APUSH- Gilded Age-Progressive Era

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"let it be"; an economic system characterized by little govt. regulation, often allowing for monopolism when larger companies bought the competition

vertical integration

buying out the process (ie steel making, coal -> railroads)

horizontal integration

buying out other companies related to a process

vertical integration

new system of organization adopted in the Gilded Age (horizontal/vertical)

Jay Gould

a railroad entrepreneur who dealt with the new issues of finances and organization; received subsidies from the govt.

Andrew Carnegie

a steel tycoon who was the only exception to the American Dream (actually went from rags to riches); first to use vertical integration


umbrella corporations created between related companies to demolish all competition; similar to an oligopoly (small # of companies influencing prices)

Standard Oil Trust

a trust created by John D. Rockefeller to ‘protect’ the oil industry; later dismantled by Teddy Roosevelt

John D. Rockefeller

an oil tycoon who created the Standard Oil Company; utilized vertical integration and reduced competition via the Standard Oil Trust

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

an anti-trust act that outlawed trust and monopolies; fails due to ambiguous and undefined terms such as restraint of trade & trusts

Farmer’s Alliance

a Southwestern farmer’s union; first to incorporate political goals into a labor movement, which carried into Populist ideals

direct election of senators, gold standard, income taxes

three Populist goals

Populist party

the first labor party; goals included the gold standard, abolition of national banks, a treasury, income tax, paper money, govt. ownership of transportation, direct election of senators, civil service reform, shorter working hours, and reform of immigration regulations

Gospel of Wealth

a book written by Carnegie in support of the social order; thought the rich should donate to and govern the poor, reflected Social Darwinist views


a Midwest farmer’s union whose main enemy was the railroad; called for self-sufficiency & got the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act

Interstate Commerce Act

an act that set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the railroad industry & practices; negatively affected people tied to big companies

JP Morgan

an investment banker who bought the railroad industry during the 1893 Depression; later funded TR’s presidential campaign

Gifford Pinchot

a conservationist who was part of the US Forest Service; helps pass the National Reclamation Act/Newlands Act; advocated multiple-use land management

John Muir

a Californian preservationist, president of the Sierra Club; opposed to businesses taking land for econ. gains; gets govt. to set aside 35 mil. acres for a natl. forest

Samuel Gompers

leader of the American Federation of Labor, setting it up as a federation of trade unions rather than one trade; fought for ‘bread and butter’ issues; gets an 8 hr workday and better wages

Eugene V. Debs

leader of the American Railway Union; boycotts the Pullman issues; later becomes a Socialist & runs as the SPA candidate; gets the Hepburn Act

Hepburn Act

act created by TB; empowered the Interstate Commerce Commision, giving the govt. more regulatory power over businesses

Susan B. Anthony

a suffragist who was part of NAWSA, the Seneca Falls convention, & NLU; also fought in the abolition and temperance movement, giving speeches, writing works, & making petitions

National Labor Union

a labor movement headed by William Sylvis; called for an 8 hr. day, currency/banking reform, a federal dept. of labor, better wages, anti-Chinese immigration, and an end to convict labor

showed that large unions could be created

successes of the NLU

Knights of Labor

a labor movement headed by Terrence Powderly, combining skilled & unskilled workers; called for equal pay (M/F), no convict labor, anti-Chinese immigration, and no child labor

Chinese Exclusion Act, no convict labor

successes of the Knights of Labor

William Sylvis

headed the NLU

American Federation of Labor

the most well-known labor movement, composed of a federation of trade unions; dealt with bread & butter issues (ie wages, workday)

Social Darwinism

the belief that social classes are a result of evolution, that people are only ‘fit’ to do as well as their class; used to explain the industrial social order

gold standard

the use of both gold and silver

political machine

a corrupt political organization headed by a political ‘boss’; controlled the votes of a city, letting one party remain in power

Tammany Hall

the name of the Democratic political machine that controlled New York under Boss Tweed

Boss Tweed

a political boss who controlled NY politics during the Tammany Hall scandal; created an enormous debt

Homestead Strike

an armed conflict at a Carnegie Steel plant; managers lock out workers to get rid of unions; workers fire on the men

Haymarket Affair

one of the first violent labor protests; someone throws a bomb & kills policemen

Pinkerton agents

private police hired by companies to suppress unions and workers

Social Gospel

a movement calling for the use of Christianity to solve industrial issues


the economic system of free trade in which consumers and businesses control the economy without government regulation; also known as laissez-faire


the idea of communal, rather than private, ownership of society; a classless society


a philosophy that calls for collective government and government regulation of economy as well as production

19th amendment

the amendment that gave women the right to vote

The Jungle

a book written by Upton Sinclair condemning the meatpacking industry, immigration issues, capitalism, and working conditions

The Birth of a Nation

a movie endorsing the KKK; hailed by Woodrow Wilson as one of the greatest American movies ever made


environmentalist view; wanted to keep the wilderness intact and untouched


environmentalist view; wanted to set out sections of land for commercial and public purposes

Carrie Chapman Catt

replaces Susan B. Anthony as leader of NAWSA; comes up with the Winning Plan, using strong central power & grass-roots organization to get success

Pendleton Civil Service Act

passed after Garfield’s assasination; set up a commission to examine merit for federal jobs; downfall of the spoils system


getting rid of trusts; TR endorses this in his State of the Union Speech

16th Amendment

amendment that created income tax

17th Amendment

amendment that established the direct election of senators

18th Amendment

amendment that banned alcohol sales


collective name for middle-class reformers who tried to expose political corruption and industrial conditions in cities


losing the right to vote; happened to many blacks after the end of Reconstruction

Booker T. Washington

black; called for accomodation/acceptance of racist conditions to eventually obtain reforms

city manager system

a system of govt. in cities under which professional administrators could run the govt; progressives favored this


let voters tell the legislature to consider a bill


let voters enact a law or give opinions on a measure


let voters remove an official from office

urban beautification

movement that called for parks, boulevards, street lights; aka a more useful and beautiful city

square deal

a deal btw. Ams. and capitalists endorsed by TR; didn’t want to destroy corporations, but tried to make them better for the public

New Nationalism

TR’s idea that businesses were okay, but should be regulated in public interest; endorsed social welfare & environmentalism

New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson’s view during the 1912 election; called for small govt, small business, and free competition

Election of 1912

a 4-way election between TR (Progressive), Wilson (Dem.), Taft (Rep.), and Debs (SPA); Wilson wins, linking the Dems. to reform

Niagara Movement

a black activist movement inspired by Du Bois; resisted racism; met every year at Niagara Falls

Chinese Exclusion Act

an act that forbid Chinese immigrants from entering the US for 20 yrs; endorsed by the Knights of Labor

Plessy v. Ferguson

a Supreme Court cause in which the Court said segregation was constitutional as long as it was fair btw. the two races

National Reclamation Act

an act passed by TR that used money from land sales for water management

Northern Securities Company

a railroad trust that TR’s attorney general filed suit against & destroyed

Pure Food and Drug Act

outlawed the sale of contaminated food or drugs & called for accurate ingredient labels

Meat Inspection Act

enacted sanitation rules for meatpackers as well as a meat inspection system

Lochner v. New York

a Sup. Ct. case that refuted a NY law that set max. working hours for bakery workers

Muller v. Oregon

a Sup. Ct. case that set max. working hours for female laundry workers

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

a tariff-raising act passed under Taft; further splits the Republicans

Mann Act

an act that prohibited the transportation of prostitute women btw. states

Mann-Elkins Act

an act that strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission under Taft

Standard Oil Co v. US

a Sup. Ct. case that got rid of the Standard Oil Trust

Underwood-Simmons Tariff

a tariff that reduced tariff rates; Wilson gains recognition as part of this

Federal Reserve Act

sets up a system of federal banks with private and public control, each of which could issue US dollars (Wilson)

Federal Trade Commission Act

created the Federal Trade Commission to observe businesses’ violation of federal regulations

Clayton Antitrust Act

a stricter version of the Sherman Act w/ more specific clauses (ie let workers unionize)

Keating-Owen Act

outlawed the sale of child-produced products in states (later repudiated)

Adamson Act

set an 8 hour workday for interstate railroad workers

Workmen’s Compensation Act

created accident and injury protection for federal workers

Buck v. Bell

a Supreme Court case which allowed a sterilization law in Virginia

John Dewey

an education reformer who wrote "Democracy and Education", endorsing schools as a method of social reform; wanted kids to work together in a social group

Hiram Johnson

ran as TR’s VP; opposed to political corruption

Upton Sinclair

a muckraker and writer who wrote "The Jungle", calling for working reforms, a reduction of the laissez-faire system, and less political corruption; also exposed bad working conditions, particularly in the meatpacking industry

Jacob Riis

a muckraker who took photos of poor working conditions, then showed them to the rich

Robert La Follette

a governor who fought for business regulation of railroads, mines, and other businesses; wanted worker protection laws, compensation, and limited campaign spending; also known as "Fighting Bob"

Jane Addams

a middle-class reformer who created "Hull House", a settlement house that provided a variety of services (kindergarden, classes, nurseries, activities, etc) to lower class people, particularly women

Florence Kelley

a settlement house worker whose goals were often immigrant assimilation into American culture; learned to work with municipal government to obtain urban reforms

WEB Du Bois

a black activist who opposed Washington in "The Souls of Black Folk"; called for full racial equality, equal educational opps, & black resistance to racism

Ida Wells

a black journalist who created a natl. antilynching campaign; wrote "The Red Record"

Margaret Sanger

female birth control advocate; founded the American Birth Control League (later the Planned Parenthood Federation)

Theodore Roosevelt

a president who was linked with progressivism; advocated trustbusting, passes numerous social & environmental reforms; later joins the Progressive Party in open defiance of William Taft

William Taft

president of the US from 1910-1912; did more ‘trustbusting’ than TR; passes the Mann-Elkins Act to strengthen the ICC; later opposed by Roosevelt himself in the 1912 election

Richard Ballinger

Taft’s secretary; sold a few mil. acres of land in Alaska to Seattle Businessmen, who then told it to JP Morgan/other businessment; people criticizing the controversy are fired; results in Roosevelt’s opposition to Taft

Woodrow Wilson

president of the US from 1912-1916; dealt with a natl. tariff and banking system as well as business regulation

Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

a movement headed by Frances Willard that led to the decline of the women’s sphere; expanded to fit welfare, prison and labor reform, and public health, meaning more female experience in organization


a black organization that called fro sustained activism & legal attacks to get polit. equality for blacks; inspired by Du Bois


a female organization headed by Carrie Chapman Catt; used the media (ads, posters, photos, memoranda); eventually obtained female suffrage

National Women’s Party

a political party headed by Alice Paul that wanted a female suffrage amendment

American Birth Control League

organization created by Margaret Sanger; later becomes the Planned Parenthood Federation

United Mine Workers Union

a movement headed by Mother Jones that called for higher wages, shorter hours, and no children laborers; got a 10% wage increase and an hour reduction (10-9) via TR

Mother Jones

leader of the United Mine Workers Union

10% wage increase, hours from 10 to 9

successes of the United Mine Workers Union


labor movement that got passage of the Interstate Commerce Act

Terrence Powderly

leader of the Knights of Labor

Sierra Club

John Muir founds this in SF to preserve the wilderness; fails to sustain Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park

Progressive Party

a party that TR formed after the Ballinger-Pinchot controversy in opposition to William Taft; results in Woodrow Wilson’s election

Anti-Saloon League

a progressive temperance organization that later wanted churches and temperance groups to ban prohibition

competition, controlled by businesses, economic independence

differences between workers and farmers (from farmer perspectives)

white Anglo-Saxon Protestants

race and general religion of the Upper Ten

Frank Norris

wrote "The Octopus", a book about wheat raising and the conflict between wheat growers and the corrupt railroad

Progressive Era

an era characterized by a spirit of discontent with the status quo, resulting in a broad response to industrialization (class division, urbanization, immigration)

Ida Tarbell

muckraker, wrote "Standard Oil Company"

Lincoln Steffens

muckraker, wrote "The Shame of Cities"

attacked political machines, city manager system, direct primary, initiative/referendum/recall , secret ballot

ways the political process was reformed (5)

direct primary

a preliminary election in which voters directly select the candidates running for office

better housing, garbage collecting, street cleaning

ways reformers tried to beautify cities (3)

Narcotics Act of 1914, Harrison Act

act that banned the distribution of drugs, unless to licenced physicians of pharmacists

Hazen Pingree

mayor of Detroit who obtained lower transit prices, a better tax structure, public baths, & a ‘clean’ city hall


the idea that certain races shouldn’t reproduce

churches, higher education, organizations

ways blacks fought against racism (3)

bought other companies, cost analysis, organization, subsidies

new aspects of railroads during the Gilded Age (4)

lack of capital, lack of education, northern control, segregation

reasons why the South was slow to industrialize (4)

natural resources, rivers, textiles

aspects of Southern industrialization (how they succeeded)

land grants, tax exemption

methods through which the South began to industrialize


In 1900, US railroads had generated a _______ that was 5x that of the federal government


largest landholders in the west

cooperation to politics

chronology of the farmer’s alliance movement


secured the passage of the 16th and 17th amendments

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