AP Psychology Chapter 8

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The component of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations


A collection of symbols, and rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to create an infinite variety of messages


The smallest units of sound in a spoken language


The smallest units of meaning in a language


The rules that specify how words can be combined into phrases and sentences


Using a word incorrectly to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to


Using a word to describe a narrower set of objects than it is meant to


Single-word utterances that represent the meanings of several words

Telegraphic Speech

The ability to reflect on the use of language

Metalinguistic Awareness

Consists of the acquisition of two languages that employ different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical rules


The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture


Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind

Availability Heuristic

Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event

Representativeness Heuristic

The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge


The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use

Functional Fixedness

The sudden discovery of a correct solution to a problem following incorrect attempts


A strategy for solving problems


The process by which children map a word on an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word

Fast Mapping

The average of youngsters’ spoken statements (measured in morphemes)

Mean Length of Utterance

Generalizing grammatical rules to irregular cases where they do not apply


Making decisions under conditions of uncertainty

Risky Decision Making

A hypothetical innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language

Language Acquisition Device

Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past

Mental Set

The theory that one’s language determines one’s thoughts

Linguistic Relativity

The active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable

Problem Solving

Trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error unil one works

Trial and Error

Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them

Decision making

How issues are posed or how choices are structured


Occurs when peoples’ belief about whether and outcome will occur changes depending on how alternative outcomes are distributed, even though the summed probability of the alternative outcomes is held constant

Alternative Outcomes Effect

A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possibly alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem


The tendency to seek information that supports one’s decisions and beliefs while ignoring disconfirming evidence

Confirmation Bias

Occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening are greater than the odds of either event happening alone

Conjunction Fallacy

Refers to individuals’ tendency to rely primarily on either external or internal frames of referece when orienting themselves in space

Field dependence-independence

The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn’t occurred recently

Gambler’s fallacy

Refers to the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver

Problem Space

Asserts that peole tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus only on a few facets of available options an often result in "irrational" decisions that are less than optimal

Theory of Bounded Rationality

Young children have a larger receptive vocabulary than productive vocabulary. In other words, they ____ more words than they ____

Understand; speak

The cognitive revolution in psychology occurred in

the 1950s

The two sentecnes "The boy hit the ball" and "The ball was hit by the boy" are the same in regard to


Which of the following best describes the capabilities of three-month-old infants. They can distinguish

all the phonemes in their native language

In a language, the smallest units of meaning are


Which of the following is the best example of overregularization?


The system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences in a language refers to


The english language contains approximately

100 Phonemes

The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations is


The process by which a child leanrs a new word after ony one exposure to the word it

Fast Mapping

The vocabulary spurt typically begins at around

18-24 months

Which of the following is NOT a critical property of language

Language is orderly

The area of psychology that refers broadly to mental processes or thinking is


When an infant produces repetitive consonant-vowel combinations such as "babababa," the infant is


The fact that a limited number of words may be combined into an infinite number of sentences illustrates that language is


Rules exist that govern how words may be combine into phrases and sentences.This describes the critical property that language is


A child is exhibiting underextension when

mom’s car

Which of the following statements is the best example of telegraphic speech

Give cookie

In the sentence "First the oven was preheated to 350 degrees," the word preheated consists of _____ morphemes


Which is least accurate

Bilingual children are less advanced in language acquisition

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