AP Gov Federalism Vocab

block grants

definition: a grant from the federal government that a local/state government can allocate to a wide range of services. It is generally broad with what it can be used for, have few strings attached related: categorical grants example: Low Income Home Energy Assistance Block Grant, which provides assistance to low-income families to help pay energy bills

categorical grants

definition: a grant from the federal government to local/state governments with far stricter regulations as to what the money can be used for. Can only be used for narrowly defined purposes, are the main source of aid from federal government to state and local government. related: block grants example: Medicaid, Food stamp program

dual federalism ("layer cake" federalism)

definition: a political arrangement in which power is divided between federal and state governments with clearly defined terms, and states can exercise their powers without interference from the federal government related: cooperative federalism Conservatives would probably love it if US was a dual federalism system - feds wouldn't be interfering with the states

cooperative federalism ("marble cake" federalism)

definition: state, local, and federal government work together to solve common problems. related: dual federalism example: US <- but U.S. isn't really a perfect example. it is occasionally more of a dual federalism system, occasionally more of a cooperative system.

underfunded mandate

definition: a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements. are sometimes criticized as inefficient related: categorical and block grants example: No Child Left Behind

mandate

definition: a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions. Can either be funded or unfunded/underfunded related: underfunded mandate example: Americans with Disabilities Act

devolution

definition: the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states, or from the states to the local governments - the management of power at different levels related: federalism

concurrent powers

Definition: Powers that are shared by both the State and the federal government. Ex. Regulating elections, taxing

elastic clause

Definition: a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers. Related: Implied Powers Ex. This clause was used to create a National Bank as well as the power of judicial review.

enumerated powers

Definition: powers listed in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authority of Congress. In summary, Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to the individual rights listed in the Bill of Rights. Ex. Congress may: 1) collect taxes 2) borrow on the credit of the US 3) declare war etc...

extradition

definition: the action of extraditing a person accused or convicted of a crime. this exists at the federal level (extraditing foreign criminals back to their home country) and at the interstate level.

federal grants in aid

definition: money that is given to the states from the federal government for some purpose. two types of this are categorical and block grants related: block and categorical grants

federalism

definition: the evolving relationship between state governments and the federal government of the United States. comes in two types, dual and cooperative. the US has evolved from being more dual to being more cooperative

fiscal federalism

definition: is concerned with "understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government" (Oates, 1999). it is the study of how competencies (expenditure side) and fiscal instruments (revenue side) are allocated across different (vertical) layers of the administration. related: federal grants in aid

formula grants

definition: noncompetitive awards based on a predetermined formula. The specified formula is a rule that tells potential recipients precisely how they can calculate the quantity of aid to which they are entitled under the provisions of law, as long as the recipient qualifies for such assistance under the stipulations of the program. related: federal grants in aid, is a type of categorical grant example: food stamps program

full faith and credit clause

Definition: Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, makes sure states honor the court judgement of other states. (carries over from Articles of Conf) Ex. You're in a car accident in New Mexico, and the person who crashed into you was mandated by a NM court to pay you $1000. If that person was from another state and refused to pay, the state they were from would help you get your money.

gibbons v ogden

definition: a landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, as encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity related: commerce clause

mcculloch v maryland

Definition: a 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. The Court held that Congress has certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution related: supremacy clause, implied powers

unitary government

definition: a way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government related: federalism

privileges and immunities

definition: the provision of the Constitution according citizens of each state with the privileges of citizens in other states related: Privileges and Immunities Clause

reserved (police) powers

Definition: the powers which are not "enumerated" (written down, assigned). Whatever is not explicitly stated as a responsibility of the federal government, is under control of the states. Ex. Driver's licenses

project grants

definition: federal categorical grant given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications related: categorical grant

implied powers

Definition: Powers that are not directly stated by the Constitution, yet seem implied by the powers that are expressly stated. Related: Elastic/Necessary and Proper Clause Ex. Used to create a National Bank as well as the power of judicial review

supremacy clause

Definition: the provision in Article Six, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution that establishes the United States Constitution, federal statutes, and treaties as "the supreme law of the land." Ex. A federal law will always carry precedence over a state law if the two contradict each other.

tenth amendment

definition: the constitutional amendment stating "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or the people." related: reserved (police) powers

AP Gov Federalism Vocab - Subjecto.com

AP Gov Federalism Vocab

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block grants

definition: a grant from the federal government that a local/state government can allocate to a wide range of services. It is generally broad with what it can be used for, have few strings attached related: categorical grants example: Low Income Home Energy Assistance Block Grant, which provides assistance to low-income families to help pay energy bills

categorical grants

definition: a grant from the federal government to local/state governments with far stricter regulations as to what the money can be used for. Can only be used for narrowly defined purposes, are the main source of aid from federal government to state and local government. related: block grants example: Medicaid, Food stamp program

dual federalism ("layer cake" federalism)

definition: a political arrangement in which power is divided between federal and state governments with clearly defined terms, and states can exercise their powers without interference from the federal government related: cooperative federalism Conservatives would probably love it if US was a dual federalism system – feds wouldn’t be interfering with the states

cooperative federalism ("marble cake" federalism)

definition: state, local, and federal government work together to solve common problems. related: dual federalism example: US <- but U.S. isn’t really a perfect example. it is occasionally more of a dual federalism system, occasionally more of a cooperative system.

underfunded mandate

definition: a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions, with no money provided for fulfilling the requirements. are sometimes criticized as inefficient related: categorical and block grants example: No Child Left Behind

mandate

definition: a statute or regulation that requires a state or local government to perform certain actions. Can either be funded or unfunded/underfunded related: underfunded mandate example: Americans with Disabilities Act

devolution

definition: the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states, or from the states to the local governments – the management of power at different levels related: federalism

concurrent powers

Definition: Powers that are shared by both the State and the federal government. Ex. Regulating elections, taxing

elastic clause

Definition: a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers. Related: Implied Powers Ex. This clause was used to create a National Bank as well as the power of judicial review.

enumerated powers

Definition: powers listed in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authority of Congress. In summary, Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to the individual rights listed in the Bill of Rights. Ex. Congress may: 1) collect taxes 2) borrow on the credit of the US 3) declare war etc…

extradition

definition: the action of extraditing a person accused or convicted of a crime. this exists at the federal level (extraditing foreign criminals back to their home country) and at the interstate level.

federal grants in aid

definition: money that is given to the states from the federal government for some purpose. two types of this are categorical and block grants related: block and categorical grants

federalism

definition: the evolving relationship between state governments and the federal government of the United States. comes in two types, dual and cooperative. the US has evolved from being more dual to being more cooperative

fiscal federalism

definition: is concerned with "understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government" (Oates, 1999). it is the study of how competencies (expenditure side) and fiscal instruments (revenue side) are allocated across different (vertical) layers of the administration. related: federal grants in aid

formula grants

definition: noncompetitive awards based on a predetermined formula. The specified formula is a rule that tells potential recipients precisely how they can calculate the quantity of aid to which they are entitled under the provisions of law, as long as the recipient qualifies for such assistance under the stipulations of the program. related: federal grants in aid, is a type of categorical grant example: food stamps program

full faith and credit clause

Definition: Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, makes sure states honor the court judgement of other states. (carries over from Articles of Conf) Ex. You’re in a car accident in New Mexico, and the person who crashed into you was mandated by a NM court to pay you $1000. If that person was from another state and refused to pay, the state they were from would help you get your money.

gibbons v ogden

definition: a landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, as encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity related: commerce clause

mcculloch v maryland

Definition: a 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. The Court held that Congress has certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution related: supremacy clause, implied powers

unitary government

definition: a way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government related: federalism

privileges and immunities

definition: the provision of the Constitution according citizens of each state with the privileges of citizens in other states related: Privileges and Immunities Clause

reserved (police) powers

Definition: the powers which are not "enumerated" (written down, assigned). Whatever is not explicitly stated as a responsibility of the federal government, is under control of the states. Ex. Driver’s licenses

project grants

definition: federal categorical grant given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications related: categorical grant

implied powers

Definition: Powers that are not directly stated by the Constitution, yet seem implied by the powers that are expressly stated. Related: Elastic/Necessary and Proper Clause Ex. Used to create a National Bank as well as the power of judicial review

supremacy clause

Definition: the provision in Article Six, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution that establishes the United States Constitution, federal statutes, and treaties as "the supreme law of the land." Ex. A federal law will always carry precedence over a state law if the two contradict each other.

tenth amendment

definition: the constitutional amendment stating "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or the people." related: reserved (police) powers

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