Ap Human Geography Unit 4

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the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation

Allocational/resource boundary dispute

Dispute over location and resources


No one owns it

Antecedent boundary

a boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area…

Border landscape

There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border

Buffer state

a small neutral state between two rival powers


Principle city in a state or country. The best place to locate a capital is at the center of a country, so it is a somewhat equal distance from all parts of the country.


tending to move away from a center


tending to move toward a center


a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside

Clevage Model

A political-geographical model suggesting that persistent regional patterns in voting behavior, sometimes leading to separatism, can usually be explained in terms of tensions ptting urban against rural, core against periphery, capitalists against workers, and power group against minority culture.


exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one

Compact state

a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions


the act of forming an alliance or confederation

Conference of Berlin (1884)

Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country’s colonies.

Core area

a region in the home range that is used frequently. Fruiting trees,termite mounds, sleeping sites, water resources.,

Cultural/ethnographic political boundary

boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity


the action of changing from colonial to independent status

Definitional boundary dispute

Conflict over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or boundary contract

Definition phase in boundary process

The phase in which the exact location of a boundary is leagally described and negotiated

Delimitation phase in boundary creation

in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated

Demarcation phase in boundary process

Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means


the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality

Domino theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

Exclusive Economic Zone

enerally a state’s EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary.[1] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state

Electoral geography

The study of the interactions among space, place and region and the conduct and results of elections.

Elongated state

A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.


an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it

Ethnic conflict

type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members


a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.

Federal state

An internal organization of a state that allocated most powers to units of local government.

Forward capital

capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.

Fragmented state

A state that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts.


an undeveloped field of study


the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state

Geopolitical Theory (aka Organic Theory, Ratzel’s Theory)

The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.

Geometric political boundary

A political border drawn in a regular, geometric manner, often a straight line, without regard for environmental or cultural patterns


to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections

Global commons

those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility–the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries

Immigrant states

States with alot of immigrants


any instance of aggressive extension of authority


the doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related


surrounded entirely or almost entirely by land

Locational /positional boundary dispute

territorial dispute along the edge of two neighboring land owners

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory

Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in 1904 called "The Geographical Pivot of History." Mackinder’s paper suggested that the control of Eastern Europe was vital to control of the world. He formulated his hypothesis as: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands the world Mackinder’s Heartland (also known as the Pivot Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and Asia).

Median-line principle

an approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.


A state or territory that is small in both size and population.

Mini state

independent country that is very small in area and population

Multinational state

State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities


a politically organized body of people under a single government


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

National iconography

the branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images.


An independent country dominated by a relatively homogeneous culture group

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security

Operational/functional boundary dispute

Boundaries that move according to operations or functions

Organization of American States (OAS)

an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States.[1] Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas. It is the world’s oldest regional organization.

Perforated state

A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.

Physical/natural political boundary

natural boundary might be something like a river, mountain range or an ocean. These are generally considered to be obstructions which prevent crossing without additional equipment or assistance, such as a boat or horses to carry what you need to cross a mountain range., political boundary would be a real or imagined line in the sand that defines the boundary of a nation or state

Political Geography

The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.

protruded state

A type of territorial shape that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory

Raison d’être

phrase borrowed from French where it means simply "reason for being"; in English use it also comes to suggest a degree of rationalization, as "The claimed reason for the existence of something or someone".


a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)


loyalty to the interests of a particular region

Relic boundary

they no longer exist as international boundaries.


the act of coming together again

Rimland Theory

Nicholas Spykman’s theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.

Satellite state

A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.


the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will


government free from external control


the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation

Stateless nation

A nationality that is not represented by a state.

Subsequent boundary

a boundary that developed with the evolution of the cultural landscape and is adjusted as the cultural landscape changes…


a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution

Superimposed boundary

a boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)…


a venture involving 3 or more national states political economic or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives

Territorial disputes

Any dispute over land ownership

Territorial morphology

a State’s physical shape.


a fundamental aspect of human behavior and refers to the need to lay claim to the spaces we occupy and the things we own. In humans it relates to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice


the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature

UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)

1994, constitution for the ocean to protect resources

Unitary state

An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

United Nations (UN)

an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

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