APUSH chapter 29

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Herbert Croly

progressive thinker that wrote The Promise of American Life; the book agreed with TR’s old policy of leaving good trusts alone but controlling bad trusts

Arsene Pujo

chairman of the Democrat House committee; concluded that the "money monster" was rooted in the banking system. Made aware the tentacles of the "money monster" into the hidden vaults of American business and bankers to democratic banking reformers.

Wilson’s Platform

New Freedom; supported small business and wanted to bust all trusts, not distinguishing good or bad. The plan did not include social welfare programs.

TR’s New Nationalism

pushed for leaving good trusts alone but controlling bad trusts, female suffrage and social programs such as minimum wage laws social insurance programs.

Wilson’s political philosophy

He believed in the "self-determination" policy of post-WWI where the people chose their government. He was more of an idealist man, rather than pragmatic. However, like Teddy Roosevelt, he believed the president should strike out and lead the country.

The Underwood Tariff Bill

It considerably reduced tariff rates on imports. It also started a graduated income tax; as the tax rate went up as a person’s salary went up.

Federal Reserve Act

Most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal. It created the Federal Reserve Board (appointed by the president) this oversaw 12 regional, federal banks. The Federal Reserve Board was given the power to issue paper money;"Federal Reserve Notes". Thus, it could regulate the amount of money in circulation by issuing, or holding back, paper money.

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

It added to the Sherman law’s list of objectionable trust practices by forbidding price discrimination; a different price for different people, and interlocking directorates; the same people serving on "competitors" boards of trustees. It also exempted labor unions from being considered trusts and legalized strikes as a form of peaceful assembly. Ultimately helped cut down on monopolies.

Federal Trade Commission Act

set up a position, appointed by the president, to investigate activities of trusts. The goal would be to stop trade practices deemed unfair such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery.

Federal Farm Loan Act

Made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest (long demanded by the Populists) offered low interest loans to farmers.

La Follette Seamen’s Act

Required sailors to receive good treatment and a decent wage while on American merchant ships.

Workingmen’s Compensation Act

offered help to federal civil-service employees during a time of disability.


a British cruise liner that was the greatest U-boat attack; Nearly 1,200 souls were killed in the attack, including 128 Americans. Was carrying 420 cases of small-arms ammunition, a fact the Germans used to justify the sinking.

Sussex Pledge

this was given in response to the sinking of a French passenger ship, Sussex, in 1915, it said that Germany promised that no attacks would be made on ships without warning. Germany quickly realized that such a pledge undermined the purpose of a submarine (surprise attack). They retracted the pledge and reverted back to unrestricted submarine warfare.

Triple Entente/ Allies

Great Britain, France, Russia

Triple Alliance/Central powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Roosevelt wanted the federal government to regulate the economy and promote social welfare, while Wilson wanted to restore economic competition and social equality.

The basic contrast between the two progressive andidates, Roosevelt and Wilson, was that

Taft and Roosevelt split the former Republican vote

Wilson won the election of 1912 primarily because

his tendency to be inflexible and refuse to compromise

Wilson’s primary weakness as a politician was

the tariffs, the banks, and the trusts

The "triple wall of privilege" that WIlson set out to reform consisted of

a federal income tax

During the Wilson administration, Congress exercised the authority granted by the newly enacted 16th Amendment

the Federal Trade Commission

The new regulatory agency created by the Wilson administration in 1914 that attacked monopolies, false advertisting, and consumer fraud was

agricultural and labor organizations

While it attacked business monopolies, the Clayton Anti-trust Act exempted from antitrust prosecution

establishing a publicly controlled Federal Reserve Board with regional banks under bankers’ control

Wilson effectively reformed the banking and financial system by


Wilson’s progressive policies and laws substantially aided all of the following groups except

to refuse recognition of General Huerta’s regime but avoid American intervention

Wilson’s initial attitude toward the Mexican revolutionary government was

Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

The threatened war between the United States and Mexico in 1914 was avoided by the mediation of the ABC powers, which consisted of

the killing of American citizens in New Mexico by "Pancho" Villa

General Pershing’s expedition into Mexico was sent in direct response to

the German invasion of neutral Belgium

The sympathy of a majority of Americans for the Allies and aainst Germany was especially conditioned by

cease from sinking neutral merchant and passenger ships without warning

After the Lusitania, Arabic, and Sussex sinkings, Wilson successfully pressured the German government to

"He kept us out of war"

Wilson’s most effective solgan in the campaign of 1916 was

bull moose

Four-footed symbol of Roosevelt’s Progressive third party in 1912


A fourth political party, led by a former labor union leader, that garnered nearly a million votes in 1912

New Freedom

Wilson’s poltical philosophy of restoring democracy throguh trust-busting and economic competition

Federal Reserve Board

A 12 member agency appointed by the president to oversee the banking system under a federal law of 1913

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Wilsonian law that tried to curb business monopoly while permitting labor and agricultural organizations

Railway Labor Act

Wilsonian reform law that established an eight-hour day for railroad workers


Troubled Carribean island nation where a president’s murder led Wilson to send in the marines and assume American control of the police and finances


Key electoral state where a tiny majority for WIlson tipped the balance against Hughes in 1916

Samuel Gompers

Labor leader who hailed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act as the "Magna Carta of labor"

General Huerta

Mexican revolutionary whose bloody regime Wilson refused to recognize and nearly ended up fighting

Venustiano Carranza

Second revolutionary Mexican president, who took aid from the US but strongly resisted American military intervention in his country


Small European nation whose neutrality was vilated by Germany in the early adys of WWI


Small European nation in which an Austro-Hungarian heir was killed, leading to the outbreak of WWI

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