APUSH Chapter 36 (The American Pageant)

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Internment Camps

The US forced thousands of Japanese Americans in camps and sold there land and shop, this did this because they were suspicious of them because of pearl harbor, they soon realized their mistake

Korematsu vs. U.S.

In 1944, the Supreme Court upheld the government’s policy of detaining Japanese Americans in internment camps, even when there was no specific evidence that they posed a danger to American security. The Court justified the policy as a military necessity in wartime.


With the end of the New Deal legislation, new conservative forces came in and arose new motivation to win the war

War Production Board

Created in 1942, this organization oversaw the production of planes, tanks, artillery pieces, and munitions needed for entering WWII – civilian to military manufacturing


a fixed allowance of provisions or food, esp. for soldiers or sailors or for civilians during a shortage

Office of Price Administration

This office, along with the Office of Economic Stabilization, tried to keep wartime economy under control by settling price floors and ceilings, regulating the tax code, and instituting rationing.

War Labor Board

(WLB) settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high

Smith-Conally Anti-Strike Act

if a factory went on strike (usually war-supply producing), the government had the right to take control of it


Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps. Women volunteering for the army would not be given the same rank, pay, or benefits as men who were doing the same thing as them.


women that were part of the United States navy during WWII


women part of the Untied States Coast Guard


Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren’t enough workers.


– Los Angeles, Detroit, Seattle, Baton Rouge, California – towns grew fast because as the men left the cities, women moved in to work in the factories and so did African Americans

Fair Employment Practices Commission

FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.

Code Talkers

Indians who transmitted messages in their native languages; languages which the Germans and Japanese could not understand

Zoot Suit Riot

influx of illegal immigrants after the agreement to import temporary workers increased tensions, Mexican harassed by servicemen and police in California

Japanese in 1942

– captures Guam, Wake, Phillipines, British-China port of Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma, East Indies

Bataan Death March

April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It is called the Death March because so may of the prisoners died en route.

General Douglas McArthur

An American General in charge of bringing democracy to Japan and Korea.

Battle of Midway

U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.


first major offensive launched by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan; Allies overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders –> allies won

Island Hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.

Marianas: Guam and Saipan

important islands from which B-29 bombers could make round trip bombing raids on Japan

Enigma Codes

German codes cracked by the British allowing the Allies to pinpoint the location of U-boats

El Alamein

Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain’s Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the ‘Desert Fox’) in 1942-1943. (p. 793)

Stalingrad (1942)

The German advance into Russia was stopped at Stalingrad by the cold and cruel Russian winter and stiff Russian resistance. With the German defeat at Stalingrad, Hitler lost all hope of defeating Russia.

Casablanca 1943

In the middle of the North African campaign, Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca and resolved to attack Italy before invading France. They also vowed to pursue the war until the unconditional surrender of the Axis power, and tried to reduce Soviet mistrust of the west.

Tehran Conference

First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war – also create the United Nations after the war ends


June 6, 1944 – Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

George S. Patton

american general; helped the joint british and american forces break through german defenses and advance towards paris

Thomas E. Dewey

the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948

Election of 1944

Year in which Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for president and John W, Bricker (an isolationist senator) for vice president. Democrats renominated Roosevelt but changed vice president to Harry S. Truman. Roosevelt won with sweeping victory. 4th term for Roosevelt.

Henry A. Wallace

head of the Progressive Party, another faction that branched off from the Dem Party before the election of 1948; was a liberal Democrat who were frustrated that Truman’s domestic policies were ineffective and were against his foreign anti-Communist policies

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 – After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

Battle of Leyte Gulf

1944 World War II naval battle betweeen the United States and Japan. Largest naval engagement in history. Japaneze navy was defeated.

Battle of Iwo Jima

lasted 6 weeks, several thousand marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, this battle is also notable for the famous photograph of US marines lifting the American flag to a standpoint

Battle of Okinawa

Lasted almost 3 months.The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.


Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).


City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II

ABC-1 Agreement

Agreement with Britain that adopted the strategy to defeat Germany before concentrating on Japan

Matthew Perry

A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.

Meiji Government

Around 1900, the Japanese saw what was happening to other Asian nations as European took them over through imperialism. The Japanese transformed their entire society to copy the Europeans under this government. They industrialized, got rid of the samurai, copied European schooling and military, etc.

Gentleman’s Agreement

(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.


Name for Japanese immigrants during the war who were not eligible for US citizenship b/c of their race


2nd generation, children of Issei. Half are christian to be accepted into america. Maintain the philosophies of the three religions with christianity (they try to integrate religions) Sansei (3rd generation) Yonsei( 4th generation) (most of both of these generations were christian)

Henry J. Kaiser

He had supervised the constrution of Boulder Dam and reduced the production time to less than two weeks instead of 6 months and then to one ship a day


Term used for American soldiers in World War II, derived from the term "Government Issue"

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

A. Philip Randolph

Black leader, who threatens a march to end discrimination in the work place; Roosevelt gives in with companies that get federal grants.

Negro March on Washington

In 1941 Philip Randolph and Baynard Rustin began to organize a march to Washington to protest against discrimination in the defense industries. In May Randolph issued a "Call to Negro America to March on Washington for Jobs and Equal Participation in National Defense on July, 1, 1941".

Congress of Racial Equality

organized in 1942, mobilized mass popular resistance to discrimination in a way that the older, more conservative organizations had never done, (African American leaders helped organize sit ins and demonstrations in segregated theaters and restaurants).

Gross National Product

The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year.

Burma Road

Route by which the US was sending munitions to the Chinese who were resisting the Japanese – went over Himalayas

Jiang Jeishi (Chiang Kai-shek)

leader of the nationalist party in China; Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II

Battle of the Coral Sea

fought from 4-8 May 1942, was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first fleet action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other. It was also the first naval battle in history in which neither side’s ships sighted or fired directly upon the other. It saved Port Moresby and stopped the Japanese advance on New Guinea

Chester Nimitz

Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.

Erwin Rommel

"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.

Bernard Montgomery

A British army general who defeated the Germans at El Alamein in Egypt, and began pursuing them westward.

Second Front

the invasion of western Europe by the U.S ,British, and French in 1944. This invasion was to take presure off the Russians and divide the Germans. It was established by the D-Day Invasion.

North African Invasion

Invasion led by Eisenhower to seize the Mediterranean sea, open trade lines to India and other parts of Asia, and distract from mainland Europe

Dwight Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2–leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School


Allied amphibious landing against Axis forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy

Liberation of Paris

August 24, 1944; US freeing France from German occupation

Harry S Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt’s death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe’s economic recovery.

Elbe River

a river in central Europe that arises in northwestern Czechoslovakia and flows northward through Germany to empty into the North Sea – Eisenhower held Allied troops at this location, allowing the Soviets to reach Berlin first at the close of the war in Europe.

V-E Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered – WWII ended

Tokyo Fire Bombings (March 1945)

The U.S sent napalms out over Tokyo. 1 million people died, this weakened Japanese

William Bull

Five star U.S. Navy admiral in World War II. He was a fleet commander in the South Pacific whose motto was "Hit hard, hit fast, hit often."


in World War II, Japanese pilots who loaded their aircraft with bombs and crashed them into enemy ships

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

Alamogordo Test

16 Jul 1945 , experts detonated first atomic weapon here

V-J Day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945

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