AP US Chapter 11

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The lesson Frederick Douglass learned on how to survive slavery was to:

A) pretend that nothing bad was happening.
B) act defiantly at every opportunity.
C) obey every command of his master or mistress.
D) understand and outwit his oppressors.
E) endure all suffering in silent dignity.


The most recent historical interpretations of slavery have viewed the institution:

A) as uniformly cruel and oppressive.
B) as relatively humane and paternalistic.
C) through the interactions of masters and slaves.
D) from the perspective of northerners.
E) through eyes of the slaves themselves.


The majority of white Southerners in antebellum America owned:

A) more than 20 slaves.
B) more than 50 slaves.
C) between one and 10 slaves.
D) more than 100 slaves.
E) no slaves at all.


The invention of the cotton gin in 1793:

A) slowed expansion into the Southwest.
B) tied the southern economy to cotton production.
C) caused plantation owners to plant tobacco.
D) undermined the plantation system.
E) revived the subject of abolitionism.


From 1815 to 1860, southern production of cotton:

A) represented more than half of all American exports.
B) harmed the interests of northern merchants and western farmers.
C) shrank by 50 percent.
D) surpassed the corn crop in terms of total acreage.
E) contributed to a steady decline in the region’s per capita income.


Laws to control the domestic slave trade were:

A) regulated by the British navy.
B) strictly enforced by the president.
C) passed to protect slave families.
D) poorly enforced and usually short lived.
E) enacted by Congress in 1808.


Southerners migrated southwestward in huge numbers between 1830 and 1860, seeking new lands for the:

A) diversification of agriculture.
B) production of cotton.
C) development of industry.
D) cultivation of tobacco.
E) herding of livestock.


The majority of slaves were engaged in:

A) domestic service.
B) industrial tasks.
C) factory work.
D) mining operations.
E) agricultural labor.


The Tredegar Iron Company of Richmond decided in 1847 to shift from white to slave labor to:

A) show their solidarity with other white slave owners.
B) reduce the costs of labor and capital investments.
C) expand the pool of slave laborers for industrial enterprises.
D) destroy the potential power of organized white workers to strike.
E) offer slaves useful skills for their later lives as free blacks.


White artisans in the South viewed black workers as:

A) potential colleagues.
B) fellow workers.
C) threats to their livelihoods.
D) no real competition.
E) valuable assets.


The typical slaveholder owned:

A) more than 50 slaves.
B) only one or two slaves.
C) fewer than 10 slaves.
D) between 10 and 15 slaves.
E) more than 20 slaves.


Most whites in the antebellum South:

A) avoided the social stigma of slaveholding.
B) resented the political influence of white slaveholders.
C) regarded slaveholding as a path to upward economic mobility.
D) wanted the abolition of slavery.
E) owned between five and ten slaves prior to 1860.


Sociologist George Fitzhugh argued that southern black slaves:

A) should be gradually amalgamated with the white race.
B) received better treatment than northern factory workers.
C) deserved gradual emancipation and limited economic opportunities.
D) did not need the paternal guidance of white masters.
E) worked harder than white factory workers in the North.


Wealthy southern planters justified slavery in terms of white superiority because such a defense:

A) reflected their blind racism.
B) coincided with the main ideological directions of the time.
C) deflected potential class antagonisms among whites.
D) fit in with the democratic ideals of the time.
E) emphasized the profitability of the institution.


Slave spirituals reiterated one basic Christian theme:

A) do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
B) a chosen people were held captive but would be delivered.
C) servants, obey your masters.
D) love one another.
E) if someone slaps you, turn the other cheek.


In the slave folktales, Brer Rabbit:

A) falls victim because of his weak and careless nature.
B) suffers because of his weakness.
C) watches out for the other animals of the forest.
D) knows how to use his cunning to outwit his enemies.
E) demonstrates the foolishness of resistance to stronger foes.


The slave conspiracies of Gabriel Prosser in 1800 and Denmark Vesey in 1822 were both thwarted by:

A) spies planted among the slaves.
B) mass executions of the leaders.
C) internal betrayal by fellow slaves.
D) random killing of innocent blacks.
E) white discovery of the plots.


The free black population of the United States increased from 1820 to 1860 because of all of the following reasons EXCEPT the:

A) continuing immigration of blacks from Africa.
B) passing as white.
C) natural increase of the free black population.
D) results of personal purchases and manumissions.
E) successful escapes of slaves from the South.


Many slaveholders urged their slaves to attend church because it:

A) improved the intelligence and morals of the slaves.
B) offered the slaveholder a form of social control.
C) allowed slaves an opportunity for singing and dancing.
D) gave the slaves something to do on their one day off.
E) enhanced the slaveholder’s reputation and social standing.


Free African Americans were likely to:

A) be women and children.
B) live near dense plantation centers.
C) be younger and more aggressive.
D) reside in cities and towns.
E) have fewer skills than slaves.


Following the convergence of Nat Turner’s revolt and William Lloyd Garrison’s publication of the abolitionist Liberator in 1831:

A) masters had less fear of slave revolts.
B) state laws prohibiting manumission were passed in the South.
C) laws protecting slaves from overly severe treatment were repealed.
D) the material conditions for slaves worsened.
E) the slaves’ expectations of freedom were heightened.


Slavery inhibited the economic growth of the South because of the slaveholders’:

A) high maintenance costs.
B) unstable cotton prices.
C) low profit yields.
D) paternalistic attitudes.
E) undiversified capital investments.


For southern white women, Mary Boykin Chesnut regarded "the sorest spot" of slavery as the:

A) breaking up of slave families.
B) double standard of plantation sexuality.
C) obligation to feed, clothe, and nurse additional children.
D) excessive cruelty of the overseers.
E) social isolation and loneliness.


The yeoman farmers of the South:

A) formed a small portion of the population.
B) were fiercely proud of their independence.
C) showed little interest in political issues.
D) lived in the Appalachian Mountains.
E) owned very few slaves.


what 5 things did the exportation of cotton depend on

technology (cotton gin), labor, demand, land, global trade system

true or false: latin american slavery was also depended on by the europeans


_______ was to latin america as cotton was to the united states


what was migration south and west pulled by

prospect of fresh land, cheap labor, and deteriorating economic conditions

where were slaves mainly found

plantations (but could also be found in most other aspects of southern economy)

ohio vs kentucky: what was ohio like

-high population -labor honored -order -hard workers (to become wealthy!!!) -energetic

ohio vs kentucky: what was kentucky like

-old/ancient (like past) -labor devalued -messy -many don’t work -want pleasure and superiority (not $)

why was it hard to move up the ranks in the south

there was very little of a middle class

why did "poor whites" in the south tend to not care about their conditions

because they were not slaves (they were FOR slavery)

why were white male southerners violent

militaristic; proving tough and in control

what were effects on the south from slavery (5)

-threatens immigrants -dehumanizes common labor -keeps poor white southerners in a rationalized poverty -forces development and maintenance of irrational hierarchy -forces maintenance of military society

what were the 6 different arguments slavery supporters used

-biblical -historical (greece and rome) -legal (constitution) -pseudoscientific (supposed racial inferiority) -sociological (slaves as children) -economic (slaves better than factory workers)

what were the plantation mistress’ jobs (3)

-tame husbands excess cruelty -beautify their parlors -tend food, clothes, and health

what was the task system like for slaves

(slaves preferred) each with a specific task daily

what did house slaves do

(easier assignments) help with harvest, ate/dressed better

what were disadvantages of being a house slave (2)

close supervision and sexual assault common

what were some issues caused for slaves from their poor diet

skin disorders, sore eyes, mental illness, vitamin deficiency diseases

true or false: most slaves were highly susceptible to epidemics

true (malaria, yellow fever, cholera)

what was the worst trauma for slaves

separation of families

what was religion like for slaves

most christian, with some mix of african american and islam (a lot of methodist and baptist)

true or false: for a slaveholder, religion was a form of social control


what did having a family give to a slave

love, support, protection, education

what did slave parents pass to their kids

family history, music, language

what were things slaves did as day to day resistance

breaking tools, self harm, illness, stealing food

who were black drivers

african american overseers of slaves

what was tough about a black drivers job

had to get master’s work done without alienating fellow slaves

what were ways women slaves rebelled

messed up master’s meals, faked illnesses and cramps

who was a typical slave runaway

male, alone

communities of runaway slaves were called…


why did the number of free slaves double from 1820-1860

from natural increase of runaways, and those who bought their freedom

true or false: most free slaves made a good living

false, they were commonly poor

what were some rights free slaves did not have

could’t bear arms, vote, buy alcohol

what were four cities that african americans formed vibrant communities

richmond, charelston, baltimore, new orleans

for free blacks, ______ was the center of the community


pre cotton gin, slavery was known as…

a necessary evil

post cotton gin, slavery was known as…

a positive good

true or false: with the under ground railroad, many of the owners of the safe houses were white

false, mostly free blacks

what were the people helping slaves called


true or false: the under ground railroad was a relatively violent confrontation of slave owners that was operated in semi-privacy and was most orchestrated by free blacks



action or intervention, especially such as to produce a particular effect

when did slaves have no agency

-government -closely watched -family -job -master -diet -marriage

when did slaves have agency

-religion -family stories/things passed down

what were forms of resistance by slaves

-breaking tools -self harm -fake illness -runaway -petition congress or state legislature -harm overseers

what were forms of rebellion by slaves

-typically young males -often massacre of whites

who created the only successful slave rebellion in US

nat turner

what did nat turner believe and what did he do

believed he was chosen to free slaves; murdered slaveholders families (eventually hanged)

what was the liberator and who created it

william loyd garrison; for abolition of slavery

what did southerners do to calm nat turner fear

said he died with copy of liberator to make it seem like he didn’t think of the idea for a rebellion

who learned to endure slavery by understanding and outwitting his oppressors

fredrick douglass

from 1815 to 1830, what constituted more than half of all US exports


what northern abolitionist published the liberator and demanded an immediate end to slavery

william lloyd garrison

despite not owning spaces, what group in the south saw slaveowning as a path to upward economic mobility

poor whites

an escaped slave who became the famous conductor of the underground railroad leading some 300 slaves out of the south on 19 separate trips

harriet tubman

who led the only temporary successful slave rebellion in american history

nat turner

most free african americans in the south lived where

cities in the upper south

one of the buddies domestic slave trading routes began in alexandria, VA and ended in _______, mississippi


perhaps no issue in american history has generated quite as much controversy or as many interpretations as ______, the "peculiar institution"


in slaves folktales, the clever ______ usually outwitted the more powerful brer fox or brer wolf, thus reversing the roles of oppressed and oppressor

brer rabbit

this slave was the leader of an extensively planned but ultimately unsuccessful slave revolt in charleston SC in 1822

denmark vesey

slave who organized an unsuccessful revolt in VA in 1800

gabriel prosser

enlightened and talented rice planter and later governor of SC, viewed tasks of slaveholding as both a duty and a burden

robert francis allston

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