AP Psychology Chapter 7

When people are asked to say how many windows they have in their dwelling, the amount of time people take to come up with the answer ________.
a) doesn't depend on the number of windows
b) depends on the number of windows
c) depends on the size of the windows
d) depends the number of rooms with and without windows
e) depends on whether the house had one or two stories, not the number of windows

b

You ask a student to describe the path to his dorm room. The most likely way in which he will do this is to ________.
a) recite a rote list of directions he memorized
b) give you the GPS location of his dorm room
c) walk through a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it
d) draw a map on a sheet of paper
e) none of these

c

In Kosslyn's "imaginary island" study, researchers found that it does take longer to view a mental image that ________.
a) is larger or covers more distance than one that is smaller and more compact
b) has more items in it
c) has more colors in it
d) contains more animals than plants
e) contains living things as compared to nonliving items

a

Kosslyn asked subjects if frogs have lips and a stubby tail. What did the subjects report?
a) They visualized a frog, starting with the face ("no lips") and mentally rotated the image to look for the stubby tail.
b) They visualized a frog, starting with the face ("no lips"), had it disappear, and then visualized a completely new frog for a second time with its backside to them.
c) They needed to draw pictures of frogs on paper to answer correctly.
d) They knew the answer but did not have to generate an image.
e) They felt that that task was impossible to accomplish.

a

PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image, ________.
a) the image is generated by the amygdala and sent to the brain
b) the image is generated by the retinal ganglion cells and sent to the cortex
c) the image is generated by the thalamus and sent to the brain
d) the areas associated with stored knowledge send information to the visual cortex
e) there is no locus in the brain that can be determined for the generation of visual images

d

Concepts are ideas that represent ________.
a) a class or category of objects, events, or activities
b) patterns of behavior
c) higher-order conditioning
d) secondary reinforcers
e) none of these

a

What are mental categories representing activities, objects, qualities, or situations that share some common characteristics?
a) patterns
b) classes
c) concepts
d) attributes
e) classifications

c

Don tells Rigo that he wants to get a new sports car. Rigo immediately understands why, because he is familiar with the common characteristics of sports cars and knows what makes them different from family cars. Rigo is using mental categories called ________.
a) classes
b) concepts
c) attributes
c) patterns
e) classifications

b

Before enrolling in an abnormal psychology course, Gary's idea of psychological disorders had been influenced primarily by talk shows. He expected to hear the same kinds of stories he had heard on talk shows. What an eye-opening experience the course turned out to be! How would a cognitive psychologist describe the influence the course had on Gary's idea of psychological disorders?
a) Gary learned the value of algorithms.
b) Gary now uses heuristics.
c) The course increased Gary's ability to use visual imagery.
d) The course increased Gary's ability to classify the behavior of others.
e) The course altered Gary's concept of psychological disorders.

e

Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be ________.
a) easier to learn
b) very clear and well-defined
c) fuzzy with unclear boundaries
d) good fits with a rigid classification system
e) well-defined with distinct patterns

c

Which is the most likely prototype for the concept "vehicle"?
a) glider
b) moped
c) car
d) scooter
e) bicycle

c

Which example would most people take longest to identify as a fruit (even though it technically is a fruit)?
a) banana
b) grape
c) apple
d) orange
e) olive

e

The first thing that comes to mind when asked to name an example from a category is called the ________.
a) schema
b) prototype
c) concept marker
d) category marker
e) script

b

The trial-and-error method of solving problems is also known as ________.
a) the use of a heuristic device
b) the procedural solution
c) the use of algorithms
d) the mechanical solution
e) the A.I. solution

d

What systematic problem-solving method guarantees a solution, provided that one exists?
a) heuristic method
b) algorithmic method
c) mnemonic device
d) chunking method
e) cognitive shortcut

b

Talia is looking for her cat by methodically searching each room and then closing the door. She is using what type of problem solving strategy?
a) insight
b) an algorithm
c) a heuristic
d) a means-end strategy
e) a hunch

b

Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as "drawing figures and figuring drawings." In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure, such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call ________.
a) heuristics
b) logarithms
c) algorithms
d) convergence

c

What problem-solving strategies don't guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?
a) heuristics
b) algorithms
c) mnemonic devices
d) logarithms
e) cognitive shortcuts

a

An advantage of algorithms over heuristics is that ________.
a) algorithms are much faster
b) algorithms guarantee a correct answer if one is available
c) algorithms are shortcuts
d) algorithms can be solved backwards
e) algorithms use rules-of-thumb

b

An advantage of using a heuristic over an algorithm is ________.
a) the heuristic ensures a correct answer
b) the heuristic takes longer and is more accurate
c) the heuristic can be quicker
d) the heuristic always works the same way
e) the heuristic makes use of divergent thinking

c

In problem solving, the term rule of thumb refers to ________.
a) heuristics
b) algorithms
c) means-end solutions
d) mnemonic devices
e) cognitive shortcuts

a

Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student?
a) They are using the availability heuristic.
b) They are using the representativeness heuristic.
c) People seek only confirming information.
d) People tend to make relative comparisons.
e) People usually have clear insights into the behavior of others.

b

Chung mistakenly believes that there are more words that begin with the letter "k" than there are with the letter "k" in the third position due to ________.
a) the representativeness heuristic
b) the availability heuristic
c) the planning fallacy
d) functional fixedness
e) confirmation bias

e

A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue," through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figured it out," is called ________.
a) brainstorming
b) priming
c) transformation
d) insight
e) a mental set

d

Köhler demonstrated "Aha!" or insight behavior with ________.
a) rats
b) birds
c) dogs
d) cats
e) chimpanzee

e

What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
a) confirmation bias
b) convergent thinking
c) attribution bias
d) availability heuristic
e) representativeness heuristic

a

A loose screw on the visor causes it to drop down while Jalal drives; however, he keeps forgetting to take a screwdriver out to the car to fix it. When he notices the visor drop again, he reaches into his pocket for a dime he uses to tighten the screw holding the visor. What problem-solving difficulty did Jalal overcome?
a) relative comparison
b) faulty inference
c) functional fixedness
d) poor problem representation
e) the representative heuristic

c

Riley has figured out how to unlock his bedroom door with a paper clip. What has he most likely overcome in his new use of the paper clip?
a) functional fixedness
b) the representational problem
c) the representative heuristic
d) divergent thinking
e) the confirmation bias

a

The tendency to perceive and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the past is called ________.
a) mental set
b) means-end analysis
c) noncompensatory modeling
d) functional fixedness
e) prototypical idealization

a

Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating ________.
a) mental set
b) confirmation bias
c) stereotype threat
d) convergent thinking
e) mindlessness

b

The concept of the confirmation bias specifically assumes that we are most likely to believe ________.
a) the scientific method as true
b) information that agrees with our thinking
c) insights over focused thinking
d) information that refutes our thinking
e) logical thinking

b

The ability to solve problems by combining behaviors and ideas in new ways is called ________.
a) creativity
b) insight
c) heuristics
d) latent learning
e) functional fixedness

a

________ thinking works well for routine problem solving but may be of little use when a more creative solution is needed.
a) Heuristic
b) Triarchic
c) Divergent
d) Insightful
e) Convergen

e

A person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. The person is engaging in ________.
a) functional thinking
b) circular thinking
c) latent thinking
d) convergent thinking
e) divergent thinking

e

What type of thinking could be described as taking different directions in search of a variety of answers to a question?
a) functional
b) decisive
c) convergent
d) heuristic
e) divergent

e

A person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. The person is engaging in ________.
a) conceptual thinking
b) functional thinking
c) circular thinking
d) convergent thinking
e) divergent thinking

e

Coming up with as many different uses of a brick as possible, such as using them for doorstops, is a type of ________ thinking.
a) disordered
b) divergent
c) associative
d) triarchic
e) convergent

b

Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking?
a) "What is a stapler?"
b) "How do you spell stapler?"
c) "How many uses can you think of for a stapler?"
d) "What does a stapler look like?"
e) "What is the best brand of stapler?"

c

Which type of thinking is most closely related to creativity?
a) heuristic
b) functional
c) divergent
d) insightful
e) convergent

c

A group of employees get together to try to solve the problem of decreased sales of their company's products. One of them suggests that they generate as many ideas as they can in a short period of time without being critical of any of them. This technique of stimulating divergent thinking is called ________.
a) brainstorming
b) keeping a journal
c) free writing
d) mind or subject mapping
e) insighting

a

The divergent thinking technique of starting with a central idea and drawing a "map" with lines from the center to other related ideas and then forming a mental image of the concepts and their connections is known as ________.
a) brainstorming
b) ideating
c) keeping a journal
d) free writing
e) mind or subject mapping

e

The divergent thinking technique of writing down everything that comes to mind about a topic without revising or proofreading until all of the information is recorded, and then organizing it later, is known as ________.
a) brainstorming
b) keeping a journal
c) freewriting
d) mind or subject mapping
e) ideating

c

Which is NOT a characteristic of creative people?
a) They usually have a broad range of knowledge about a lot of subjects and are good at using mental imagery.
b) They are often conventional in their personal lifestyles and take few social risks.
c) They aren't afraid to be different andare more open to new experiences than many people.
d) They tend to have more vivid dreams and daydreams than others do.
e) They value their independence.

d

The ability to learn from one's experiences, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges or problems is the psychologist's working definition of ________.
a) divergent problem solving
b) creative thinking
c) heuristic usage
d) algorithmic processing
e) intelligence

e

Researchers typically stress that a key aspect of intelligence is ________.
a) the ability to speak different languages
b) the Y chromosome
c) the ability to adapt to new situations
d) only accurate for males
e) the ability to perform complex mathematics

c

Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ________.
a) verbal and mathematical abilities
b) crystallized and visual-motor abilities
c) general intelligence and specific abilities
d) analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
e) fluid and spatial abilities

c

Which of these is one of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences?
a) poetic
b) digital
c) historical
d) creative
e) naturalistic

e

Gardner and his associates are known for proposing ________.
a) the theory of fluid intelligence
b) the generalized theory of intelligence
c) the triarchic theory of intelligence
d) the theory of multiple intelligences
e) the theory of emotional intelligence

d

Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into ________ independent abilities.
a) three
b) five
c) seven
d) nine
e) eleven

d

A theory of intelligence with nine components was postulated by ________.
a) Gardner
b) Spearman
c) Binet
d) Sternberg
e) Terman

a

Criticisms of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences include ________.
a) the fact that it relies too heavily on g
b) the fact that it doesn't factor in cultural perspectives
c) that it appears to describe only those with brain damage
d) the idea that these "skills" are not necessarily the same thing as what is meant by intelligence.
e) There are no concerns.

d

Sternberg has found that ________ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life but has a low relationship to ________ intelligence.
a) practical; analytical
b) practical; creative
c) analytical; practical
d) academic; creative
e) academic; analytical

a

What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?
a) global, intuitive, and special
b) general, global, and specific
c) analytical, creative, and practical
d) general, analytical, and reasoning
e) mathematical, reasoning, and verbal

c

Which of the following is one of the three areas of intelligence described by Sternberg?
a) analytical
b) exponential
c) heuristic
d) linguistic
e) rational

a

According to Robert Sternberg, ________ intelligence is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems (divergent thinking, in other words).
a) analytical
b) creative
c) practical
d) existential
e) rational

b

According to Robert Sternberg, ________ intelligence is best described as "street smarts," or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success.
a) analytical
b) creative
c) functional
d) practical
e) naturalistic

d

An example of Sternberg's practical intelligence is ________.
a) academic achievement only
b) knowing when to plant corn
c) having interpersonal and emotional skills
d) learning how to write clearly
e) being able to solve complex equations

b

Shalissa is described as being tactful and able to manipulate situations to her advantage. She is probably high in ________.
a) analytical intelligence
b) creative intelligence
c) practical intelligence
d) general intelligence
e) functional intelligence

c

According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict success in an academic environment?
a) analytical intelligence
b) creative intelligence
c) practical intelligence
d) general intelligence
e) functional intelligence

c

Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. The idea of such testing came from ________.
a) France
b) the United States
c) Germany
d) the United Kingdom
e) the Soviet Union

a

People began measuring intelligence through tests roughly________ years ago.
a) 50
b) 100
c) 200
d) 500
e) 1,000

b

Alfred Binet designed the first ________ test.
a) aptitude
b) vocational
c) performance-based
d) perception
e) intelligence

e

Binet and Simon considered children relatively slow if their ________.
a) mental age equals their chronological age
b) mental age is lower than their chronological age
c) mental age is higher than their chronological age
d) mental age does not equal their chronological age
e) mental age differs from chronological age by two standard deviations

b

The correct formula for determining IQ as used in Terman's development of the Stanford-Binet Test was ________.
a) 100/MA × CA
b) CA - MA × 100
c) MA/CA × 100
d) MA/CA
e) CA/MA × 100

c

An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________.
a) 8; 80
b) 8; 125
c) 10; 80
d) 10; 100
e) 10; 125

e

Suppose Marisol's mental age is 20 and her chronological age is 10. What is her IQ?
a) 320
b) 180
c) 80
d) 200
e) 100

d

Dallas is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 10 years. His IQ would be ________.
a) 80
b) 90
c) 100
d) 115
e) 130

c

Jordan is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 8 years. His IQ would be ________.
a) 60
b) 80
c) 100
d) 125
e) 140

b

Which of the following tests would be best suited to an 8-year-old child?
a) WAIS-IV
b) WISC-IV
c) WPPSI-IV
d) DSM-IVR
e) G Factor III

b

Sasha is 22 years old. For her job, she needs to take an intelligence test. Which would be the most appropriate test for her age group?
a) WAIS-IV
b) WISC-IV
c) WPPSI-III
d) DSM-IVR
e) G Factor III

a

Which of these might be an example of a perceptual reasoning item on the Wechsler intelligence tests?
a) repeating a series of digits
b) repeating a series of nonsense syllables
c) defining a word such as lunch
e) adding a series of orally presented numbers
e) using blocks to make a design like one shown in a picture

e

Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be ________.
a) valid
b) normed
c) accountable
d) reliable
e) standardized

d

If you took the WAIS-IV when you were 18 and again when you were 25, and the scores were the same, what could you conclude?
a) that you had increased your IQ
b) that the WAIS-IV is reliable
c) that your IQ has decreased
d) that the test is standardized
e) that the WAIS-IV is flawed

b

On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 110 level on the first half of the test, and 150 on the second half of the test. What does this test appear to lack?
a) reliability
b) standardization
c) accountability
c) predictive validity
e) appropriate norms

a

A test is said to be reliable if ________.
a) a person's score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it
b) it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure
c) its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict
d) it is culture-fair
e) people in the same age group score within one standard deviation

a

A psychological test that measures what we intend it to measure is said to be ________.
a) valid
b) normed
c) reliable
d) verified
e) standardized

a

Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that ________.
a) follows the normal curve
b) has a positive skew
c) has a negative skew
d) appears bimodal with two peaks of high frequency
e) produce a random scatter plot

a

What percent of the population has an intelligence quotient below 100?
a) 90 percent
b) 75 percent
c) 50 percent
d) 35 percent
e) 10 percent

c

Like most characteristics of a population, WAIS-IV scores are distributed in a bell or normal curve. Which of the following is an accurate characteristic of those types of curves?
a) Scores are evenly distributed across the population.
b) Scores are clumped around the midpoint.
c) The curve resembles an "S."
d) Scores are more common at the ends of the distribution.
e) Scores are distributed in a random scatter plot.

c

Because of the need to measure the IQ of people of varying ages, newer IQ tests base their evaluation of IQ on ________.
a) mental age alone
b) deviation scores from the mean of the normal distribution
c) giving extra points for older folks to compensate for their slower processing times
d) academic performance and cultural identity
e) variance IQ scores

b

Culture-fair tests attempt to measure ________.
a) the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised
b) the intelligence of people coming from inside the culture in which the test was devised
d) a standard deviation factor to calculate cultural impacts
d) cultural background
e) the effects of culture on people's intellectual and creative skills

a

Many items on a "culture-fair" test require the use of ________.
a) nonverbal abilities such as rotating objects
b) verbal knowledge
c) emotional intelligence
c) musical knowledge
e) knowledge of major world historical figures

a

Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair tests?
a) They should minimize or eliminate the use of language.
b) They should not attempt to measure intelligence.
c) They should consist of tasks that require emotional intelligence.
d) They should be composed of items that vary from culture to culture.
e) They should measure values based on a person's cultural background.

a

Which of the following activities/sports is noted by your textbook as having a concerning number of head injuries and concussions?
a) lacrosse
b) tennis
c) ice hockey
d) women's field hockey
e) cheerleading

e

When soldiers in the military sustain head injuries, there is a(n) ________% likelihood that these injuries would be categorized as moderate to severe.
a) 15
b) 30
c) 50
d) 65
e) 85

c

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a) adaptive behavior severely below a level appropriate for the person's age
b) evidence of brain damage
c) slower than normal reflexes
d) onset of deficits prior to age 6
e) evidence of serious childhood illness

a

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a) IQ approximately 2 standard deviations below the mean
b) evidence of brain damage
c) slower than normal reflexes
d) onset of deficits prior to age 6
e) evidence of serious childhood illness

a

A male has a defect in the X chromosome of the 23rd pair. As children, people with this syndrome experience symptoms that can range from mild to severe or even profound intellectual disability. This is known as ________.
a) fragile X syndrome
b) Down syndrome
c) fetal alcohol syndrome
d) familial retardation
e) XY pair disassociation

b

People are termed gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above ________.
a) 100
b) 120
c) 130
d) 140
e) 150

c

What percentage of the population is described as gifted, according to IQ standards?
a) about .01 percent
b) about 1 percent
c) around 2 percent
d) nearly 10 percent
e) about 20 percent

c

All parents think their little kids are geniuses. However, to be classified as a genius, the IQ score must be above ________.
a) 120-125
b) 130-135
c) 140-145
d) 150-155
e) 170-175

b

Which of the following statements about gifted people is true?
a) They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses.
b) They are physically weaker than non-gifted persons.
c) They have poor motor skills.
d) They are often skilled leaders.
e) They are socially unskilled.

d

Beliefs that being gifted or a genius lead to being weird, socially awkward, or more likely to suffer from mental illnesses, were put to rest by ________.
a) Binet's development of the concept of IQ
b) the development of the WAIS tests by Wechsler
c) the Army Alpha tests study
d) the DSM-V comprehensive assessment test
e) Terman's longitudinal study of 1,528 gifted children

e

Which was NOT a finding of the Terman and Oden (1947) study of gifted kids?
a) They were socially well adjusted.
b) They were more resistant to mental illness.
c) They were clearly much more likely to be females.
d) They were above average in weight, height, and physical attractiveness.
e) They earned roughly twice the average median income as adults.

c

The term Terman's Termites refers to ________.
a) a set of developmentally delayed students that Terman studied intensively
b) a group of Army soldiers who, on the basis of their IQ, were followed through their military career
c) a sample of gifted children who were studied and followed into adulthood
d) the graduate students who worked with Lewis Terman on the development of the Stanford-Binet test.
e) the partcipants in the famous twin studies of intelligence

c

What did Terman's groundbreaking study of gifted children accomplish?
a) It put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century.
b) It proved that gifted children and adults are more prone to mental illnesses or odd behavior than other groups.
c) It demonstrated that they have a lower capacity for emotional intelligence.
d) It demonstrated that they also have more than their share of failures.
e) It demonstrated that genius is the only factor that influences real success in life.

a

According to the Terman "Termites" study, the gifted population had a median income that was ________.
a) equal to the national average
b) less than the national average
c) slightly above the national average
d) about twice the national average
e) nearly triple the national average

d

Which of the following statements is TRUE about Terman's longitudinal study of gifted children?
a) The same children were followed over the length of their life span, and some are still being followed today.
b) Gifted people of different ages were all studied at once and their personal values compared.
c) The gifted were found to be socially awkward and had little social success in life.
d) The gifted were found to be at higher risk for mental illness later in life.
e) none of these

e

Having a high IQ doesn't always guarantee success. Terman and Oden examined the most and least successful men in their sample of gifted individuals. The most successful were ________.
a) more goal-oriented and persistent
b) introverted
c) less interested in social relationships
d) from wealthy families
e) from rural areas with strong religious ties

a

The first true longitudinal study of the effects of giftedness on social success was conducted by ________.
a) Freeman
b) Wechsler
c) Terman
d) Binet
e) Merill

c

________ intelligence has been suggested by Goleman to be a more powerful influence on life than more traditional views.
a) Analytical
b) Creative
c) Emotional
d) Functional
e) Applied

c

If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
a) fraternal twins
b) identical twins
c) brothers and sisters
d) parents and children
e) adopted children and adoptive parents

b

Tim and Jim are identical twins who were raised apart. Ned and Ed are fraternal twins who were raised together. Which pair of twins will have more similar IQ scores, and why?
a) Tim and Jim, because they carry the same genes.
b) Ned and Ed, because they grew up in the same environment.
c) Ned and Ed, because they carry the same genes and were raised in the same environment.
d) It is impossible to answer based on the given information.
e) Tim, Jim, Ned, and Ed have similar IQs because all twins score in the same intelligence range.

a

A group of psychologists reviews the literature on the heritability of intelligence. They conclude that most of the estimates indicate that ________ percent of intelligence is due to genetics.
a) 15
b) 25
c) 30
d) 50
e) 75

d

Which of the following groups of children is most likely to have the most similar IQ scores?
a) identical twins reared apart
b) same-sex fraternal twins
c) siblings reared together
d) fraternal twins reared together
e) identical twins reared together

e

Which of the following statements about heredity and intelligence is TRUE?
a) Similarities in intelligence between identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different houses must be due to heredity.
b) Differences in intelligence between identical twins must be due to differences in their environments.
c) If identical twins are separated at birth and raised in different homes, yet still have similar intelligence scores, the similarity in their scores must be due to hereditary influences.
d) Prenatal influences have little, if any, influence on intelligence and need not be taken into account when studying environmental influences.
e) Differences in intelligence between identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different houses must be due to heredity.

c

A system for combining symbols so that an infinite number of meaningful statements can be made is called ________.
a) morphology
b) pragmatics
c) language
d) semantics
e) grammar

c

According to famed linguist Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through a device he called ________.
a) Syntax Synthesizer (SS)
b) Universal Language Inheritance (ULI)
c) Grammar Grabber (GG)
d) Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
e) Language Learning System (LLS)

d

109. The rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language are collectively known as ________.
a) syntax
b) morphemic rules
c) phonemic rules
d) grammar
e) linguistic relativity

c

Language is based on basic sound units called ________.
a) phonemes
b) morphemes
c) sound bytes
d) semantics
e) registers

a

The sounds t, th, and sh are ________.
a) morphemes
b) phonemes
c) semantics
d) sound bytes
e) intonations

b

The words "care" and "bear" differ in one ________.
a) morpheme
b) phoneme
c) gesture
d) intonation
e) syntax

b

You are learning Russian in preparation for a trip next summer. Although you are doing a good job recognizing the written signs you need to know, you are having trouble with the sounds of the Russian language. Which of the following aspects of language is giving you trouble?
a) syntax
b) pragmatics
c) phonemes
d) morphemes
e) audiograms

c

Which of the following statements is true about infants?
a) They are not born with the ability to recognize all phonemes.
b) By the time they are 2 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.
c) By the time they are 9 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.
d) By the time they are 12 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.
e) By the time they are 14 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.

c

The basic meaningful units of any language are called ________.
a) phonemes
b) morphemes
c) semantics
d) syllables
e) sound bytes

b

What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?
a) words
b) syntax
c) syllables
d) phonemes
e) morphemes

e

The phrase "I tried" has ________.
a) one morpheme
b) two morphemes
c) three morphemes
d) four morphemes
e) five morphemes

c

How many morphemes are there in the sentence "I wanted it"?
a) three
b) four
c) six
d) five
e) nine

b

The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make correct sentences is called ________.
a) morphology
b) phonics
c) syntax
d) cognitive universalism
e) linguistic relativity

c

The system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences is called ________.
a) syntax
b) semantics
c) morphology
d) phonology
e) linguistic relativity

a

The sentences "The dog bit the boy" and "The boy was bit by the dog" have the same meaning, but differ in ________.
a) syntax
b) intonation
c) pragmatics
d) semantics
e) morphology

a

The sentence, "Colorless ideas sleep furiously" has ________.
a) proper syntax but poor semantics
b) proper syntax and good semantics
c) improper syntax and poor semantics
d) improper syntax but good intonation
e) proper intonation but poor syntax

c

The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called ________.
a) syntax
b) semantics
c) phonology
d) grammar
e) regularization

a

The semantics of the sentence "He ran" refer to its ________.
a) sound
b) intonation
c) meaning
d) comprehension
e) syntactic structure

c

Young children sometimes literally interpret sentences like "Do you know where your mommy is?" by answering "Yes." They failed to understand the ________ of the question.
a) pragmatics
b) propositional representation
c) syntax
d) nativism
e) grammar

a

The practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language, are referred to as ________.
a) syntax
b) grammar
c) cognitive universalism
d) morphemes
e) pragmatics

e

Pragmatics are defined as ________.
a) the practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language
b) the system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences
c) the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
d) the universal concepts that influence development of language
e) the language rules used to solve problems between people

a

The rhythm and emphasis on each word is called ________.
a) intonation
b) syntax
c) morphemes
d) phonemes
e) semantics

a

When adults who are speaking to infants change the pitch and rhythm in their speech, they are altering their ________.
a) syntax
b) semantics
c) grammar
d) morphemes
e) intonation

e

Which developmental psychologist theorized that concepts preceded and aided the development of language?
a) Vygotsky
b) Piaget
c) Chomsky
d) Sapir
e) Whorf

b

What do we call the hypothesis that language influences what we think?
a) the dynamic hypothesis
b) the language reaction hypothesis
c) the linguistic relativity hypothesis
d) the cognitive linguistic hypothesis
e the language acquisition hypothesis

c

The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that ________.
a) one's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world
b) one's thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one's language
c) we decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or sensible, given the facts at hand
d) perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence
e) perception of concepts precedes understanding of the members the group that comprise the concept

a

A famous lecturer argues that because the Hopi Indians have only two nouns for things that fly, one for birds and another for nonbirds, the Hopi MUST interpret all flying things in terms of these two nouns. This argument is based on ________.
a) the idealized prototype construct
b) bottom-up processing
c) deep structure elaboration
d) top-down processing
e) the linguistic relativity hypothesis

e

Researchers have found that, despite the number of color names in a language, the basic abilities to perceive color are unchanged. This finding would be troublesome for the theory of ________.
a) Piccard and Worf
b) Sapir and Whorf
c) Skinner and Watson
d) Tolman and Thorndike
e) Piccard and Sapir

b

Which of the following statements BEST describes the general relationship between thinking and language?
a) Language is a tool that may be used in thinking, but it isn't the sole basis of thought.
b) Language is the sole basis of thought.
c) When we think, we always make use of language.
d) Language in thinking is used only by adults.
e) Language usually is not required in thought processes.

a

Researchers have found that ________.
a) neither language nor thought is influenced by culture
b) language, but not thought, is influenced by culture
c) thought, but not language, is influenced by culture
e) language and thought are only influenced by culture in Western societies

d

The communication between honeybees would not be classified as language because ________.
a) bees are not animals
b) bee communication seems to be instinctual
c) bees do not use a spoken or auditory communication system
d) bees only communicate using abstract symbols
e) bees are taught "dance" communication by the queen

b

In order to conclusively show that animals do use language, one would have to demonstrate that ________.
a) the language had an auditory, or sound, component
b) the language had a genetic base
c) the language used arbitrary or abstract symbols
d) the animals have the same vocal abilities as people
e) the language had an instinctual base

c

Which of the following is NOT an animal that has been taught to produce behavior that some think is language-like?
a) chimpanzees
b) parrots
c) armadillos
d) dolphins
e) research has shown that all of these animals can produce behavior that resembles language

c

Dolphins, according to TV and movies, are very intelligent and have strong language abilities. They might even be able to talk! However, which statement is true from the research?
a) Dolphins have been shown to be able to master semantics.
b) Dolphins can master the pragmatics but not the syntax of human communication.
c) Dolphins have the language abilities of a 3-year-old child.
d) Dolphin communication with parrots has been firmly established.
e) Dolphins have not been shown to have the ability to master human syntax.

e

Let's say we could teach a dolphin to understand the difference between the sentences "The parrot kissed the dolphin" and "The dolphin kissed the parrot." If this were demonstrated, it might mean the dolphin had an understanding of ________.
a) phonemes
b) semantics
c) morphemes
d) syntax
e) pragmatics

d

At the current time, which statement is true about our knowledge of whether animals can use humanlike language?
a) It has been clearly shown that animals cannot use humanlike language.
b) All animal communication is instinctual and, thus, is not language.
c) Only primates, like monkeys and chimps, show any sign of language-like behavior.
d) Only mammals have the potential to develop language that will be recognizable as humanlike.
e) It is still unclear whether animals can show humanlike language at any level of development.

e

Which of the following is one of the animals that has been taught to use language with some success?
a) goat
b) quail
d) rat
d) dog
e) none of these

e

Which of the following is suggested by your authors as helping to substantially improve cognitive health?
a) physical exercise
b) a diet high in beta-amyloids
c) drinking one or two glasses of red wine at least twice each week.
d) the cessation of cigarette smoking
e) none of these, cognitive health remains constant

a

Regular aerobic exercise has been found to increase neurogenesis in:
a) the amygdala
b) the cerebellum
c) the frontal lobes
d) the prefrontal cortex
e) the hippocampus

c

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AP Psychology Chapter 7

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When people are asked to say how many windows they have in their dwelling, the amount of time people take to come up with the answer ________.
a) doesn’t depend on the number of windows
b) depends on the number of windows
c) depends on the size of the windows
d) depends the number of rooms with and without windows
e) depends on whether the house had one or two stories, not the number of windows

b

You ask a student to describe the path to his dorm room. The most likely way in which he will do this is to ________.
a) recite a rote list of directions he memorized
b) give you the GPS location of his dorm room
c) walk through a mental image of the path and describe it to you as he does it
d) draw a map on a sheet of paper
e) none of these

c

In Kosslyn’s "imaginary island" study, researchers found that it does take longer to view a mental image that ________.
a) is larger or covers more distance than one that is smaller and more compact
b) has more items in it
c) has more colors in it
d) contains more animals than plants
e) contains living things as compared to nonliving items

a

Kosslyn asked subjects if frogs have lips and a stubby tail. What did the subjects report?
a) They visualized a frog, starting with the face ("no lips") and mentally rotated the image to look for the stubby tail.
b) They visualized a frog, starting with the face ("no lips"), had it disappear, and then visualized a completely new frog for a second time with its backside to them.
c) They needed to draw pictures of frogs on paper to answer correctly.
d) They knew the answer but did not have to generate an image.
e) They felt that that task was impossible to accomplish.

a

PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image, ________.
a) the image is generated by the amygdala and sent to the brain
b) the image is generated by the retinal ganglion cells and sent to the cortex
c) the image is generated by the thalamus and sent to the brain
d) the areas associated with stored knowledge send information to the visual cortex
e) there is no locus in the brain that can be determined for the generation of visual images

d

Concepts are ideas that represent ________.
a) a class or category of objects, events, or activities
b) patterns of behavior
c) higher-order conditioning
d) secondary reinforcers
e) none of these

a

What are mental categories representing activities, objects, qualities, or situations that share some common characteristics?
a) patterns
b) classes
c) concepts
d) attributes
e) classifications

c

Don tells Rigo that he wants to get a new sports car. Rigo immediately understands why, because he is familiar with the common characteristics of sports cars and knows what makes them different from family cars. Rigo is using mental categories called ________.
a) classes
b) concepts
c) attributes
c) patterns
e) classifications

b

Before enrolling in an abnormal psychology course, Gary’s idea of psychological disorders had been influenced primarily by talk shows. He expected to hear the same kinds of stories he had heard on talk shows. What an eye-opening experience the course turned out to be! How would a cognitive psychologist describe the influence the course had on Gary’s idea of psychological disorders?
a) Gary learned the value of algorithms.
b) Gary now uses heuristics.
c) The course increased Gary’s ability to use visual imagery.
d) The course increased Gary’s ability to classify the behavior of others.
e) The course altered Gary’s concept of psychological disorders.

e

Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be ________.
a) easier to learn
b) very clear and well-defined
c) fuzzy with unclear boundaries
d) good fits with a rigid classification system
e) well-defined with distinct patterns

c

Which is the most likely prototype for the concept "vehicle"?
a) glider
b) moped
c) car
d) scooter
e) bicycle

c

Which example would most people take longest to identify as a fruit (even though it technically is a fruit)?
a) banana
b) grape
c) apple
d) orange
e) olive

e

The first thing that comes to mind when asked to name an example from a category is called the ________.
a) schema
b) prototype
c) concept marker
d) category marker
e) script

b

The trial-and-error method of solving problems is also known as ________.
a) the use of a heuristic device
b) the procedural solution
c) the use of algorithms
d) the mechanical solution
e) the A.I. solution

d

What systematic problem-solving method guarantees a solution, provided that one exists?
a) heuristic method
b) algorithmic method
c) mnemonic device
d) chunking method
e) cognitive shortcut

b

Talia is looking for her cat by methodically searching each room and then closing the door. She is using what type of problem solving strategy?
a) insight
b) an algorithm
c) a heuristic
d) a means-end strategy
e) a hunch

b

Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as "drawing figures and figuring drawings." In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure, such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call ________.
a) heuristics
b) logarithms
c) algorithms
d) convergence

c

What problem-solving strategies don’t guarantee solutions but make efficient use of time?
a) heuristics
b) algorithms
c) mnemonic devices
d) logarithms
e) cognitive shortcuts

a

An advantage of algorithms over heuristics is that ________.
a) algorithms are much faster
b) algorithms guarantee a correct answer if one is available
c) algorithms are shortcuts
d) algorithms can be solved backwards
e) algorithms use rules-of-thumb

b

An advantage of using a heuristic over an algorithm is ________.
a) the heuristic ensures a correct answer
b) the heuristic takes longer and is more accurate
c) the heuristic can be quicker
d) the heuristic always works the same way
e) the heuristic makes use of divergent thinking

c

In problem solving, the term rule of thumb refers to ________.
a) heuristics
b) algorithms
c) means-end solutions
d) mnemonic devices
e) cognitive shortcuts

a

Seventy percent of the students in a classroom are women and 30 percent are men. One student is described as ambitious, athletic, and assertive. Why are most people likely to think this description refers to a male student?
a) They are using the availability heuristic.
b) They are using the representativeness heuristic.
c) People seek only confirming information.
d) People tend to make relative comparisons.
e) People usually have clear insights into the behavior of others.

b

Chung mistakenly believes that there are more words that begin with the letter "k" than there are with the letter "k" in the third position due to ________.
a) the representativeness heuristic
b) the availability heuristic
c) the planning fallacy
d) functional fixedness
e) confirmation bias

e

A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue," through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figured it out," is called ________.
a) brainstorming
b) priming
c) transformation
d) insight
e) a mental set

d

Köhler demonstrated "Aha!" or insight behavior with ________.
a) rats
b) birds
c) dogs
d) cats
e) chimpanzee

e

What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
a) confirmation bias
b) convergent thinking
c) attribution bias
d) availability heuristic
e) representativeness heuristic

a

A loose screw on the visor causes it to drop down while Jalal drives; however, he keeps forgetting to take a screwdriver out to the car to fix it. When he notices the visor drop again, he reaches into his pocket for a dime he uses to tighten the screw holding the visor. What problem-solving difficulty did Jalal overcome?
a) relative comparison
b) faulty inference
c) functional fixedness
d) poor problem representation
e) the representative heuristic

c

Riley has figured out how to unlock his bedroom door with a paper clip. What has he most likely overcome in his new use of the paper clip?
a) functional fixedness
b) the representational problem
c) the representative heuristic
d) divergent thinking
e) the confirmation bias

a

The tendency to perceive and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the past is called ________.
a) mental set
b) means-end analysis
c) noncompensatory modeling
d) functional fixedness
e) prototypical idealization

a

Agatha Harkness-Smythe is determined to ban guns in the United States. This is a controversial topic and social scientists have debated whether the ownership of guns by citizens increases or decreases crime. Agatha could go to the library and look up studies on the linkage between guns and crime rates. Instead, Agatha just reads the local newspaper and only cuts out articles about robberies in which the "bad guy" used a firearm. Agatha is demonstrating ________.
a) mental set
b) confirmation bias
c) stereotype threat
d) convergent thinking
e) mindlessness

b

The concept of the confirmation bias specifically assumes that we are most likely to believe ________.
a) the scientific method as true
b) information that agrees with our thinking
c) insights over focused thinking
d) information that refutes our thinking
e) logical thinking

b

The ability to solve problems by combining behaviors and ideas in new ways is called ________.
a) creativity
b) insight
c) heuristics
d) latent learning
e) functional fixedness

a

________ thinking works well for routine problem solving but may be of little use when a more creative solution is needed.
a) Heuristic
b) Triarchic
c) Divergent
d) Insightful
e) Convergen

e

A person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. The person is engaging in ________.
a) functional thinking
b) circular thinking
c) latent thinking
d) convergent thinking
e) divergent thinking

e

What type of thinking could be described as taking different directions in search of a variety of answers to a question?
a) functional
b) decisive
c) convergent
d) heuristic
e) divergent

e

A person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. The person is engaging in ________.
a) conceptual thinking
b) functional thinking
c) circular thinking
d) convergent thinking
e) divergent thinking

e

Coming up with as many different uses of a brick as possible, such as using them for doorstops, is a type of ________ thinking.
a) disordered
b) divergent
c) associative
d) triarchic
e) convergent

b

Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking?
a) "What is a stapler?"
b) "How do you spell stapler?"
c) "How many uses can you think of for a stapler?"
d) "What does a stapler look like?"
e) "What is the best brand of stapler?"

c

Which type of thinking is most closely related to creativity?
a) heuristic
b) functional
c) divergent
d) insightful
e) convergent

c

A group of employees get together to try to solve the problem of decreased sales of their company’s products. One of them suggests that they generate as many ideas as they can in a short period of time without being critical of any of them. This technique of stimulating divergent thinking is called ________.
a) brainstorming
b) keeping a journal
c) free writing
d) mind or subject mapping
e) insighting

a

The divergent thinking technique of starting with a central idea and drawing a "map" with lines from the center to other related ideas and then forming a mental image of the concepts and their connections is known as ________.
a) brainstorming
b) ideating
c) keeping a journal
d) free writing
e) mind or subject mapping

e

The divergent thinking technique of writing down everything that comes to mind about a topic without revising or proofreading until all of the information is recorded, and then organizing it later, is known as ________.
a) brainstorming
b) keeping a journal
c) freewriting
d) mind or subject mapping
e) ideating

c

Which is NOT a characteristic of creative people?
a) They usually have a broad range of knowledge about a lot of subjects and are good at using mental imagery.
b) They are often conventional in their personal lifestyles and take few social risks.
c) They aren’t afraid to be different andare more open to new experiences than many people.
d) They tend to have more vivid dreams and daydreams than others do.
e) They value their independence.

d

The ability to learn from one’s experiences, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges or problems is the psychologist’s working definition of ________.
a) divergent problem solving
b) creative thinking
c) heuristic usage
d) algorithmic processing
e) intelligence

e

Researchers typically stress that a key aspect of intelligence is ________.
a) the ability to speak different languages
b) the Y chromosome
c) the ability to adapt to new situations
d) only accurate for males
e) the ability to perform complex mathematics

c

Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of ________.
a) verbal and mathematical abilities
b) crystallized and visual-motor abilities
c) general intelligence and specific abilities
d) analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
e) fluid and spatial abilities

c

Which of these is one of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
a) poetic
b) digital
c) historical
d) creative
e) naturalistic

e

Gardner and his associates are known for proposing ________.
a) the theory of fluid intelligence
b) the generalized theory of intelligence
c) the triarchic theory of intelligence
d) the theory of multiple intelligences
e) the theory of emotional intelligence

d

Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into ________ independent abilities.
a) three
b) five
c) seven
d) nine
e) eleven

d

A theory of intelligence with nine components was postulated by ________.
a) Gardner
b) Spearman
c) Binet
d) Sternberg
e) Terman

a

Criticisms of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences include ________.
a) the fact that it relies too heavily on g
b) the fact that it doesn’t factor in cultural perspectives
c) that it appears to describe only those with brain damage
d) the idea that these "skills" are not necessarily the same thing as what is meant by intelligence.
e) There are no concerns.

d

Sternberg has found that ________ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life but has a low relationship to ________ intelligence.
a) practical; analytical
b) practical; creative
c) analytical; practical
d) academic; creative
e) academic; analytical

a

What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
a) global, intuitive, and special
b) general, global, and specific
c) analytical, creative, and practical
d) general, analytical, and reasoning
e) mathematical, reasoning, and verbal

c

Which of the following is one of the three areas of intelligence described by Sternberg?
a) analytical
b) exponential
c) heuristic
d) linguistic
e) rational

a

According to Robert Sternberg, ________ intelligence is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems (divergent thinking, in other words).
a) analytical
b) creative
c) practical
d) existential
e) rational

b

According to Robert Sternberg, ________ intelligence is best described as "street smarts," or the ability to use information to get along in life. People who have it know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage, and how to use inside information to increase their odds of success.
a) analytical
b) creative
c) functional
d) practical
e) naturalistic

d

An example of Sternberg’s practical intelligence is ________.
a) academic achievement only
b) knowing when to plant corn
c) having interpersonal and emotional skills
d) learning how to write clearly
e) being able to solve complex equations

b

Shalissa is described as being tactful and able to manipulate situations to her advantage. She is probably high in ________.
a) analytical intelligence
b) creative intelligence
c) practical intelligence
d) general intelligence
e) functional intelligence

c

According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict success in an academic environment?
a) analytical intelligence
b) creative intelligence
c) practical intelligence
d) general intelligence
e) functional intelligence

c

Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. The idea of such testing came from ________.
a) France
b) the United States
c) Germany
d) the United Kingdom
e) the Soviet Union

a

People began measuring intelligence through tests roughly________ years ago.
a) 50
b) 100
c) 200
d) 500
e) 1,000

b

Alfred Binet designed the first ________ test.
a) aptitude
b) vocational
c) performance-based
d) perception
e) intelligence

e

Binet and Simon considered children relatively slow if their ________.
a) mental age equals their chronological age
b) mental age is lower than their chronological age
c) mental age is higher than their chronological age
d) mental age does not equal their chronological age
e) mental age differs from chronological age by two standard deviations

b

The correct formula for determining IQ as used in Terman’s development of the Stanford-Binet Test was ________.
a) 100/MA × CA
b) CA – MA × 100
c) MA/CA × 100
d) MA/CA
e) CA/MA × 100

c

An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________.
a) 8; 80
b) 8; 125
c) 10; 80
d) 10; 100
e) 10; 125

e

Suppose Marisol’s mental age is 20 and her chronological age is 10. What is her IQ?
a) 320
b) 180
c) 80
d) 200
e) 100

d

Dallas is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 10 years. His IQ would be ________.
a) 80
b) 90
c) 100
d) 115
e) 130

c

Jordan is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 8 years. His IQ would be ________.
a) 60
b) 80
c) 100
d) 125
e) 140

b

Which of the following tests would be best suited to an 8-year-old child?
a) WAIS-IV
b) WISC-IV
c) WPPSI-IV
d) DSM-IVR
e) G Factor III

b

Sasha is 22 years old. For her job, she needs to take an intelligence test. Which would be the most appropriate test for her age group?
a) WAIS-IV
b) WISC-IV
c) WPPSI-III
d) DSM-IVR
e) G Factor III

a

Which of these might be an example of a perceptual reasoning item on the Wechsler intelligence tests?
a) repeating a series of digits
b) repeating a series of nonsense syllables
c) defining a word such as lunch
e) adding a series of orally presented numbers
e) using blocks to make a design like one shown in a picture

e

Psychological tests that yield relatively consistent results are said to be ________.
a) valid
b) normed
c) accountable
d) reliable
e) standardized

d

If you took the WAIS-IV when you were 18 and again when you were 25, and the scores were the same, what could you conclude?
a) that you had increased your IQ
b) that the WAIS-IV is reliable
c) that your IQ has decreased
d) that the test is standardized
e) that the WAIS-IV is flawed

b

On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 110 level on the first half of the test, and 150 on the second half of the test. What does this test appear to lack?
a) reliability
b) standardization
c) accountability
c) predictive validity
e) appropriate norms

a

A test is said to be reliable if ________.
a) a person’s score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it
b) it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure
c) its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict
d) it is culture-fair
e) people in the same age group score within one standard deviation

a

A psychological test that measures what we intend it to measure is said to be ________.
a) valid
b) normed
c) reliable
d) verified
e) standardized

a

Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that ________.
a) follows the normal curve
b) has a positive skew
c) has a negative skew
d) appears bimodal with two peaks of high frequency
e) produce a random scatter plot

a

What percent of the population has an intelligence quotient below 100?
a) 90 percent
b) 75 percent
c) 50 percent
d) 35 percent
e) 10 percent

c

Like most characteristics of a population, WAIS-IV scores are distributed in a bell or normal curve. Which of the following is an accurate characteristic of those types of curves?
a) Scores are evenly distributed across the population.
b) Scores are clumped around the midpoint.
c) The curve resembles an "S."
d) Scores are more common at the ends of the distribution.
e) Scores are distributed in a random scatter plot.

c

Because of the need to measure the IQ of people of varying ages, newer IQ tests base their evaluation of IQ on ________.
a) mental age alone
b) deviation scores from the mean of the normal distribution
c) giving extra points for older folks to compensate for their slower processing times
d) academic performance and cultural identity
e) variance IQ scores

b

Culture-fair tests attempt to measure ________.
a) the intelligence of people coming from outside the culture in which the test was devised
b) the intelligence of people coming from inside the culture in which the test was devised
d) a standard deviation factor to calculate cultural impacts
d) cultural background
e) the effects of culture on people’s intellectual and creative skills

a

Many items on a "culture-fair" test require the use of ________.
a) nonverbal abilities such as rotating objects
b) verbal knowledge
c) emotional intelligence
c) musical knowledge
e) knowledge of major world historical figures

a

Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair tests?
a) They should minimize or eliminate the use of language.
b) They should not attempt to measure intelligence.
c) They should consist of tasks that require emotional intelligence.
d) They should be composed of items that vary from culture to culture.
e) They should measure values based on a person’s cultural background.

a

Which of the following activities/sports is noted by your textbook as having a concerning number of head injuries and concussions?
a) lacrosse
b) tennis
c) ice hockey
d) women’s field hockey
e) cheerleading

e

When soldiers in the military sustain head injuries, there is a(n) ________% likelihood that these injuries would be categorized as moderate to severe.
a) 15
b) 30
c) 50
d) 65
e) 85

c

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a) adaptive behavior severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age
b) evidence of brain damage
c) slower than normal reflexes
d) onset of deficits prior to age 6
e) evidence of serious childhood illness

a

Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a) IQ approximately 2 standard deviations below the mean
b) evidence of brain damage
c) slower than normal reflexes
d) onset of deficits prior to age 6
e) evidence of serious childhood illness

a

A male has a defect in the X chromosome of the 23rd pair. As children, people with this syndrome experience symptoms that can range from mild to severe or even profound intellectual disability. This is known as ________.
a) fragile X syndrome
b) Down syndrome
c) fetal alcohol syndrome
d) familial retardation
e) XY pair disassociation

b

People are termed gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above ________.
a) 100
b) 120
c) 130
d) 140
e) 150

c

What percentage of the population is described as gifted, according to IQ standards?
a) about .01 percent
b) about 1 percent
c) around 2 percent
d) nearly 10 percent
e) about 20 percent

c

All parents think their little kids are geniuses. However, to be classified as a genius, the IQ score must be above ________.
a) 120-125
b) 130-135
c) 140-145
d) 150-155
e) 170-175

b

Which of the following statements about gifted people is true?
a) They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses.
b) They are physically weaker than non-gifted persons.
c) They have poor motor skills.
d) They are often skilled leaders.
e) They are socially unskilled.

d

Beliefs that being gifted or a genius lead to being weird, socially awkward, or more likely to suffer from mental illnesses, were put to rest by ________.
a) Binet’s development of the concept of IQ
b) the development of the WAIS tests by Wechsler
c) the Army Alpha tests study
d) the DSM-V comprehensive assessment test
e) Terman’s longitudinal study of 1,528 gifted children

e

Which was NOT a finding of the Terman and Oden (1947) study of gifted kids?
a) They were socially well adjusted.
b) They were more resistant to mental illness.
c) They were clearly much more likely to be females.
d) They were above average in weight, height, and physical attractiveness.
e) They earned roughly twice the average median income as adults.

c

The term Terman’s Termites refers to ________.
a) a set of developmentally delayed students that Terman studied intensively
b) a group of Army soldiers who, on the basis of their IQ, were followed through their military career
c) a sample of gifted children who were studied and followed into adulthood
d) the graduate students who worked with Lewis Terman on the development of the Stanford-Binet test.
e) the partcipants in the famous twin studies of intelligence

c

What did Terman’s groundbreaking study of gifted children accomplish?
a) It put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century.
b) It proved that gifted children and adults are more prone to mental illnesses or odd behavior than other groups.
c) It demonstrated that they have a lower capacity for emotional intelligence.
d) It demonstrated that they also have more than their share of failures.
e) It demonstrated that genius is the only factor that influences real success in life.

a

According to the Terman "Termites" study, the gifted population had a median income that was ________.
a) equal to the national average
b) less than the national average
c) slightly above the national average
d) about twice the national average
e) nearly triple the national average

d

Which of the following statements is TRUE about Terman’s longitudinal study of gifted children?
a) The same children were followed over the length of their life span, and some are still being followed today.
b) Gifted people of different ages were all studied at once and their personal values compared.
c) The gifted were found to be socially awkward and had little social success in life.
d) The gifted were found to be at higher risk for mental illness later in life.
e) none of these

e

Having a high IQ doesn’t always guarantee success. Terman and Oden examined the most and least successful men in their sample of gifted individuals. The most successful were ________.
a) more goal-oriented and persistent
b) introverted
c) less interested in social relationships
d) from wealthy families
e) from rural areas with strong religious ties

a

The first true longitudinal study of the effects of giftedness on social success was conducted by ________.
a) Freeman
b) Wechsler
c) Terman
d) Binet
e) Merill

c

________ intelligence has been suggested by Goleman to be a more powerful influence on life than more traditional views.
a) Analytical
b) Creative
c) Emotional
d) Functional
e) Applied

c

If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
a) fraternal twins
b) identical twins
c) brothers and sisters
d) parents and children
e) adopted children and adoptive parents

b

Tim and Jim are identical twins who were raised apart. Ned and Ed are fraternal twins who were raised together. Which pair of twins will have more similar IQ scores, and why?
a) Tim and Jim, because they carry the same genes.
b) Ned and Ed, because they grew up in the same environment.
c) Ned and Ed, because they carry the same genes and were raised in the same environment.
d) It is impossible to answer based on the given information.
e) Tim, Jim, Ned, and Ed have similar IQs because all twins score in the same intelligence range.

a

A group of psychologists reviews the literature on the heritability of intelligence. They conclude that most of the estimates indicate that ________ percent of intelligence is due to genetics.
a) 15
b) 25
c) 30
d) 50
e) 75

d

Which of the following groups of children is most likely to have the most similar IQ scores?
a) identical twins reared apart
b) same-sex fraternal twins
c) siblings reared together
d) fraternal twins reared together
e) identical twins reared together

e

Which of the following statements about heredity and intelligence is TRUE?
a) Similarities in intelligence between identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different houses must be due to heredity.
b) Differences in intelligence between identical twins must be due to differences in their environments.
c) If identical twins are separated at birth and raised in different homes, yet still have similar intelligence scores, the similarity in their scores must be due to hereditary influences.
d) Prenatal influences have little, if any, influence on intelligence and need not be taken into account when studying environmental influences.
e) Differences in intelligence between identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different houses must be due to heredity.

c

A system for combining symbols so that an infinite number of meaningful statements can be made is called ________.
a) morphology
b) pragmatics
c) language
d) semantics
e) grammar

c

According to famed linguist Noam Chomsky, humans have an innate ability to understand and produce language through a device he called ________.
a) Syntax Synthesizer (SS)
b) Universal Language Inheritance (ULI)
c) Grammar Grabber (GG)
d) Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
e) Language Learning System (LLS)

d

109. The rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language are collectively known as ________.
a) syntax
b) morphemic rules
c) phonemic rules
d) grammar
e) linguistic relativity

c

Language is based on basic sound units called ________.
a) phonemes
b) morphemes
c) sound bytes
d) semantics
e) registers

a

The sounds t, th, and sh are ________.
a) morphemes
b) phonemes
c) semantics
d) sound bytes
e) intonations

b

The words "care" and "bear" differ in one ________.
a) morpheme
b) phoneme
c) gesture
d) intonation
e) syntax

b

You are learning Russian in preparation for a trip next summer. Although you are doing a good job recognizing the written signs you need to know, you are having trouble with the sounds of the Russian language. Which of the following aspects of language is giving you trouble?
a) syntax
b) pragmatics
c) phonemes
d) morphemes
e) audiograms

c

Which of the following statements is true about infants?
a) They are not born with the ability to recognize all phonemes.
b) By the time they are 2 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.
c) By the time they are 9 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.
d) By the time they are 12 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.
e) By the time they are 14 months old, they can recognize only the phonemes in the language they are being brought up in.

c

The basic meaningful units of any language are called ________.
a) phonemes
b) morphemes
c) semantics
d) syllables
e) sound bytes

b

What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?
a) words
b) syntax
c) syllables
d) phonemes
e) morphemes

e

The phrase "I tried" has ________.
a) one morpheme
b) two morphemes
c) three morphemes
d) four morphemes
e) five morphemes

c

How many morphemes are there in the sentence "I wanted it"?
a) three
b) four
c) six
d) five
e) nine

b

The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make correct sentences is called ________.
a) morphology
b) phonics
c) syntax
d) cognitive universalism
e) linguistic relativity

c

The system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences is called ________.
a) syntax
b) semantics
c) morphology
d) phonology
e) linguistic relativity

a

The sentences "The dog bit the boy" and "The boy was bit by the dog" have the same meaning, but differ in ________.
a) syntax
b) intonation
c) pragmatics
d) semantics
e) morphology

a

The sentence, "Colorless ideas sleep furiously" has ________.
a) proper syntax but poor semantics
b) proper syntax and good semantics
c) improper syntax and poor semantics
d) improper syntax but good intonation
e) proper intonation but poor syntax

c

The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called ________.
a) syntax
b) semantics
c) phonology
d) grammar
e) regularization

a

The semantics of the sentence "He ran" refer to its ________.
a) sound
b) intonation
c) meaning
d) comprehension
e) syntactic structure

c

Young children sometimes literally interpret sentences like "Do you know where your mommy is?" by answering "Yes." They failed to understand the ________ of the question.
a) pragmatics
b) propositional representation
c) syntax
d) nativism
e) grammar

a

The practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language, are referred to as ________.
a) syntax
b) grammar
c) cognitive universalism
d) morphemes
e) pragmatics

e

Pragmatics are defined as ________.
a) the practical aspects of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language
b) the system of rules that governs how we combine words to form grammatical sentences
c) the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
d) the universal concepts that influence development of language
e) the language rules used to solve problems between people

a

The rhythm and emphasis on each word is called ________.
a) intonation
b) syntax
c) morphemes
d) phonemes
e) semantics

a

When adults who are speaking to infants change the pitch and rhythm in their speech, they are altering their ________.
a) syntax
b) semantics
c) grammar
d) morphemes
e) intonation

e

Which developmental psychologist theorized that concepts preceded and aided the development of language?
a) Vygotsky
b) Piaget
c) Chomsky
d) Sapir
e) Whorf

b

What do we call the hypothesis that language influences what we think?
a) the dynamic hypothesis
b) the language reaction hypothesis
c) the linguistic relativity hypothesis
d) the cognitive linguistic hypothesis
e the language acquisition hypothesis

c

The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that ________.
a) one’s language determines the pattern of one’s thinking and view of the world
b) one’s thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one’s language
c) we decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or sensible, given the facts at hand
d) perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence
e) perception of concepts precedes understanding of the members the group that comprise the concept

a

A famous lecturer argues that because the Hopi Indians have only two nouns for things that fly, one for birds and another for nonbirds, the Hopi MUST interpret all flying things in terms of these two nouns. This argument is based on ________.
a) the idealized prototype construct
b) bottom-up processing
c) deep structure elaboration
d) top-down processing
e) the linguistic relativity hypothesis

e

Researchers have found that, despite the number of color names in a language, the basic abilities to perceive color are unchanged. This finding would be troublesome for the theory of ________.
a) Piccard and Worf
b) Sapir and Whorf
c) Skinner and Watson
d) Tolman and Thorndike
e) Piccard and Sapir

b

Which of the following statements BEST describes the general relationship between thinking and language?
a) Language is a tool that may be used in thinking, but it isn’t the sole basis of thought.
b) Language is the sole basis of thought.
c) When we think, we always make use of language.
d) Language in thinking is used only by adults.
e) Language usually is not required in thought processes.

a

Researchers have found that ________.
a) neither language nor thought is influenced by culture
b) language, but not thought, is influenced by culture
c) thought, but not language, is influenced by culture
e) language and thought are only influenced by culture in Western societies

d

The communication between honeybees would not be classified as language because ________.
a) bees are not animals
b) bee communication seems to be instinctual
c) bees do not use a spoken or auditory communication system
d) bees only communicate using abstract symbols
e) bees are taught "dance" communication by the queen

b

In order to conclusively show that animals do use language, one would have to demonstrate that ________.
a) the language had an auditory, or sound, component
b) the language had a genetic base
c) the language used arbitrary or abstract symbols
d) the animals have the same vocal abilities as people
e) the language had an instinctual base

c

Which of the following is NOT an animal that has been taught to produce behavior that some think is language-like?
a) chimpanzees
b) parrots
c) armadillos
d) dolphins
e) research has shown that all of these animals can produce behavior that resembles language

c

Dolphins, according to TV and movies, are very intelligent and have strong language abilities. They might even be able to talk! However, which statement is true from the research?
a) Dolphins have been shown to be able to master semantics.
b) Dolphins can master the pragmatics but not the syntax of human communication.
c) Dolphins have the language abilities of a 3-year-old child.
d) Dolphin communication with parrots has been firmly established.
e) Dolphins have not been shown to have the ability to master human syntax.

e

Let’s say we could teach a dolphin to understand the difference between the sentences "The parrot kissed the dolphin" and "The dolphin kissed the parrot." If this were demonstrated, it might mean the dolphin had an understanding of ________.
a) phonemes
b) semantics
c) morphemes
d) syntax
e) pragmatics

d

At the current time, which statement is true about our knowledge of whether animals can use humanlike language?
a) It has been clearly shown that animals cannot use humanlike language.
b) All animal communication is instinctual and, thus, is not language.
c) Only primates, like monkeys and chimps, show any sign of language-like behavior.
d) Only mammals have the potential to develop language that will be recognizable as humanlike.
e) It is still unclear whether animals can show humanlike language at any level of development.

e

Which of the following is one of the animals that has been taught to use language with some success?
a) goat
b) quail
d) rat
d) dog
e) none of these

e

Which of the following is suggested by your authors as helping to substantially improve cognitive health?
a) physical exercise
b) a diet high in beta-amyloids
c) drinking one or two glasses of red wine at least twice each week.
d) the cessation of cigarette smoking
e) none of these, cognitive health remains constant

a

Regular aerobic exercise has been found to increase neurogenesis in:
a) the amygdala
b) the cerebellum
c) the frontal lobes
d) the prefrontal cortex
e) the hippocampus

c

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