APUSH Chapter 10 Vocabulary

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Alexander Hamilton

Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assumption of state debts which went into affect in 1790, an excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791.

Citizen Genet

A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall him after he began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed him U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest him.

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was unconstitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Democratic-Republican Party

Political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states’ rights, opposed Hamilton’s financial plan, supported ties with France, and believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.

District of Columbia

This location is occupied entirely by the city of Washington, D.C.; chosen by George Washington as the site of the capital of the United States and created out of land ceded by Maryland and Virginia

Federalist Party

They believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Their programs were the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry. Died out after the Hartford Convention.

French Revolution

1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France in which the absolute monarchy that had ruled for centuries collapsed in three years, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.

George Washington

Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States. He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president’s tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.

Hamilton’s fiscal policies

Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy. The programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey.


British practice of drafting British subjects employed on American vessels and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.

John Adams

He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist and served as vice president under Washington. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself. He supported a strong central government that favored industry, banking interests, merchants, and close ties with England.

Judiciary Act of 1789

Created the federal court system and allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.

Loose Constructionist

A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking. Favors a liberal construction of the Constitution that gives broader powers to the federal government.

Louis XVI

Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution along with his Queen Marie Antoinette.

Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)

Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its given powers.

Proclamation of Neutrality

(April 22, 1793) Was a formal announcement issued by President George Washington, which stated that the USA would refrain from participation in a war between other states.

Strict Constructionist

Person who interprets the Constitution very literally or strictly; they believes that a power not explicitly stated in the Constitution could not be exercised by government. Historically, they have hoped to restrict authority of the central government and preserve states’ rights.

Tariff of 1789

Apart from a few selected industries, this first tariff passed by Congress was designed to raise revenue for the federal government and not protect American manufacturers from foreign competition. Resulted in a government surplus.

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. A leading Democratic-Republican and the first Secretary of State that opposed Alexander Hamilton’s ideas.

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton’s excise tax, and several federal officers were killed. In October, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.

Aaron Burr

Served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.


relating to land or rural matters; relating to the management or farming of land

Alien and Sedition Acts

These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.

12th Amendment

Requires separate electoral ballots for the president and vice president. This amendment was created because during the election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr both received 73 electoral votes.


An alteration of or addition to a motion, bill, constitution, etc.

Anthony Wayne

A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. Left British made arms on the fields of battle. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 led to the Indians ceding their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.


Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River with the Greenville Treaty.

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.


Persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers.

Compact Theory

The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.

Convention of 1800

Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams’ losing a second term as president

Excise Tax

A tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

Farewell Address

The address was Washington’s farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.

Funding at par

This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton’s establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government.

Henry Knox

First Secretary of War. He managed Native American relations, passed the bill that made it possible for only the federal government to control native lands, rather than the states.

Implied Powers

A power not specified for Congress in the constitution but is necessary for congress to carry out its delegated powers

James Madison

Strict constructionist, 4th president, "Father of the Constitution"

Jay’s Treaty

Was made up by John Jay. Agreement that ended the dispute with Britain over American shipping during the French Revolution.It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829).

Little Turtle

Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace.

Loyal Opposition

A reference to the political party out of power at any given time. Eventually, Jefferson and Hamilton’s personal feud raged nationwide, creating two political parties. The idea was that one political party, the one out of party, was still loyal to the country while opposing the other parties policies. It mace sure that people on all sides of the political spectrum were heard.

Matthew Lyon

Was one of the famous arrestees of the Alien and Sedition Acts. His crime was spitting at a Federalist’s face and criticizing Adam’s policies.

Miami Confederacy

An alliance of eight Indian nations who terrorized Americans and were given firearms by the British.

9th Amendment

Amendment that protects rights not listed in the Bill of Rights; unenumerated rights.


The states’-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress.

Pickney’s Treaty

1795 – Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.

Protective Tariff

A tariff imposed to protect domestic firms from import competition.

Revolution of 1800

Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency. It was the first time in a western government where a change in the ruling power had occurred so radically, peacefully, and without bloodshed.


The French foreign minister, whom which three American dipolmats seek to reach an agreement with, they are stopped by the French X, Y, and Z dipolmats and are asked for a bribe to speak with Talleyrand. Causes XYZ affair.

10th Amendment

Rights reserved to the states.

Treaty of Greenville

Signed in 1794, the peacy treaty that ended the feud between the Americans and the Miami Confederacy; the confederacy gave up much land in the Old Northwest (present day Indiana and Ohio); the Americans in return would give $20,000 to the Indians, the right to hunt the lands they ceded, and recognition of their sovereign status.

Undeclared war with France (Quasi War)

Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.

Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

XYZ Affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.

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