albert Fall convinced Sec of Navy Edwin Denby to lease naval oil reserved at Teapot Dome to oilmen Harry Sinclair and Edward Doheny for a bribe of $100,000. Sinclair and Fall were given prison terms

Harding Scandals

In 1923, Charles Forbes (director of Veteran’s Bureau) was found guilty of stealing $200 mill in connection w/ the building of veterans’ hospitals. In 1924, the Senate investigation committee found attorney General Henry Daugherty guilty of selling illegal liquor permits

Capper-Volstead Act

This act exempted farming cooperatives from anti-trust legislation

McNary-Haugen Bill

Bill designed to keep agricultural prices up by giving government the right to buy a crop surplus and sell it abroad

Progressive Party (1924)

Liberals and Socialists joined to form this party and nominated La Follette as their presidential candidate. Their platform pushed for gov ownership of RRs, relief for farmers, the dismantling of monopolies, and other progressive reforms

World Court

Set up by the League of Nations to settle international disputes. The US refused to join because of its strong desire for isolationism, thus weakening the power of the court

European reasons for refusing to pay debts owed to the US

French and English had held the line before the US entered the war (costing them people). The money lent to F and E should be part of USA’s "war costs". America’s post-war tariffs made it almost impossible for them to sell the goods to earn the $ to pay their debts

Dawes Plan (1924)

Proposed by Charles Dawes & attempted to facilitate German reparation payments. By loaning $100 mill in gold bullion to Germany, the US and its other Allies hoped to stabilize the Germany economy so that the Germans could pay off their debts

Agricultural Marketing Act (1929)

Designed to help the farmers help themselves, largely through producers’ cooperatives. It set up a Federal Farm Board

Federal Farm Board

Helped farms by designating $500 mill that could be loaned to farming cooperatives

Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)

Raised tariffs to an average of 59% on all imports and destroyed trend of low international trade barriers. This upset foreigners and led to economic isolationism in the US. This replaced the Dingley Tariff as the highest ever in US history; fostered the spirit of economic nationalism that helped precipitate WWII

Black Tuesday (Oct 29, 1929)

Following a rise in British interest rates and the dumping of many stocks on the market, on this day 16 mill shares were sold. Many people lost everything b/c they had invested w/ other market $

Wall Street Crash

This crash was caused by over-speculation in the stock market, a decline in overseas trade, an agricultural depression & unemployment (b/c mechanized labor). Left the economy susceptible to a depression. Millions were ruined by the Crash. W/i 3 years, 5,000 banks closed. By 1932, 15 mill people were unemployed

Great Depression

After the Wall street crash of 1929, the country went into an unprecedented depression. Prices fell and the collapse of public confidence showed purchases of industrial and farm products

Reasons for the Great Depression

Overproduction by farm & factory; too much $ in too few hands; over expansion of credit; drought in Mississippi Valley in 1930 ended in many farm being sold for taxes

"Hoover blankets"

old newspapers

"Hoovervilles"

Slums inhabited by the homeless families of the depression. Named after Hoover b/c he was president and didn’t think the answer was to provide direct aid to people

Norris Muscle Shoals Bill

This bill proposed the development of the TVA. TVA would build power plants that would compete w/ private companies and force private plants to lower prices. Vetoed by Hoover but implemented by FDR

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)

corporation that had $500 mill that could be used to provide relief to corporations, banks, and RRs. It was created on the theory that stability at the top would eventually benefit all people, but it did not halt the depression

Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act (1932)

It outlawed yellow dog contracts that were intended to restrict strikes

Bonus March (1932)

10,000 WWI veterans who marched on Washington and demanded their entire adjusted compensation bonuses. They received their bonuses but were sent out forcefully by General MacArthur. This incident made the Hoover admin appear insensitive to the problems brought on by the depression

Hoover-Stimson Doctrine

This was the US response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1932. It states that the US would not recognize any territory seized by force

Good Neighbor Policy

Hoover’s attempt to abandon the US intervention policy in Latin America. He removed troops from Latin American countries and made a goodwill tour of LA, both of which greatly improved US relations w/ these countries.

FDR

— governor of NY — 5th cousin to Theodore Roosevelt — wealthy family — went to Harvard — served as secretary of the navy — was suave and conciliatory — handicapped –came up with New Deal — elected as a democrat President in 1932 –elected 4 times (only one to do so) –dealt with Great Depression and WWI

Eleanor Roosevelt

Wife of Franklin Roosevelt; she traveled everywhere with him on behalf of all his campaigns; she became the most active First Lady in history. She fought for the rights of all Americans.

New Deal

After Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1933, he decided the U.S. must improve economically to recover from the Great Depression. This policy focused on relief, recovery, and reform. Short term goals were relief and immediate recovery. Permanent recovery and reform were done by long-range goals. Programs were established to improve unemployment, regulate minimum wage, and reform many other social issues.

Brain Trust

Small group of reform minded intellectuals, mainly young college professors. Considered much of the New Deal legislation and worked as a kitchen cabinet for Franklin Roosevelt.

Three R’s

Roosevelt’s New Deal programs aimed at relief, recovery, and reform. Roosevelt’s plan was announced on March 4, 1933 to lift the burden of the Great Depression.

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act (1933)

In 1933, this act allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange.

CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)

Organization created by the Unemployment Relief Act of 1933. It provided employment in government camps for 3 million uniformed single, young men during the Great Depression. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.

Harry Hopkins

The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). A friend and advisor to President FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30’s and 40’s in such issues as unemployment and mortgages

Father Coughlin

Anti-New Deal Catholic Priest; began broadcasting in 1930; called the "microphone messiah"; slogan was "Social Justice"; silenced in 1942 when his broadcasts became too radical.

Huey "King Fish" Long

Nickname "Kingfish"; Senator of Louisiana. He pushed his "Share Our Wealth" program, which would make "Every Man a King". He planned to run against FDR in the 1936 elections, but he was assassinated.

Dr. Francis Townsend

He was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over. This plan was a type of pension for older Americans. He had a lot of followers. This people thought FDR wasn’t doing enough.

WPA (Works Progress Administration/ We Poke Along 😉

Congress created this in 1935 as an agency that gave jobs to people who needed them. They worked on bridges, roads, and buildings. They spent 11 billion dollars and gave almost 9 million people jobs. It was one of the New Deal Agencies

Frances Perkins

First woman appointed to a cabinet position. Appointed by FDR, she became Secretary of Labor. She received a lot of undeserved criticism from male politicians and businessmen

Harold Ickes

"Honest Harold"; Secretary of the interior; became head of the Public Works Administration (PWA); dealt with industrial recovery and unemployment relief by creating jobs (over thirty-four thousand project jobs for workers). His determination to prevent waste prevented maximum relief.

21st Amendment

ended prohibition and allowed the distribution and drinking of alcoholic beverages to commence once again

Parity

A plan to help farmers injured from low prices and over-production. From 1909-1914, farms had enjoyed a period of prosperity. Parity was the price placed on a product that gave it the same value, in buying power, that it had from 1909-1914. The AAA paid farmers to reduce production. The payment for this came from taxes gotten from the makers of expensive farm equipment.

Social Security Act (1935)

It created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people’s working careers. They would receive this money in a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with dependent children would also receive this money.

TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)

First Government owned corporation. Started to create jobs and build dams in the Tennessee River Valley to supply electricity to poorer areas after the depression.

George W. Norris

He was a Senator from Nebraska, whose steadfast vision and zeal helped an act creating the Tennessee Valley Authority to be passed in 1933.

Wagner Act

Same as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) and set up the National Labor Relations Board and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.

John Lewis

John L. Lewis was the leader of the United Mine Workers. He also formed the CIO (Committee for Industrial Organization). He led a "sit-down" strike on General Motors at Flint, Michigan in 1936. Unionists from the Republic Steel Co. wanted to join the CIO, and a fight broke out in 1937

Fair Labor Standards Acts (Wages and Hour Bill)

Act that set minimum wage, overtime pay for work over 40 hours in one week, and kids under age 16 could not work

CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations)

this labor union formed in the ranks of the AFL. It consisted of unskilled workers. The AFL got scared of their influence on workers and suspended all members of the CIO. In 1938 it broke with the AF of L. By 1940 it had 4 million members.

Alfred Landon

He was the republican candidate in 1936. This honest and wealthy man from Kansas lost greatly to the Democrat Franklin Roosevelt. He had stressed balancing the budget.

Liberty League

Organization that consisted of the conservatives that opposed the New Deal introduced by FDR. Their common opinion was that FDR was pushing the United States too close to socialism. They saw the New Deal as being more apt to hurt United States economics than to help it. (Herbert Hoover and General Motors)

20th Amendment

changed the calendar of Congressional sessions and the date of the presidential inauguration (January 20th). In short, it shortened the length of lame duck periods for the presidency

Court Reorganization Bill (1937)

Roosevelt proposed a bill that would allow the President to appoint up to six additional SC judges to prevent further conservative rulings

Hundred Days

a period in which an unprecedented amount of legislation was created

NRA (National Recovery Administration)

assist labor and industry through centralized planning mechanisms that monitored worker’s earnings and hours to distribute work and established codes for "fair competition" to ensure that similar procedures were followed by all firms

Schechter Decision

Congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive. Congress couldn’t control interstate commerce like local fowl businesses

PWA

goal of long-range recovery through employment in local projects (construction etc)

Grand Coulee Dam

largest structure built by humans since Great Wall of China (product of WPA)

AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration)

plan designed to raise crop prices by paying farmers not to farm

Subsidized Scarcity

decreasing supply so prices return to normal (pre-depression)

Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (1936)

withdrew acreage from farming; farmers planted soil conserving crops

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act (1938)

if farmers obeyed soil conservation act, they would receive benefits of parity; give farmers more substantial share of national income

John Steinbeck

Wrote the Grapes of Wrath; proved to be the Uncle Tom’s Cabin of its generation

Resettlement Act

relocated farmers to better land

Federal Securities Act

required promoters to honestly tell buyers the condition of their stock

Securities and Exchange Commission

watchdog over the Stock Market

Good Neighbor Policy

This was established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America. It took much of the American military out of these countries. It also nullified the Roosevelt Corollary.

Reciprocal Trade agreements Act (1934)

The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.

Buenos Aires Conference (1936)

It confirmed earlier pledges of collective security and pledged the North and South American nations to consult together on peace measures whenever war threatened any one of them

Benito Mussolini

The Facist dictator of Italy. He sought to create a new empire, much like the Roman one. He became an ally with Adolf Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis, and led his forces against the Allied powers in WWII. He was overthrown and beheaded in 1943, after the fall of Sicily during the war.

Adolf Hitler

A very crude leader that took advantage of a disillusioned and depression-stricken nation. After the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI, Hitler lead the nation into WWII under the "big lie." He was a manipulative and feared dictator that vented his anger on the Jewish Nation.

Nazi Party

was established in Germany with much of the same beliefs as the Fascists. Nazis believed that the state is more important than the individual and that there should be a strong central government with absolute power. Adolph Hitler is known for leading the Nazi Party. Hitler is also credited with taking the Fascist beliefs a step further and adding the racism into the beliefs. Nazis believed that white people with blonde hair and blue eyes made up a superior race of humans that would one day rule the world.

Ethiopia and Haile Selassie

emperor of Ethiopia who pleaded with the League of Nations to save his country from Italy’s aggression. A trade embargo was initiated by the League, but it was not enforced.

Nye Committee (1934-36)

This Committee investigated arms manufacturers and bankers of World War I. Claimed they had caused America’s entry into WWI. Public opinion pushed Congress to pass the Neutrality Acts to keep us out of WWII.

Francisco Franco

With the help of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, he overthrew the Loyalist regime and became the dictator of Spain in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939.

Sino-Japanese War (1937)

Japan’s invasion of Manchuria started not only this war but also WWII. Coastal China was given to Japan as an appeasement after the war

Final Solution

Hitler’s solution to Germany’s problems was the elimination of all non-Aryans, especially Jews

Blitzkrieg

German for "lightning war". This tactic was used by the German army against Poland. It was the expeditious mobility of ground troops and air support to defeat the enemy ASAP

Cash and Carry

Only way that Europe could buy American war materials in World War II. They would have to transport the munitions in their own ships and they could only purchase the munitions with cash.

Phony War

During World War II Hitler removed his forces from Poland to focus his efforts in France and Britain. All of Europe fell rather silent at the shock of Hitler’s move. This silence and period of inactivity in Europe came to an end when Hitler again moved his forces, and attacked the weaker Norway and Denmark. The period of silence in Europe was known as the phony war.

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

Wendle Willkie

Republican presidential candidate versus Roosevelt in the election of 1940. He lost, but put up a good "race."

Lend Lease Act (1941)

A law passed in March of 1941 by sweeping majorities in both houses of Congress. This law said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war overseas from the U.S.

Neutrality Acts

Congress made an effort to legislate the nation out of war. The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent

Atlantic Charter

This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II.

Public Utility Holding Company Act (1935)

prevented bloated growth except where it might be economically useful

Federal Housing Administration

gave small loans to householders for building new houses and improving their own. very successful

US Housing Authority (1937)

lend money to states or communities for low cost construction

John L. Lewis

head of the Committee for Industrial Organization

Committee for Industrial Organization

unskilled labor union; utilized sit-down strike; disliked by skilled labor unions

Sit-down Strike

workers wouldn’t leave factory (prevented scabs from being hired or strike breakers)

Court packing scheme

Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice over 70 years old who wouldn’t retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.

Roosevelt Recession

his gov policies caused a nose-dive as Social Security dug into payrolls and the administration cut spending out of reverence for the orthodox economic doctrine of a balanced budget

Keynesianism

an economic theory based on John Keynes holding that central banks should adjust interest rates and govs should use deficit spending and tax policies to increase purchasing power and hence prosperity

Reorganization Act (1939)

gave pres limited powers for administrative reforms including the key new Executive office in the White house

Hatch Act (1939)

act that barred federal administrative officials from active political campaigning and soliciting. Forbade use of gov funds for political purposes

Criticisms of the New Deal

wasteful, trying to make a Bolshevik rule in USA, picking biased/incompetent people to guide him; acted w/o looking; gov gaining too much power

New Deal successes

goal was relief (not economy); federal gov was responsible for not letting people starve; purged USA’s capitalism to save it from itself

London Economic Conference (1933)

60 nation economic conference organized to stabilize international currency rates. FDR’s decision to revoke USA’s participation contributed to a deepening world economic crises

Hawes-Cutting Act (1933)

this act gave the Philippines independence in ten years but allowed the US to retain military and naval bases on the island

Johnson Debt Default Act(1934)

steeped in ugly memories of WWI, this spiteful act prevented debt-ridden nations from borrowing further from the US

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, & 37

shortsighted acts that were passed in order to prevent American participation in a European war. Among other restrictions, they prevented Americans from selling munitions to foreign belligerents

Quarantine Speech (1937)

speech made by FDR in which he called for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" land hungry dictators, presumably through economic embargoes. The speech flew in the face of isolationist politicians.

Australian Anchluss (1938)

the bloodless annexation of Austria by Germany

Montevideo Conference (1933)

US delegates formally endorsed nonintervention at this conference

Joseph Stalin

totalitarian dictator of USSR; executed hundred of thousands of dissenters and banished millions to Siberian labor camps.

"Merchants of Death"

this was the name for the munitions manufacturers before WWII given by the American people

Spanish Civil War (1936-39)

Hitler’s testing ground for his new equipment; a dress rehearsal for WWII. Spanish rebels led by Franco. Rebels aided by Hitler and Mussolini.

Abraham Lincoln Brigade

American men and women (3,000) who aided Spain in battle against Franco and the rebels

Panay Incident

Japanese aviators bombed the Panay (American gunboat in Chinese waters). Tokyo apologized and prevented war (unlike the Maine). Led to humiliation of American civilians in China.

Appeasement

the policy followed by leaders of Britain and France at the 1938 conference in Munich. Their purpose was to avoid war but they allowed Germany to take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia

Hitler-Stalin Pact (Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) (1939)

Treaty signed in August 1939 in which Germany and the Soviet Union agreed not to fight each other. This fateful agreement paved the way for German aggression against Poland and the Western democracies

Invasion of Poland

After the nonaggression pact, Hitler demanded from Poland a return of the areas wrested from Germany after WWI. When they failed to deliver, he sent his troops into Poland; led to Britain and France honoring their commitments to Poland

When does the narwhal bacon?

midnight

Havana Conference (1940)

US agreed to share w/ its 20 new world neighbors the responsibility of upholding the Monroe doctrine

Kristallnacht

"the night or broken glass"; mobs ransacked Jewish shops and synagogues.

War Refugee Board

saved thousands of Hungarian Jews from deportation to death camps

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

appealed to interventionists (direct aid to the British); and isolationists (all methods short of war)

Destroyer Deal

US gave 50 WWI warships to Britain b/c they were being blockaded by Germany; in return, British promised 8 base sites, strategically located, for 99 years; achieved by Presidential agreement (no congress)

Thomas E. Dewey

The Republican presidential nominee in 1944, Dewey was the popular governor of New York. Roosevelt won a sweeping victory in this election of 1944. Dewey also ran against Harry Truman in the 1948 presidential election. Dewey, arrogant and wooden, seemed certain to win the election, and the newspapers even printed, "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" on election night. However, the morning results showed that Truman swept the election, much to Dewey’s embarrassment.

Arsenal of Democracy

FDR promised to supply arms to Allies; "send guns not sons"

Two events that marked the course of WWII before Pearl Harbor

Fall of France (June 1940) & Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union (June 1941)

Atlantic Conference (1941)

FDR and Churchill signed this covenant outlining the future path towards disarmament, peace, & a permanent system of general security. Its spirit would animate the founding of the United Nations & raise awareness of the human rights of individuals after WWII

Self-determination

allowing the members of a country to decide whether or not they want to annex etc.

Pearl Harbor

Dec 7, 1941; Black Sunday; "a date which will live in infamy"; an American naval base in Hawaii where Japanese destroyed numerous shops, and caused 3,000 casualties. Propelled the US into war

Why war?

US wanted to stay out but didn’t want Britain to fall; halt Japanese conquests in the Far East (threatened American trade, security, & international peace)

Executive Order #9066

FDR’s order to move Japanese in American to isolation camps

Korematsu v. US (1944)

upheld constitutionality of Executive Order 9066

War Production Board (WPB)

This board halted the manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars. It assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials. It imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing because, due to the Dutch East Indies ending their exports of natural rubber to the U.S., they wanted to conserve rubber. They also built fifty-one synthetic rubber plants.

Second Front

was the invasion of western Europe by the US ,British, and French in 1944. This invasion was to take pressure off the Russians and divide the Germans. It was established by the D-Day Invasion.

D-Day

June 6, 1944; was the first day of the Normandy landings which started the invasion of western Europe and liberated France from the Germans.

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day. The German government surrendered unconditionally during WWII on May 7, 1945

Potsdam Conference

Held near Berlin in 1945 with Truman, Stalin and Clement Atlee who issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed. This is where Truman learned about the Atomic Bomb.

V-J Day

Victory in Japan Day was celebrated on August 15, 1945 after the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan. The celebrations continued through the official end of World War II on September 2, 1945 when Japan officially surrendered.

Office of Price Administration

FDR created this in order to prevent inflation in the economy during WWII.

Fair Employment Practice Commission

Roosevelt established this initially to give fair employment to blacks. Eventually, and to this day, its purpose is to protect and serve all races, sexes, ages, and ethnicities involving employment.

Truman

He took over the presidency during World War II with the death of Roosevelt. He was called by many the "average man’s average man" for his appearance and personality, and he was one of the only presidents without a college education. He was an artillery officer in World War One. He was responsible for the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan to end World War II.

Eisenhower

He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of 1942.He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944). He ran for the Republican ticket in the 1952 and the1956 elections and won. He was very well liked by the public.

George Patton

"Blood ‘n’ Guts"; commanded lunges across France by American armored tank division; commander during WWII

ABC-1 Agreement

between US and GB that should the US enter WWII, the two nations and their allies would coordinate their military planning, making a priority of protecting the British Commonwealth. "Getting Germany first".

War Labor Board

est by FDR to mediate disputes between labor and management that might have led to war stoppages and thereby undermining the war effort.

Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943)

passed b/c of worries about the effects that labor strikes would have on war production; this law allowed the gov to seize and operate plants threatened by labor disputes. Criminalized strikes against gov-run companies

Bracero program (1942)

established by agreement w/ Mexican gov to recruit temporary Mexican agricultural workers to US to make up for war-time labor shortages.

Chester Nimitz

served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet into in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.

CORE (Congress of Racial equality)

Nonviolent civil rights organization founded in 1942 and committed to the "Double V" – victory over fascism abroad and racism at home.

Battle of Midway (1942)

a pivotal naval battle fought near the island Midway in June 1942; victory halted Japanese advances in the Pacific

Rosie the Riveter

represented the working woman

Office of Scientific Research & development

gov gave $ to universities to fun research

Chiang Kai-Shek

Chinese general

Battles of Bataan and Corregidor

USA & Filipino held off Japanese. USA surrendered. Bataan Death march to POW camps. Defeat left Japan in complete control of Philippine Archipelago

Leapfrogging

American forces shout reduce the fortified Japanese outposts on their flank. Eventually turned into Island hopping (only taking out the most vital Japanese fortifications then installing air bases on them)

Marshall Rommel

leader of German forces. "Desert fox"

Montgomery and El Alamein (1942)

Montgomery delivered a withering attack here. W/ help of American tanks, he drove enemy back to Tunisia.

Stalingrad

disaster for Germany; freezing cold

Casablanca Conference (1943)

FDR and Churchill agreed to step up to the Pacific war, invade Sicily, increase pressure on Italy, and insist upon "unconditional surrender of the enemy"

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