AP Psychology Chapter 8

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motivation

– a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetic predispositions?

Instinct theory

Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?

Instinct

drive-reduction theory

– the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need – physiological aim is homeostasis

A need refers to:

a physiological state that triggers motivation arousal

An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n):

drive

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:

a drive

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________

need; drive

Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of:

drive-reduction theory

homeostasis

– a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to:

maintain homeostasis

When a psychological need increases, the psychological drive ____________

increases

incentive

– a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

Human motivation aims to seek __________________

optimal arousal

The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of:

incentives

Lack of body fluids is to cold water as ________ is to ________

need; incentive

Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?

arousal theory

Which theory would be most likely to predict that rats are motivated to explore precisely those areas of an experimental maze where they receive mild electric shocks?

arousal theory

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of:

boredom

hierarchy of needs (definition)

– Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level needs and then psychological needs become active

hierarchy of needs (bottom to top)

– Physiological needs: need to satisfy hunger and thirst – Safety needs: need to feel that the world is predictable – Belongingness and love needs: need to love and be loved – Esteem needs: need for recognition and respect – Self-actualization needs: need to live up to fullest and unique potential – Self-transience needs: need to find meaning beyond the self

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow’s hierarchy of human motives includes the need for:

food and water

According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________

adequate clothing; self-esteem

On the basis of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, one would be least likely to predict that a:

prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his or her country

Financial satisfaction is more strongly predictive of subjective well-being in poor nations than in wealthy ones. This fact would most clearly be anticipated by:

hierarchy of needs

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet:

lost interest in sex and social activities

Washburn and Cannon

– Swallowed a balloon to transmit stomach contractions – Discovered that Washburn was indeed having stomach contractions whenever he felt hunger

Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:

hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed

glucose

– the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger

Increases in the hormone insulin lead to:

decreasing blood glucose levels triggering hunger

In the brain, the hunger controls are located in the ________________

hypothalamus

lateral hypothalamus

– brings on hunger – if stimulated there, well-fed animals begin to eat – if the area is destroyed, even starving animals have no interest in food

orexin

– hunger-triggering hormone – when given to rats, they become ravenously hungry

ventromedial hypothalamus

– depresses hunger – stimulating this area will cause the animal to stop eating -destroying this area would cause the stomach and intestines to process food more rapidly, causing it to be extremely fat

ghrelin

– hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach

obestatin

– a sister hormone to ghrelin – sends out a fullness signal that suppresses hunger

PPY

– a hormone secreted by the digestive tract – appetite-suppressant

leptin

– protein secreted by fat cells and acts to diminish the rewarding pleasure of food

Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat. This procedure is likely to:

cause the rat to begin eating

An animal’s stomach and intestines will process food more rapidly and the animal will become extremely fat if its:

ventromedial hypothalamus is destroyed

Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to:

cause the rat to become extremely fat

Leptin, a hunger-dampening protein, is secreted by:

fat cells

set point

– the point at which an individual’s "weight thermostat" is supposedly set – when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

An explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis is best illustrated by the concept of:

set point

basal metabolic rate

– the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure

Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by environmental as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term:

settling point

anorexia nervosa

– an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

bulimia nervosa

– an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

binge-eating disorder

– significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

The level of serotonin in the brain is:

increased by a diet high in carbohydrates

People’s preferences for sweet tastes are ________, and their preferences for excessively salty tastes are ________

universal; learned

People are most likely to dislike the taste of ________ foods

novel (unfamiliar)

A body that can store fat has the advantage of possessing:

stored energy

The health risks associated with obesity are generally the greatest for those who carry their excess weight around their:

bellies

New research has linked women’s obesity to their risk of late-life:

Alzheimer’s disease

When people’s images on a video monitor are widened to make them look fatter, observers perceive them as:

less sincere and less friendly

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that:

no matter how carefully people diet, they can never lose fat cells

Although John has been obese for as long as he can remember, he is determined to lose excess weight with a special low-calorie diet. John is likely to have difficulty losing weight while dieting because:

fat tissue can be maintained by fewer calories than can other body tissues

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will:

have a lower resting metabolic rate

Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that:

obesity is more common today than it was 40 years ago

Researchers have observed that the incidence of obesity and diabetes among 50,000 nurses was predicted by their:

TV viewing habits

Having lost weight, formerly obese individuals have ________ fat cells and ________ metabolic rates

smaller; slower

sexual response cycle

– the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

plateau phase

– excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood rates continue to increase

orgasm

– muscle contractions – further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates

refractory period

– a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

estrogens

– sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics – in nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

testosterone

– the most important of the male sex hormones – both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in physiological arousal if:

they have just experienced an orgasm

sexual orientation

– an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

emotions

– a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience

James-Lange theory

– the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard theory

– the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

two-factor theory

– the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal

autonomic nervous system

– mobilizes your body for action and calms it when the crisis

The two factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than do other theories of emotion

cognitive activity

The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompanies different emotions

physiological arousal

sympathetic division of ANS

– directs adrenal glands to release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

parasympathetic division of ANS

– neural centers inhibit further release of stress hormones and arousal diminishes gradually

A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is

epinephrine

polygraph

– a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)

spillover effect

– when our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event

Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ________ than do those watching angry faces

amygdala

Observers watching angry faces show less brain activity in the ________ than do those watching fearful faces

thalamus

Electrical stimulation of the ________ has been observed to trigger smiling and laughter in depressed patients

nucleus accumbens

As people experience positive emotions, an increase in brain activity is most evident in the

left frontal lobe

The right prefrontal cortex is more active than the left prefrontal cortex when people experience

disgust

Polygraphs are designed to measure the changes in breathing, cardiovascular activity, and perspiration that are thought to accompany specific emotions. Which theory of emotion best supports this assumption?

Cannon-Bard

Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee’s emotional volatility best illustrates the

spillover effect

Paul Whalen and his colleagues demonstrated that subliminal exposure to fearful eyes triggered increased activity in the

amygdala

People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of

anger

The most unambiguous nonverbal clue to our specific emotional state is provided by our

facial muscles

When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker than other children to see anger

physically abused

The eyebrows raised and pulled together most clearly signal

fear

People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to

how they interpret hand gestures such as the "thumbs up" signal

Who suggested that a sneer retains elements of baring one’s teeth so as to threaten predators?

Charles Darwin

North Americans are more likely than Japanese citizens to display their feelings openly. This cultural difference best reflects the American culture’s greater emphasis on

individuality

The suggestion that "a happy face creates a merry soul" is most consistent with the

James-Lange theory

facial feedback

– the effect of facial expressions on experienced emotions, as when a facial expression of anger or happiness intensifies feelings of anger or happiness

Repeatedly saying the word "me" puts people in a better mood than repeatedly saying "you." This best illustrates the

facial feedback effect

People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates

the behavior feedback pehnomenon

Which researcher proposed that there are 10 basic emotions?

Carroll Izard

Anger is to rage as fear is to ____________

terror

Most young children are fearful of bees, even though they have never been stung by one. This best illustrates that fear

can be learned through observation

Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to the part of the brain called the

amygdala

catharsis

– emotional release – maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

After 9/11, Americans who responded with anger more than fear also displayed

more intolerance for immigrants

Milan is upset with his wife because she was over an hour late in picking him up at the airport. He is likely to deal most effectively with his feelings of irritation toward her by telling her

"I’m really angry that I had to wait so long for you to get here."

Rosaria is upset with her husband for not putting his dirty clothes in the laundry basket. Anger experts would most likely recommend that she deal with her frustration by saying to him

"It annoys me that you leave your dirty clothes for me to pick up."

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

– people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

well-being

– self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life – used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life

adaption-level phenomenon

– our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

relative depravation

– the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves

Enjoying your second piece of pie less than your first illustrates

the diminishing returns phenomenon

During the last four decades, the buying power of Americans has ________ and their self-reported personal happiness has ________

increased; remained almost unchanged

Which of the following best explains why both million-dollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness?

the adaption-level phenomenon

A disturbing implication of the adaptation-level phenomenon is that

seeking happiness through financial security requires ever-increasing wealth

Research suggests that people experience the most happiness when they are

absorbed in challenging activities

One way for people to improve their own satisfaction with life is to

participate in regular aerobic exercise

A general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether people

are well educated

behavioral medicine

– an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease

health psychology

– a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine

stress

– the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events that we appraise as threatening or challenging

While taking a difficult test, Cindy’s muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses are

stress reactions

In a stressful situation, feelings of pain are dulled by

the sympathetic nervous system

In response to stress, the adrenal glands release

epinephrine

Walter Cannon observed that a variety of stressors trigger

a fight-or-flight reaction

general adaption syndrome

– Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases—alarm, resistance, exhaustion

alarm reaction (GAS)

– sudden activation of your sympathetic nervous system

resistance (GAS)

– temperature, blood pressure, and respiration remain high – sudden outpouring of hormones

exhaustion (GAS)

– body’s reserves are depleted – more vulnerable to illness

After Georgiana learns that a tornado has destroyed her house, her brain probably directed the outer part of her adrenal glands to react by

secreting cortisol

During which phase of the general adaptation syndrome are organisms best able to physically cope with stress?

resistance

Hypertension rates are highest in those European countries where people report the lowest

satisfaction with life

coronary heart disease

– the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle – the leading cause of death in many developed countries

type A

– Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people

type B

– Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people

Heart disease and depression may both result when chronic stress triggers

persistent inflammation

psychophysiological illness

– literally, "mind-body" illness – any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches

psychoneuroimmunology

– the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting in heath

lymphocytes

– the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections – T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.

Natural killer cells are part of the body’s

immune system

The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the

immune system

By attacking the body’s own tissues, an overly reactive immune system is most likely to cause

arthritis

AIDS

– an acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

The secretion of stress hormones

draws energy away from immune activity

Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by

inhibiting the production of lymphocytes

When experimenters implanted tumor cells into rodents, those exposed to ________ were more prone to cancer

inescapable shocks

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