AP GOV Chapters 10-12 Multiple Choice

A command, indicated by an electorate's votes, for the elected officials to carry out a party platform or policy agenda is known as a(n) __________.
a. dictate
b. consensus
c. initiative
d. mandate
e. proposition

d. mandate

What is the name of the process by which citizens propose
legislation or constitutional amendments, through petition followed by popular vote?
a. gerrymandering
b. initiative
c. mandate
d. proposition
e. referendum

b. initiative

What institution is responsible for electing the president of the United States?
a. Electoral Choice
b. Electoral College
c. Electoral Mandate
d. Electoral Symposium
e. Electoral University

b. Electoral College

The current system for electing members to Congress favors __________.
a. centrists
b. Democrats
c. partisans
d. Republicans
e. third parties

c. partisans

The ability of an office holder to fend off challenges from quality challengers is known as the __________.
a. detain-off effect
b. max-out effect
c. run-out effect
d. scare-off effect
e. take-off effect

d. scare-off effect

If you are attempting to influence the political process through extreme measures, such as boycotts and picketing, you are engaging in __________.
a. abnormal political participation
b. condescending political participation
c. conventional political participation
d. radical political participation
e. unconventional political participation

e. unconventional political participation

When a citizen votes for candidates from different parties in the same election he or she is __________.
a. consensus voting
b. ideological voting
c. issue-splitting
d. partisan voting
e. ticket-splitting

e. ticket-splitting

According to Table 12.2, how many states require no voter
registration?
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. ten
e. fifteen

a. one

According to Table 12.5, which of the following reasons do voters most often give for not voting?
a. bad weather
b. forgot
c. not interested
d. out of town
e. too busy

e. too busy

Which of the following religious groups maintains the most
consistent voting patterns?
a. Buddhist voters
b. Catholic voters
c. Jewish voters
d. Muslim voters
e. Protestant voters

c. Jewish voters

Roughly what percentage of Americans rarely or never vote?
a. 15 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 35 percent
d. 45 percent
e. 50 percent

c. 35 percent

Voting for a candidate based on the candidate's policy promises is called __________.
a. allocated voting
b. early voting
c. future voting
d. prospective voting
e. retrospective voting

d. prospective voting

A member of the Electoral College is known as a(n) __________.
a. collegian
b. elector
c. partisan
d. selector
e. surrogate

b. elector

Which Amendment to the U.S. Constitution lowered the voting age to eighteen?
a. Thirteenth
b. Fifteenth
c. Nineteenth
d. Twenty-First
e. Twenty-Sixth

e. Twenty-Sixth

What was the name of the legislation enacted in 2002 to assist states with upgrading their voting equipment?
a. Help America Vote Act
b. Help Manage Elections Act
c. Help Prevent Recounts Act
d. Help States Vote Act
e. Help the People Vote Act

a. Help America Vote Act

How do most citizens in Washington and Oregon vote?
a. by mail
b. by telephone
c. in person
d. through a website
e. by email

a. by mail

According to political scientists, which of the following has been the most successful mobilizer of Americans to vote?
a. family and friends
b. social media
c. television advertisements
d. political parties
e. voter registration drives

d. political parties

In general, women who vote favor which party?
a. Conservatives
b. Democrats
c. Greens
d. Libertarians
e. Republicans

b. Democrats

Which of the following best describes the relationship between income and vote choice?
a. It is becoming less important.
b. It is erratic.
c. It is correlative.
d. It does not override the gender gap.
e. It does not predict election outcomes.

b. It is erratic.

How many electoral votes are needed to be elected president?
a. 207
b. 230
c. 270
d. 337
e. 370

c. 270

What is front-loading?
a. the tendency to donate money to the first candidates who enter a presidential race
b. the tendency of major media outlets to call states early in
presidential elections
c. the tendency of political parties to nominate a presidential candidate before caucus
d. the tendency of states to choose an early date on the
nomination calendar
e. the tendency of voters to use early or absentee voting

d. the tendency of states to choose an early date on the nomination calendar

Democrats no longer use the winner-take-all primary because __________.
a. it cost too much to implement
b. it increased the influence of special interests
c. it was generally less representative
d. it made the nomination process too lengthy
e. it pulled candidates too far to the political left

c. it was generally less representative

If you, as a Republican, want to crossover vote for one of the Democratic presidential nominees in the Democratic Party primary, that primary must be a(n) __________.
a. absentee primary
b. closed primary
c. crossover primary
d. open primary
e. runoff primary

d. open primary

Runoff primaries __________.
a. are unconstitutional
b. blur the line between primary and general elections
c. favor third parties
d. politicize primaries
e. use percentages to arrive at a winner

b. blur the line between primary and general elections

The caucus system of nominating candidates is oriented towards __________.
a. college students
b. low income voters
c. candidates
d. political parties
e. special interest groups

d. political parties

The incumbency advantage includes which of the following?
a. redistricting
b. scandals
c. greater visibility
d. presidential coattails
e. countervailing force of mid-term elections

c. greater visibility

What is said of a successful presidential candidate who helps members of Congress get elected as well?
a. The president has a mandate.
b. The president has long coattails.
c. The president has strong crossover.
d. The president is a ticket-splitter.
e. The president is front-loading.

b. The president has long coattails.

Voting is a form of __________.
a. conventional participation
b. demonstrative participation
c. fallacious participation
d. preemptive participation
e. reapportioned participation

a. conventional participation

Modern American political liberals generally believe that ________.
a. abortion on demand is unethical
b. a lower tax rate stimulates the economy
c. charities are more effective than government programs
d. government is a necessary evil
e. the government should provide social programs

e. the government should provide social programs

Prospective judgment is voting based upon __________.
a. a candidate's personal history
b. the candidate's partisan loyalty
c. the candidate's ethnic background
d. the candidate's policy promises
e. what the candidate has done in the past

d. the candidate's policy promises

Which of the following is a problem presented by the Electoral College?
a. Career politicians have a natural advantage over outsiders.
b. It favors Republicans over Democrats historically.
c. It is too democratic and violates the intentions of the Framers.
d. Small states are underrepresented.
e. The winner of a popular vote can still fail to be elected.

e. The winner of a popular vote can still fail to be elected.

What old practice did the Twelfth Amendment replace?
a. Presidents had no term limit.
b. Presidents were elected by popular vote.
c. Presidents were appointed by a vote of the state legislatures.
d. The president and vice-president were elected by party
delegates.
e. The president and vice-president were elected from the same pool of candidates.

e. The president and vice-president were elected from the same pool of candidates.

What is one reason why incumbents have the advantage in
elections?
a. Challengers have less time to campaign than incumbents.
b. Each challenger has to petition for inclusion on the ballot, while the incumbent does not.
c. Mainstream media outlets are required by law to provide free airtime to incumbents.
d. Incumbents tend to have greater amounts of money to spend on campaigns.
e. Voters generally fear change and thus rarely want to vote out an incumbent.

d. Incumbents tend to have greater amounts of money to spend on campaigns.

Why is redistricting an issue for incumbents?
a. It means fewer people can donate to their reelection campaign.
b. It can pit an incumbent against another incumbent in the next election cycle.
c. It mandates that every ten years members of Congress have to switch districts.
d. It means that incumbents have to move when their district
changes.
e. It necessitates a new and expensive media campaign in the next election cycle.

b. It can pit an incumbent against another incumbent in the next election cycle.

Which is one problem with online voting discussed in your text?
a. access for lower-income Americans
b. bias in favor of young voters
c. partisan advantage
d. bias in favor of corporations
e. technological feasibility

a. access for lower-income Americans

How does the institutional weakness of political parties affect voter turnout?
a. parties can only use grassroots mobilizing to get voters to the polls
b. parties do not have the staff to work at polling stations
c. voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties
d. parties are subject to capture by special interests
e. parties do not have money to buy media ads to mobilize voters

c. voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties

If you wanted to improve voter turnout, which of the following would you suggest?
a. holding elections more frequently
b. removing the Electoral College in favor of a direct vote
c. moving toward a system of national nominating caucuses
d. turning Election Day into a national holiday
e. using earlier registration deadlines

d. turning Election Day into a national holiday

If you were a campaign manager trying to target the largest
population of likely voters, at which place would you suggest your candidate campaign?
a. at a local employment agency
b. at the local senior citizens association
c. in an American government class at the local college
d. attending a nearby Latino cultural festival
e. attending a nearby farmers association meeting

b. at the local senior citizens association

If you wanted to have the most informed voters during a party nomination, you would use which nomination system?
a. caucus
b. collegian
c. primary
d. proportional
e. retrospective

a. caucus

If, as a member of a state legislature, you wanted to avoid political accountability for a controversial proposal, you might suggest holding a(n) __________.
a. initiative
b. plurality
c. mandate
d. recall
e. referendum

e. referendum

Front-loading benefits __________.
a. challengers
b. front runners
c. incumbents
d. third parties
e. special interests

b. front runners

If you are competing for your party's nomination for office, you must first participate in a(n) __________.
a. initiative election
b. caucus election
c. leadership election
d. primary election
e. referendum election

d. primary election

When is the initiative process the most useful?
a. when a state legislature wants to avoid a controversial vote on increasing taxes
b. when removing an elected official for high crimes and
misdemeanors.
c. when replacing a member of Congress who has resigned from office before an election
d. when seeking to amend the US Constitution to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples.
e. when trying to enact a controversial law such as the
legalization of marijuana

a. when a state legislature wants to avoid a controversial vote on increasing taxes

If a state wanted to increase its influence in the presidential
nomination, what could the state do?
a. control media access to campaign events
b. frontload the primaries
c. mandate candidate debates in the state
d. switch to a caucus system
e. use a winner-take-all system

b. frontload the primaries

Which presents the greatest threat to incumbents of the president's party?
a. a caucus election
b. a general election
c. a midterm election
d. a primary election
e. a runoff election

c. a midterm election

Which is true of citizens who are highly interested in politics?
a. They are usually in their early twenties.
b. They are less likely to join a civic organization.
c. They tend to be secular rather than religious.
d. They constitute a small percentage of the population.
e. They rarely vote.

d. They constitute a small percentage of the population.

How would you go about strengthening political parties in the United States?
a. Allow a multi-party system.
b. Allow public financing of elections.
c. Hold more elections.
d. Let voters elect the party leadership.
e. Switch to caucus systems in all the states for nomination
contests.

a. Allow a multi-party system.

According to the "Take a Closer Look" box in your text, which of the following is true if you are a young voter?
a. You are more likely to vote for a write-in candidate than older voters.
b. You are less likely to vote than older voters.
c. You are more likely to vote Republican than older voters.
d. You are more likely to participate in caucuses than older voters.
e. You are more likely to vote in midterm elections than older voters

b. You are less likely to vote than older voters.

Which of the following is the least likely reform to occur with respect to the Electoral College?
a. direct election of the Electoral College electors by voters
b. increasing the number of electoral votes needed to win
c. letting the Senate break ties in the national popular vote
d. moving to the congressional district plan
e. determining the president through popular vote

e. determining the president through popular vote

Why might being a member of a civic group make you more likely to vote?
a. Civic groups have mandatory citizenship participation as a condition of membership.
b. Civic groups provide opportunities to learn important political skills.
c. Civic groups are directly associated with political party
mobilization.
d. Civic groups publish informative political newsletters.
e. Civic groups require proof of voter registration as a condition of membership.

b. Civic groups provide opportunities to learn important political skills.

According to your text, what is the general purpose of elections?
a. to advance special interest agendas
b. to check the influence of the federal and state judiciaries on the policy process
c. to confer legitimacy on government
d. to ensure social accountability on the part of government
e. to ensure that everyone is treated equally by the law

c. to confer legitimacy on government

Ballot measures often the subject of heated debate because they are unduly influenced by __________.
a. citizens
b. the courts
c. the media
d. political parties
e. special interest groups

e. special interest groups

Why did the original Electoral College hold separate elections for president and vice-president?
a. The Framers anticipated that partisanship would have little influence.
b. The Framers did not expect the country to become so large and diverse.
c. The Framers never expected the role of the media in elections.
d. The Framers were worried about the influences of factions and demagogues.
e. The Framers were trying to minimize the influence of the
wealthy.

a. The Framers anticipated that partisanship would have little influence.

What is the most immediate advantage of the congressional district plan?
a. It addresses the problem of the incumbency advantage.
b. It does not require a constitutional amendment.
c. It minimizes the influence of special interest money.
d. It reduces the number of states in play.
e. It reduces gerrymandering.

b. It does not require a constitutional amendment.

Why has there been a growing use of recall elections in recent years?
a. Federal law mandates recall elections whenever there are
accusations of wrongdoing.
b. Investigative journalism has made exposing political
corruption easier.
c. New technology has made it easier to organize and raise
money for recall campaigns.
d. Politicians are generally more corrupt now than in the past.
e. Voter turnout tends to be higher in a recall campaign than in the general election

c. New technology has made it easier to organize and raise money for recall campaigns.

If proportional representation primaries are fairer to the public, why might some state parties choose not to adopt them?
a. They are difficult to schedule.
b. They create intra-party competition between candidates.
c. They can lengthen the nomination process.
d. They may require more special interest support to finance.
e. They reward moderate candidates.

c. They can lengthen the nomination process.

How can redistricting threaten incumbent members of Congress?
a. It can alter district-based funds from special interest groups.
b. It can force members of Congress to relocate their families.
c. It can shift incumbents into a caucus district.
d. It can pit incumbents against one another.
e. It increases the probability of a strong minority challenger

d. It can pit incumbents against one another.

Why are some people concerned about electronic voting?
a. Electronic voting could increase election costs to the states.
b. Electronic voting could increase election fraud.
c. Electronic voting could increase the amount of uniformed
voters.
d. Electronic voting could increase the influence of special
interests in elections.
e. Electronic voting could increase the probability that the
working poor will vote.

b.Electronic voting could increase election fraud.

When does party identification matter most in voting?
a. in a presidential election
b. in a race between two incumbents
c. during midterm elections
d. in a low visibility election
e. when there is no incumbent running

d. in a low visibility election

Which of the following is a criticism of early voting?
a. It allows for more special interest influence.
b. It decreases the importance of campaigns.
c. It increases the potential for voter fraud.
d. It leads to front-loading.
e. It requires more volunteers to staff polling places

b.It decreases the importance of campaigns.

During his campaign for reelection in 2012, Barack Obama de-emphasized his work on health care reform. Which of the following reasons is the most plausible explanation for this decision, given what you know about the interaction between public opinion and policy and politics?
a. The continuing global economic crisis was too distracting.
b. Deep divisions in public opinion on the issue were apparent.
c. Unemployment remained high in the Southeast.
d. The popularity of Republicans continued to rise after the Republican National Convention.
e. The reaction against rising foreclosure rates was strongest in Florida.

b. Deep divisions in public opinion on the issue were apparent.

In your American government class, you learn that most Americans' level of knowledge about history and politics is quite low and is declining every year. You also learn that political knowledge and political participation have a reciprocal effect on one another. Which of the following statements aligns with the statements presented in this scenario?
a. In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go up.
b. In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go down.
c. On many traditional measures, Americans' knowledge of foreign policy issues is likely to increase in the future.
d. On many traditional measures, Americans' knowledge of domestic policy issues is likely to increase in the future.
e. The gender gap in political participation appears to be unaffected by falling levels of political knowledge at present.

b. In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go down.

How does the Missouri Plan suggest that judges be selected at the state level?
a. They should be appointed by a nonpartisan nomination
commission.
b. They should be appointed by the state governor.
c. They should run for election as party candidates.
d. They should run for election with no party affiliation.
e. They should be selected by the state legislative caucuses

a. They should be appointed by a nonpartisan nomination commission

What does the Pew Global Attitudes Survey assess?
a. the attitudes toward globalization held by citizens in a sample of countries
b. the attitudes toward global warming held by citizens in a sample of countries
c. the attitudes toward the United Nations held by nonmember states
d. the attitudes toward the United Nations held by member states
e. the attitudes toward global powers held by citizens in a sample of countries

e. the attitudes toward global powers held by citizens in a sample of countries

The Gallop organization predicts that Andrew Cuomo, the governor of New York, wins the 2016 presidential election with 61 percent of the popular vote. If Cuomo actually wins by capturing 49 percent of the popular vote, to which factor, more than the others, would you attribute the discrepancy, given what you know about how successful Gallup has been in making presidential predictions?
a. the presence of a prominent female candidate
b. the presence of a prominent third-party candidate
c. the age of a major-party candidate
d. the religion of a major-party candidate
e. the absence of grassroots action

b. the presence of a prominent third-party candidate

In 1948, the Chicago Tribune wrongly predicted that Republican Thomas E. Dewey would beat incumbent President Harry S. Truman. Knowing what you know about the accuracy of various polls, what kind of poll would most likely have led the Chicago Tribune to make this erroneous prediction?
a. an exit poll
b. a push poll
c. a random-digit dialing poll
d. a straw poll
e. a tracking poll

d. a straw poll

Which of the following voter profiles most strongly suggests that an individual will identify with the Republican Party?
a. Hispanic, female, Catholic
b. Protestant, male, annual income over $75,000
c. senior citizen, Jewish, from the Midwest
d. white, Catholic, from the Northeast
e. white, female, Evangelical Christian

b. Protestant, male, annual income over $75,000

You are a pollster about to analyze polling data in order to reveal the data's implications for public policy. Which of the following subgroups within the data would you, as a representative of a reputable polling organization, pay least attention to?
a. men versus women
b. Democrats versus Republicans
c. seniors versus first-time voters
d. stockholders versus shareholders
e. independent versus party-affiliated voters

d. stockholders versus shareholders

Who is included in the "party in the electorate"?
a. party officers who seek to educate the public on key party stances
b. party officers who seek to steer the electorate through media spin
c. public officials who are registered with one major party
d. voters active in the business of the party
e. voters who identify with a party label

e. voters who identify with a party label

How are exit polls conducted?
a. over the telephone
b. on the Internet
c. through the mail
d. via e-mail
e. in person

e. in person

What has become the most powerful predictor of congressional voting in recent years?
a. economic stance
b. campaign finances
c. hot-button issues
d. party labels
e. trust

d. party labels

Which of the following statements best reflects the Framers' attitudes about public opinion?
a. Public opinion is the best measure of the soundness of government policy.
b. Public opinion is potentially divisive and should, therefore, be encouraged.
c. Public opinion is potentially counterproductive and should, therefore, be tempered.
d. Public opinion should be monitored closely in election years.
e. Public opinion should be represented in government by lobbyists.

c. Public opinion is potentially counterproductive and should, therefore, be tempered.

In a random sample of 1,000 high-school students, 29 percent indicated that they had read the Declaration of Independence at least once. If the margin of error is calculated to be 4 percent, which of the following statements is more likely than the others to be true?

a. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be above 33 percent.
b. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be below 25 percent.
c. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be between 25 and 33 percent.
d. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be equal to 25 or 33 percent.
e. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned having read the Declaration of Independence would likely be equal to 33 percent, if the margin of error were less than 4 percent.

c. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be between 25 and 33 percent.

The years 1860-1928 saw the ascendency of which party?
a. Democratic-Republicans
b. Democrats
c. Federalists
d. Republicans
e. Whigs

d. Republicans

Decreasing numbers of __________ have been identified as one cause of increasing polarization.
a. East Coast conservative Democrats
b. Midwest independents
c. northern liberal Republicans
d. southern conservative Republicans
e. West Coast liberal Republicans

c. northern liberal Republicans

Which of the following surveys is more likely than the others to generate self-selection error?
a. a mail-in survey of retirement community members about the privatization of Medicare
b. a phone survey of randomly selected voters about the job performance of local council members
c. a yes or no phone survey that asks, "Will you vote in the upcoming presidential election?"
d. a door-to-door survey about home energy use
e. a mall-intercept survey about restaurant preferences

a. a mail-in survey of retirement community members about the privatization of Medicare

President __________ is as close to a nonpartisan president as modern America has ever had.
a. Andrew Jackson
b. Dwight D. Eisenhower
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt
d. John F. Kennedy
e. Theodore Roosevelt

b. Dwight D. Eisenhower

Which democratic function of political parties was nonexistent until the early twentieth century and has given voters greater input into politics?
a. party machines
b. party nominations
c. policy coordination
d. critical elections
e. primary elections

e. primary elections

How does the textbook answer this question: why are traditional telephone polls becoming increasingly difficult to conduct?
a. Many people distrust pollsters.
b. Many people do not have landlines.
c. Pollsters are no longer exempt from federal do-not-call lists.
d. Pollsters are no longer exempt from state do-not-call lists.
e. Polling is a form of constitutionally protected speech.

b. Many people do not have landlines.

What serves as the glue that holds together the disparate elements of the U.S. governmental and political apparatus?
a. bipartisanship
b. Congress
c. the political machine
d. the political parties
e. the winner-take-all-system

d. the political parties

When they become ten or eleven, what political opinion of Democratic presidents would you expect of children raised in politically active Republican households?
a. that they would be indifferent to Democratic presidents
b. that they would have roughly the same feelings toward Democratic presidents as Republican ones
c. that they would be more skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones
d. that they would, because of the liberalizing effect of age, be less skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones
e. that they would, because of the increasing influence of their peer group, adopt the attitudes of their peers toward Democratic presidents

c. that they would be more skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones

What was a key contributor to the rare stability in Republican and Democratic political identities during the "Golden Age" (1860-1932)?
a. political arbitration
b. political compromise
c. political fund-raising
d. political machines
e. political mobility

d. political machines

Although campaign organizations generally deny conducting push polls, research indicates that push polls have indeed targeted political candidates. How many candidates have been targeted by this type of polling?
a. one-third
b. one-half
c. two-thirds
d. three-quarters
e. more than three-quarters

e. more than three-quarters

Which of the following is the clearest example of a push poll question?
a. Are you familiar with the candidate's voting record on tax
subsidies for energy producers?
b. Would you approve of the candidate's vote for the antipoverty bill if you knew that the candidate never read the legislation?
c. Do you plan to vote to reelect the candidate this November?
d. Do you agree with the candidate's stance on programs for the poor?
e. Do you approve or disapprove of the job that the candidate is doing?

b. Would you approve of the candidate's vote for the antipoverty bill if you knew that the candidate never read the legislation?

"All government rests on public opinion." Where is this sentiment expressed?
a. in the Bill of Rights
b. in the Declaration of Independence
c. in The Federalist Papers
d. in the Pew Research Center's mission statement
e. in the Rules of the Senate

c. in The Federalist Papers

Leslie is a white, middle-class mother of two, who works as a librarian in the public library system of a large city in the American West. Shes 57 years old. Given her demographic profile and the information presented in Table 10.1 on differences in the political opinions of women and men, which of the following statements about her political
opinions would pollsters expect to be true?
a. Leslie believes that labor unions are not necessary to protect the rights of working men and women.
b. Leslie believes that American military interventions are usually a bad idea.
c. Leslie believes that school boards have a right to fire teachers who are homosexual.
d. Leslie believes that women's opportunities for good jobs are equal to those of men.
e. Leslie believes that we should loosen restrictions on people coming to the United States.

b. Leslie believes that American military interventions are usually a bad idea.

__________ provides a basis for mediation and negotiation laterally among the branches of government and vertically among national, state, and local layers.
a. A critical election
b. Bipartisanship
c. Party affiliation
d. Polarization
e. The party platform

c. Party affiliation

Americans trust the government more when __________.
a. Democrats and Republicans work together in Congress
b. electoral votes indicate a clear win in the presidential election
c. it is not a "critical election" year
d. their chosen political party controls the White House
e. there is a strong third-party candidate

d. their chosen political party controls the White House

What are "feeling thermometer" questions?
a. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by signaling their approval or disapproval
b. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by answering with a simple yes or no
c. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by using a 0-to-100 scale
d. questions that measure how respondents feel about a particular issue by computing degree-of-affinity statistics
e. questions that measure how respondents feel about a particular issue by computing the intensity of their opposition to that issue

c. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by using a 0-to-100 scale

What key issue led to the dissolution of the Whig party?
a. malfeasance in office
b. the Mexican-American War
c. post-Civil War Reconstruction
d. slavery in the South
e. federal taxation

d. slavery in the South

How are third parties usually significant?
a. They distract from important policy debates.
b. They effectively disprove Duverger's law.
c. They intentionally spoil election wins by their ideologically closest major party.
d. They push major parties to incorporate new ideas or elucidate current ones.
e. They win elections in crucial swing states.

d. They push major parties to incorporate new ideas or elucidate current ones.

Since the __________, governmental decision makers have relied heavily on public opinion polls.
a. 1930s
b. 1940s
c. 1950s
d. 1960s
e. 1970s

a. 1930s

Which type of survey question is best suited to addressing concerns about errors in public opinion polling resulting from difficulty in measuring intensity?
a. simple yes-or-no questions
b. simple approve-or-disapprove questions
c. "feeling thermometer" questions
d. interviewee-bias questions
e. demographic-information questions

c. "feeling thermometer" questions

Refer to "How Do Demographic Characteristics Affect Public Opinion?" and indicate which is true about how age impacts views on whether or not the government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep.

a. More citizens over sixty-five years old think the government should guarantee every citizen have enough to eat and a place to sleep than citizens between eighteen and twenty-nine years old.
b. Citizens over forty-nine years old feel most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.
c. Citizens between fifty and sixty-four years old feel the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.
d. Citizens between thirty and forty-nine years old feel the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.
e. As citizens get older, they begin to feel more strongly that the government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep.

d. Citizens between thirty and forty-nine years old feel the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.

In 1787, John Jay wrote glowingly of the sameness of the American people. In Federalist No. 2, he wrote that we are "one united people— a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in manners and customs." Considering the sentiments expressed therein, which of these statements is Jay more likely to agree with?

a. He would likely agree that reliance on public opinion polls is unnecessary for good governance.
b. He would likely agree that obtaining an appraisal of public opinion through polling is essential for good governance.
c. He would likely agree that public opinion polls would confirm the presence of two different orientations toward governance among the people.
d. He would likely agree that interviews with citizens would yield a diversity of opinion.
e. He would likely agree that the public does not have consistent day to-day opinions on issues.

a. He would likely agree that reliance on public opinion polls is unnecessary for good governance.

Researchers have found that women are __________ similarly
qualified men to think about running for office.
a. more reluctant than
b. less reluctant than
c. equally as reluctant as
d. neither more nor less reluctant than
e. both more reluctant and less reluctant, depending on the situation,
than

a. more reluctant than

Web polls that allow anyone to weigh in on a topic are similar to
which of the following type(s) of polls?
a. exit polls and deliberative polls
b. deliberative polls
c. tracking polls and straw polls
d. biannual Cooperative Congressional Election studies
e. straw polls

e. straw polls

Which of the following was a prominent feature of post-World War II politics?
a. bipartisanship
b. candidate-centered politics
c. party realignment
d. political machines
e. secular realignment

b. candidate-centered politics

Which of the following statements about the shortcomings of polling is true?
a. Polls always allow respondents an appropriate range in which to register their opinions.
b. Polls always attempt to gauge attitudes toward issues about which the public has little information.
c. Polls never contain errors.
d. Polls sometimes fail to measure intensity of feeling.
e. Polls never incur data-entry costs.

d. Polls sometimes fail to measure intensity of feeling.

Although national committee activities attract most of the media attention, the roots of the party lie in __________.
a. the House of Representatives
b. the Oval Office
c. the Senate
d. the states and localities
e. Washington, D.C.

d. the states and localities

How did many city-dwellers and European immigrants view political parties during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
a. as a means of expressing their political views
b. as an extension of the law
c. as confirmation of a class-based society
d. as purveyors of housing, employment, and food
e. as something to be avoided

d. as purveyors of housing, employment, and food

What are some of the major barriers to third-party political success?
a. anti-fusion laws, campaign finance rules, and unpopular policies
b. ballot access, campaign finance rules, and voter perception
c. constitutional restrictions, voter perceptions, and poor media coverage
d. two-party system, constitutional restrictions, and poor media coverage
e. unpopular policies, voter perceptions, and campaign finance rules

b. ballot access, campaign finance rules, and voter perception

You are in a political science class. There is an argument about how to
define the target population for a survey to determine if families with
children would use school vouchers to send their children to charter
schools. From which of the following populations should you select a
sample?
a. women with children
b. married or divorced women with school-age children
c. mothers with children under age 18
d. parents
e. parents of children under age 18

e. parents of children under age 18

Which of the following statements best describes the interaction between public opinion and public policy in the United States?
a. The public's views, registered through public opinion polls, closely mirrors policy.
b. The public's views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy in the short, but not the long, term.
c. The public's views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect the outcome of political events, such as elections, but not
particular policies.
d. The public's views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy.
e. The public's views, registered through public opinion polls, have no discernible effect on policy.

d. The public's views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy.

Which of the following statements about the relationship between political knowledge and political participation is true?
a. Increases in political knowledge lead to decreases in political participation.
b. Increases in political participation lead to decreases in political knowledge.
c. Decreases in political participation lead to increases in political knowledge
d. Increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation.
e. Increases in political knowledge have no effect on political participation.

d. Increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation.

Why do reputable polling firms eschew push poll tactics?
a. The intent of push polls is to give respondents some positive information about the candidate paying for the poll.
b. The intent of push polls is to give respondents some negative or even untruthful information about a candidate's opponent.
c. The intent of push polls is to word questions about highly
emotional issues, such as abortion, same-sex marriage, and affirmative action, neutrally.
d. The intent of push polls is to yield information that helps
campaigns judge the strengths and weaknesses of their opponents.
e. The intent of push polls is to weigh survey results based on demographic characteristics of the national population.

b. The intent of push polls is to give respondents some negative or even untruthful information about a candidate's opponent.

When is a child's peer group most politically influential?
a. when the child enters preschool
b. when the child enters early elementary school
c. when the child enters late elementary school
d. when the child enters middle school or high school
e. when the child leaves high school

d. when the child enters middle school or high school

According to Figure 11.5, how have party unity scores in Congress changed over the last sixty years?
a. decreased dramatically over time
b. decreased slightly over time
c. increased dramatically over time
d. increased slightly in the past ten years
e. remained at a constant level

c. increased dramatically over time

In the context of public opinion polls, what is self-selection?
a. a reference to the timing of public opinion polls that may skew survey results
b. a reference to underrepresented groups in public opinion polls that may bias survey results
c. a reference to long-term studies of the electorate invalidated by short-term biases
d. a reference to short-term studies of the electorate invalidated by long-term biases
e. a reference to highly motivated respondents who decide for themselves whether or not to participate in surveys

e. a reference to highly motivated respondents who decide for themselves whether or not to participate in surveys

A critical election is typically associated with __________.
a. dealignment
b. electoral realignment
c. polar realignment
d. presidential realignment
e. proportional realignment

b. electoral realignment

Two types of errors are common to polls. What are they?
a. exit error and margin of error
b. margin of error and sampling error
c. margin of error and survey error
d. sampling error and stratified error
e. stratified error and survey error

b. margin of error and sampling error

When conducting surveys, why is the wording of questions a central concern?
a. how a question is worded can unintentionally skew results
b. how a question is worded can intentionally skew results
c. how a question is worded can intentionally or unintentionally skew results
d. how a question is worded can generate a low degree of consensus
e. how a question is worded can increase self-selection

c. how a question is worded can intentionally or unintentionally skew results

Which of the following voter profiles most strongly suggests that an individual will identify with the Democratic Party?
a. Asian, male, Evangelical Christian
b. black, female, from the Northeast
c. college-educated, male, from the South
d. senior citizen, male, annual income over $75,000
e. white, male, Protestant

b. black, female, from the Northeast

Why have National Election Studies (NES) researchers conducted surveys before and after every mid-term and presidential election since 1952?
a. to compile long-term studies of the electorate
b. to increase voter participation
c. to gauge the opinions of a selected group of respondents on a single issue over time
d. to safeguard elections from manipulation by political consultants
e. to clarify options for undecided voters

a. to compile long-term studies of the electorate

Which of the following is an element of a political party's organization at the state level?
a. activists and volunteers
b. congressional district committees
c. identifiers and voters
d. national committee
e. precinct and ward committees

b. congressional district committees

Which of the following states has the greatest number of political parties represented in its legislature?
a. Brazil
b. Israel
c. Nigeria
d. United Kingdom
e. United States

a. Brazil

Since 1952, researchers at the University of Michigan have conducted surveys to assess the political attitudes and behavior of the American electorate. By what name is this research known?
a. American Electorate Studies
b. General Social Studies
c. Harris Interactive Studies
d. National Election Studies
e. National Public Opinion Studies

d. National Election Studies

Which demographic group currently most closely identifies with the Democratic Party?
a. African Americans
b. Catholics
c. Hispanics
d. Protestants
e. whites

a. African Americans

According to Table 11.2, women voters today are most likely to identify as __________.
a. apathetic
b. Democrats
c. independents
d. Republicans
e. Republicans or Democrats

b. Democrats

A gradual shift in party coalitions that is based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system is known as a __________ realignment.
a. demographic
b. district
c. party
d. piecemeal
e. secular

e. secular

What is the single greatest influence in establishing a person's first party identification?
a. economic status
b. geography
c. hot-button social issues
d. parents
e. religion

d. parents

The key exception to the rule that state parties are free to act within the limits set by their state legislatures, without interference from the national party, is in the selection of __________.
a. congressional candidates
b. electoral college delegates
c. national convention delegates
d. governors
e. state party chairpersons

c. national convention delegates

Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues are known as what?
a. deliberative polls
b. exit polls
c. push polls
d. straw polls
e. tracking polls

d. straw polls

In what way are George Gallup's sentiments about the role of public opinion in governance similar to those of many of today's political thinkers?
a. They are similar in believing that that leaders must follow the public's view slavishly.
b. They are similar in believing that leaders should have an appraisal of public opinion and consider it in reaching their decisions.
c. They are similar in believing that straw polls should be used to gauge public opinion.
d. They are similar in believing that pollsters should expect a high degree of consistency in citizens' day-to-day political views.
e. They are similar in believing that the public should be surveyed only when the relative importance of an issue is high.

b. They are similar in believing that leaders should have an appraisal of public opinion and consider it in reaching their decisions.

George Gallup undoubtedly had a vested interest in fostering reliance on public opinion polls. Why?
a. He was a politician.
b. He was a pollster.
c. He was a pluralist.
d. He held majority opinions.
e. He held minority opinions

b. He was a pollster.

Scholarship suggests that about __________ of the promises in the victorious party's presidential platform are completely or mostly implemented.
a. less than one-fourth
b. one-fourth
c. one-third
d. one-half
e. two-thirds

e. two-thirds

How do minor parties facilitate democracy in the United States?
a. by bringing more citizens into the political process with issue awareness
b. by challenging the constitutional supports for the two-party system
c. by sending important delegates to the major parties' national conventions
d. by thwarting the major party that is most ideologically distant
e. by winning a disproportionate number of local elections

a. by bringing more citizens into the political process with issue awareness

What did George Gallup mean when he said that public opinion polls "speed up the process of democracy"?
a. that polls define issues of concern to the public
b. that polls make elections run more smoothly
c. that polls accurately predict election outcomes
d. that politics without polls is undemocratic
e. that laws sail through the legislative process if public opinion supports them

a. that polls define issues of concern to the public

Recent polls concerning party identification might lead a political scientist trying to understand voter behavior to believe that voter registration __________.
a. indicates no change over the last two decades
b. indicates a significant Republican shift
c. indicates a significant Democratic shift
d. indicates more independents than Democrats or Republicans
e. has little if any significant predictive value

d. indicates more independents than Democrats or Republicans

What is the difference between simple random sampling and stratified sampling?
a. Stratified sampling combines random selection with
predetermined weighting of a population's demographic
characteristics, whereas random sampling does not.
b. Stratified sampling gives each member of a targeted population the same probability of being polled, whereas simple random sampling does not.
c. Random simplified sampling incorporates random selection into the polling procedure, whereas stratified sampling does not.
d. Stratified sampling excludes the element of randomness from the polling process, whereas random simplified sampling does not.
e. Stratified sampling relies on techniques to eliminate bias, whereas simple random sampling does not

a. Stratified sampling combines random selection with predetermined weighting of a population's demographic characteristics, whereas random sampling does not.

When questioned about their views of politics in Congress, the
majority of__________ expressed their desire for compromise over
standing firm in their beliefs.
a. Americans
b. congressional members
c. Democrats
d. independents
e. Republicans

a. Americans

Proponents of a government that includes minor parties might suggest that the United States consider Europe's system of __________.
a. delegate elections
b. multi-party national conventions
c. non-partisan elections
d. proportional representation
e. tripartite platforms

d. proportional representation

Of the following statements about the 1936 Literary Digest poll, which predicted Roosevelt's defeat for reelection, which is true?
a. The poll oversampled the upper middle class and the wealthy.
b. The poll oversampled groups heavily Democratic in orientation.
c. The poll excluded owners of automobiles and telephones.
d. The poll undersampled middle-class voters who owned
telephones.
e. The poll under sampled Republican voters who owned neither telephones nor automobiles.

a. The poll oversampled the upper middle class and the wealthy.

A polling firm has been commissioned by the New York Times to assess public opinion about the performance of FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) during the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. What should the firm do first?
a. determine the population
b. determine the content and phrasing of the questions they want answered
c. determine the method of poll selection
d. contact respondents
e. select the sample

b. determine the content and phrasing of the questions they want answered

Who was the first chief executive to win the White House as the nominee of a truly national, popularly based political party following the first national party convention in 1832?
a. John Adams
b. Henry Clay
c. Benjamin Franklin
d. Andrew Jackson
e. James Garfield

d. Andrew Jackson

How do political scientists define political socialization?
a. as the process through which individuals self-select themselves to participate in public opinion polls
b. as the process through which individuals acquire status as opinion leaders
c. as the process through which individuals seek out new polling technologies
d. as the process through which individuals seek out the beliefs and values of their peer groups
e. as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values

e. as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values

Party identification is __________.
a. most determined by one's parents and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior
b. most determined by geography and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior
c. most determined by one's parents and is increasing in its utility to predict voter behavior
d. most determined by geography and is increasing in its utility to predict voter behavior
e. most determined by one's parents and has maintained constant utility in predicting voter behavior

a. most determined by one's parents and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior

Of the following public opinion poll topics, which is more likely than the others to be subject to a screening procedure?
a. crime prevention
b. illegal drug use
c. the federal budget
d. race-based preferences
e. women's role in society

c. the federal budget

Why does the United States have a two-party system?
a. The Framers wanted competition between political parties.
b. The Framers wanted to avoid the mistakes of Europe.
c. It was a compromise between a unitary system's efficiency and a multiparty system's diversity.
d. It developed in the struggle between slave owners and
abolitionists.
e. It developed in the struggle between Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans

e. It developed in the struggle between Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans

While the national congressional campaign committees work to garner more seats for their respective parties, the Democratic National Committee and the Republican National Committee focus on
__________.
a. aiding presidential campaigns and conducting general party building activities
b. aiding presidential campaigns and writing a focused party platform.
c. conducting general party-building activities and writing a focused party platform.
d. conducting oversight of state parties and deliberating over nomination of a presidential nominee.
e. conducting oversight of state parties and other general party building activities

a. aiding presidential campaigns and conducting general party building activities

The __________ is the formal governing body of both major parties.
a. national party assembly
b. national party committee
c. national party convention
d. national party delegation
e. national party legislature

b. national party committee

How does a delegate become a representative to a party convention?
a. appointment by the governor
b. appointment by the president
c. appointment by the national chairperson
d. selection by citizens
e. selection by party leaders

d. selection by citizens

A __________ results after fissures develop in each party's coalition, which begins to fracture after new issues appear, dividing the electorate.
a. dealignment
b. national party convention
c. nonpartisan election
d. critical election
e. secular realignment

d. critical election

When a party's base of supporters undergoes a fundamental and enduring alteration, what is this called?
a. critical realignment
b. dealignment
c. party realignment
d. party re-identification
e. secular realignment

c. party realignment

One of the various ways in which parties contribute to democratic governance is by __________.
a. dividing the electorate
b. narrowing voter choice
c. running candidates
d. reducing accountability mechanisms
e. reducing inter-party competition

c. running candidates

When did the Era of Good Feelings occur?
a. as political parties first began to develop (1800)
b. as the Federalist Party declined (1820)
c. at the beginning of the Golden Age (1860)
d. at the end of the Golden Age (1932)
e. during the modern era (1973)

b. as the Federalist Party declined (1820)

The U.S. electoral system is capable of producing a major third party. What features largely account for it failing to do so?
a. multi-member districts and a proportional voting system
b. single-member districts and a nonpartisan blanket primary system
c. multi-member districts and a plurality (first-past-the-post) voting system
d. single-member districts and a plurality (first-past-the-post) voting system
e. multi-member districts and a nonpartisan blanket primary system

d. single-member districts and a plurality (first-past-the-post) voting system

What reason does Andrew Kohut, president of the Pew Research Center, give to explain why public opinion polls have become critical players in national and international politics over the last three decades?
a. the sophistication of modern polling techniques
b. the rise in the number of public opinion polls
c. an increased reliance on polling by presidential contenders
d. the advent of the Internet
e. the speed with which computers can process election data

b. the rise in the number of public opinion polls

A collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas is called a __________.
a. caucus
b. convention
c. political machine
d. political party
e. think tank

e. think tank

Why is Walter Lippmann credited with spurring the growth of public opinion polling?
a. Lippmann tried to predict the winner of the presidential contest between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams.
b. Lippmann was a pioneer in the use of the straw poll.
c. Lippmann's polling methods were hailed widely as "amazingly right" and "uncannily accurate."
d. Lippmann discovered three fatal errors in the Literary Digest poll that wrongly predicted that Republican Alfred M. Landon would beat incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
e. Lippmann wrote a book in which he observed that research on public opinion was far too limited, especially in light of its importance

e. Lippmann wrote a book in which he observed that research on public opinion was far too limited, especially in light of its importance

As a pollster for Smart Polling, you are concerned about gauging the public's attitudes about arms-control policy, because you believe that the public not only has little information on this complex topic but also has thought little about it. What procedure might you implement to decrease the inaccuracy of your polling data because of this lack of information?
a. a screening procedure
b. a grading procedure
c. a tracking procedure
d. a deliberative procedure
e. a randomization procedure

a. a screening procedure

Which entity has the responsibility of establishing a cohesive vision for partisan identifiers nationwide?
a. the delegates
b. the national caucus
c. the national chairperson
d. the national committee
e. the national party organization

e. the national party organization

According to Table 11.2, younger voters today are most likely to identify as __________.
a. apathetic
b. Democrats
c. independents
d. Republicans
e. Republicans or Democrats

c. independents

When can a party change its platform?
a. after a federal census
b. at the start of each fiscal year
c. during the national party convention
d. every two years
e. virtually anytime

c. during the national party convention

At what age do parents exercise the greatest influence on the political socialization of their children?
a. from birth to age 5
b. from birth to age 10
c. from age 10 to age 14
d. from age 14 to age 18
e. at age 18 and older

a. from birth to age 5

Researchers refer to the unintended influence of the questioner on respondents during in-person interviews as what?
a. interviewee bias
b. interviewee influence
c. interviewer bias
d. interviewer corruption
e. interviewer influence

c. interviewer bias

The __________ is a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.
a. inaccuracy rate
b. margin of error
c. modal response
d. sample size
e. standard deviation

b. margin of error

Of the following, which is considered a demographic characteristic?
a. employability
b. gender
c. history
d. intelligence
e. security

b. gender

The most visible instrument that parties use to formulate, convey, and promote public policy is __________.
a. its articles
b. its constitution
c. its platform
d. its procedural document
e. its regulations

c. its platform

When did the last political realignment occur, according to most political scientists?
a. 1860
b. 1894
c. 1932
d. 1968
e. 2000

c. 1932

"Are American Political Parties Polarized?" suggests that both major political parties are moving ideologically __________.
a. apart, but Democrats are more extremely polarized
b. apart, but Republicans are more extremely polarized
c. together, but Democrats are more moderate
d. together, but Republicans are more moderate
e. together, but Independents still claim the moderate majority

b. apart, but Republicans are more extremely polarized

Why has the public become more of a critical player in national and international politics in the past three decades?
a. because the public opinion of the electorate responds to changing events
b. because the public opinion of the electorate has an effect on policy
c. because the public opinion of the electorate has become easier to calculate
d. because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is declining
e. because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is rising

e. because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is rising

Americans are likely to have the most difficulty forming opinions on which of the following topics?
a. topics involving bread-and-butter issues, such as jobs and unemployment
b. topics involving moral issues, such punishments for hate crimes
c. topics involving tax deductions for home mortgages
d. topics involving the European Central Bank and creditor nations
e. topics involving single-payer health care mandates

d. topics involving the European Central Bank and creditor nations

Modern national party conventions serve what ends?
a. They assemble delegates who will be assessed for their future political potential based on their writing of a largely
inconsequential party platform.
b. They mobilize supporters for the nominee, who has basically already been decided.
c. They deliberate on the party's choices for presidential and vice-presidential nominees.
d. They hold elections to determine the new party leaders.
e. They write the party platform, which will be crucial over the next four years.

b. They mobilize supporters for the nominee, who has basically already been decided.

Who is considered the founder of modern-day polling?
a. George Gallup
b. William E. Harris
c. Alfred M. Landon
d. Walter Lippmann
e. John Zogby

a. George Gallup

Which of the following was a prominent feature of the era called the "Golden Age" of political parties?
a. bipartisanship
b. candidate-centered politics
c. party realignment
d. political machines
e. secular realignment

d. political machines

Gaps in the way that citizens view government, political leaders, and public policies may be the result of gender, race, age, party, and religion, which are collectively known as what?
a. demographic stratigraphy
b. demographic characteristics
c. political ideologies
d. agents of political socialization
e. social identity quotients

b. demographic chararcters

Married voters today are most likely to identify as __________.
a. apathetic
b. Democrats
c. independents
d. Republicans
e. Republicans or Democrats

d. Republicans

Polls may be inaccurate for a number of reasons. Which of the following is one of those reasons?
a. Polls measure only elite opinion.
b. Polls are unable to measure the intensity of feelings about issues.
c. Polls contain far too many errors to be deemed reliable.
d. Polls have too many respondent options in which to register opinions.
e. Polls have yet to perfect the sampling process.

b. Polls are unable to measure the intensity of feelings about issues.

What institutional feature of U.S. politics prevents the success of third parties?
a. a constitutional restriction
b. the electoral college
c. multi-member districts
d. proportional representation
e. open-primary systems

b. the electoral college

What do Americans often have difficulty forming opinions about?
a. about policies that involves issues of amorality
b. about policies that involve issues of morality
c. about policies that do not affect them personally
d. about policies that affect them personally
e. about policies proposed by women candidates

c. about policies that do not affect them personally

On Table 11.2, Who Identifies as a Democrat? A Republican?,
Hispanics are most likely to identify as __________.
a. Democrats
b. Independents
c. Republicans
d. Libertarians
e. Greens

a. Democrats

What typically precedes a major party realignment?
a. a caucus
b. censure
c. a critical election
d. economic crises
e. a key nomination

c. a critical election

Which of the following is a minor party that was formed to oppose desegregation?
a. the American Independent Party
b. the Green Party
c. the Liberty/Free Soil Party
d. the Progressive/Bull Moose Party
e. the States' Rights Party

a. the American Independent Party

Which amendment removed the election of U.S. senators from the hands of state legislators and placed it in the hands of citizens?
a. the Sixteenth Amendment
b. the Seventeenth Amendment
c. the Eighteenth Amendment
d. the Twentieth Amendment
e. the Twenty-First Amendment

b. the Seventeenth Amendment

When were tracking polls introduced?
a. 1985
b. 1989
c. 1992
d. 1996
e. 1999

c. 1992

Why do state legislators rely more on their state and local parties for election assistance than do their congressional counterparts?
a. because state legislators are at the entry level of politics and need more guidance from the party
b. because state legislators are not able to make campaign-related decisions on their own
c. because state legislators base their main talking points directly on state and local public policy
d. because state legislators cannot enter a campaign without their party's direct approval
e. because state legislators have a greater need for their party's financial and technological resources

e. because state legislators have a greater need for their party's financial and technological resources

In what, are many American ideals, including hard work and personal responsibility, rooted?
a. a belief in pure capitalism
b. causal explanations of human affairs
c. ancient Greek notions of the nation-state
d. our nation's Protestant heritage
e. the two-party system

d. our nation's Protestant heritage

What is the purpose of a "name recognition survey"?
a. to discover how a better-known candidate contemplating a run for office might fare against an incumbent
b. to discover how a local officeholder has affected the legislative climate
c. to discover how many people have heard of a potential candidate for office
d. to gauge how negatively the public views a potential third-party candidate
e. to gauge how negatively the public views a potential candidate

c. to discover how many people have heard of a potential candidate for office

How are critical elections and party realignments interrelated?
a. A party realignment occurs before a critical election, and may involve a national crisis.
b. A party realignment occurs during a critical election, and is characterized by gradual change.
c. A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections, and is characterized by gradual change.
d. A party realignment occurs before a critical election, and is characterized by gradual change.
e. A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections and may involve a national crisis.

e. A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections and may involve a national crisis.

AP GOV Chapters 10-12 Multiple Choice - Subjecto.com

AP GOV Chapters 10-12 Multiple Choice

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A command, indicated by an electorate’s votes, for the elected officials to carry out a party platform or policy agenda is known as a(n) __________.
a. dictate
b. consensus
c. initiative
d. mandate
e. proposition

d. mandate

What is the name of the process by which citizens propose
legislation or constitutional amendments, through petition followed by popular vote?
a. gerrymandering
b. initiative
c. mandate
d. proposition
e. referendum

b. initiative

What institution is responsible for electing the president of the United States?
a. Electoral Choice
b. Electoral College
c. Electoral Mandate
d. Electoral Symposium
e. Electoral University

b. Electoral College

The current system for electing members to Congress favors __________.
a. centrists
b. Democrats
c. partisans
d. Republicans
e. third parties

c. partisans

The ability of an office holder to fend off challenges from quality challengers is known as the __________.
a. detain-off effect
b. max-out effect
c. run-out effect
d. scare-off effect
e. take-off effect

d. scare-off effect

If you are attempting to influence the political process through extreme measures, such as boycotts and picketing, you are engaging in __________.
a. abnormal political participation
b. condescending political participation
c. conventional political participation
d. radical political participation
e. unconventional political participation

e. unconventional political participation

When a citizen votes for candidates from different parties in the same election he or she is __________.
a. consensus voting
b. ideological voting
c. issue-splitting
d. partisan voting
e. ticket-splitting

e. ticket-splitting

According to Table 12.2, how many states require no voter
registration?
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. ten
e. fifteen

a. one

According to Table 12.5, which of the following reasons do voters most often give for not voting?
a. bad weather
b. forgot
c. not interested
d. out of town
e. too busy

e. too busy

Which of the following religious groups maintains the most
consistent voting patterns?
a. Buddhist voters
b. Catholic voters
c. Jewish voters
d. Muslim voters
e. Protestant voters

c. Jewish voters

Roughly what percentage of Americans rarely or never vote?
a. 15 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 35 percent
d. 45 percent
e. 50 percent

c. 35 percent

Voting for a candidate based on the candidate’s policy promises is called __________.
a. allocated voting
b. early voting
c. future voting
d. prospective voting
e. retrospective voting

d. prospective voting

A member of the Electoral College is known as a(n) __________.
a. collegian
b. elector
c. partisan
d. selector
e. surrogate

b. elector

Which Amendment to the U.S. Constitution lowered the voting age to eighteen?
a. Thirteenth
b. Fifteenth
c. Nineteenth
d. Twenty-First
e. Twenty-Sixth

e. Twenty-Sixth

What was the name of the legislation enacted in 2002 to assist states with upgrading their voting equipment?
a. Help America Vote Act
b. Help Manage Elections Act
c. Help Prevent Recounts Act
d. Help States Vote Act
e. Help the People Vote Act

a. Help America Vote Act

How do most citizens in Washington and Oregon vote?
a. by mail
b. by telephone
c. in person
d. through a website
e. by email

a. by mail

According to political scientists, which of the following has been the most successful mobilizer of Americans to vote?
a. family and friends
b. social media
c. television advertisements
d. political parties
e. voter registration drives

d. political parties

In general, women who vote favor which party?
a. Conservatives
b. Democrats
c. Greens
d. Libertarians
e. Republicans

b. Democrats

Which of the following best describes the relationship between income and vote choice?
a. It is becoming less important.
b. It is erratic.
c. It is correlative.
d. It does not override the gender gap.
e. It does not predict election outcomes.

b. It is erratic.

How many electoral votes are needed to be elected president?
a. 207
b. 230
c. 270
d. 337
e. 370

c. 270

What is front-loading?
a. the tendency to donate money to the first candidates who enter a presidential race
b. the tendency of major media outlets to call states early in
presidential elections
c. the tendency of political parties to nominate a presidential candidate before caucus
d. the tendency of states to choose an early date on the
nomination calendar
e. the tendency of voters to use early or absentee voting

d. the tendency of states to choose an early date on the nomination calendar

Democrats no longer use the winner-take-all primary because __________.
a. it cost too much to implement
b. it increased the influence of special interests
c. it was generally less representative
d. it made the nomination process too lengthy
e. it pulled candidates too far to the political left

c. it was generally less representative

If you, as a Republican, want to crossover vote for one of the Democratic presidential nominees in the Democratic Party primary, that primary must be a(n) __________.
a. absentee primary
b. closed primary
c. crossover primary
d. open primary
e. runoff primary

d. open primary

Runoff primaries __________.
a. are unconstitutional
b. blur the line between primary and general elections
c. favor third parties
d. politicize primaries
e. use percentages to arrive at a winner

b. blur the line between primary and general elections

The caucus system of nominating candidates is oriented towards __________.
a. college students
b. low income voters
c. candidates
d. political parties
e. special interest groups

d. political parties

The incumbency advantage includes which of the following?
a. redistricting
b. scandals
c. greater visibility
d. presidential coattails
e. countervailing force of mid-term elections

c. greater visibility

What is said of a successful presidential candidate who helps members of Congress get elected as well?
a. The president has a mandate.
b. The president has long coattails.
c. The president has strong crossover.
d. The president is a ticket-splitter.
e. The president is front-loading.

b. The president has long coattails.

Voting is a form of __________.
a. conventional participation
b. demonstrative participation
c. fallacious participation
d. preemptive participation
e. reapportioned participation

a. conventional participation

Modern American political liberals generally believe that ________.
a. abortion on demand is unethical
b. a lower tax rate stimulates the economy
c. charities are more effective than government programs
d. government is a necessary evil
e. the government should provide social programs

e. the government should provide social programs

Prospective judgment is voting based upon __________.
a. a candidate’s personal history
b. the candidate’s partisan loyalty
c. the candidate’s ethnic background
d. the candidate’s policy promises
e. what the candidate has done in the past

d. the candidate’s policy promises

Which of the following is a problem presented by the Electoral College?
a. Career politicians have a natural advantage over outsiders.
b. It favors Republicans over Democrats historically.
c. It is too democratic and violates the intentions of the Framers.
d. Small states are underrepresented.
e. The winner of a popular vote can still fail to be elected.

e. The winner of a popular vote can still fail to be elected.

What old practice did the Twelfth Amendment replace?
a. Presidents had no term limit.
b. Presidents were elected by popular vote.
c. Presidents were appointed by a vote of the state legislatures.
d. The president and vice-president were elected by party
delegates.
e. The president and vice-president were elected from the same pool of candidates.

e. The president and vice-president were elected from the same pool of candidates.

What is one reason why incumbents have the advantage in
elections?
a. Challengers have less time to campaign than incumbents.
b. Each challenger has to petition for inclusion on the ballot, while the incumbent does not.
c. Mainstream media outlets are required by law to provide free airtime to incumbents.
d. Incumbents tend to have greater amounts of money to spend on campaigns.
e. Voters generally fear change and thus rarely want to vote out an incumbent.

d. Incumbents tend to have greater amounts of money to spend on campaigns.

Why is redistricting an issue for incumbents?
a. It means fewer people can donate to their reelection campaign.
b. It can pit an incumbent against another incumbent in the next election cycle.
c. It mandates that every ten years members of Congress have to switch districts.
d. It means that incumbents have to move when their district
changes.
e. It necessitates a new and expensive media campaign in the next election cycle.

b. It can pit an incumbent against another incumbent in the next election cycle.

Which is one problem with online voting discussed in your text?
a. access for lower-income Americans
b. bias in favor of young voters
c. partisan advantage
d. bias in favor of corporations
e. technological feasibility

a. access for lower-income Americans

How does the institutional weakness of political parties affect voter turnout?
a. parties can only use grassroots mobilizing to get voters to the polls
b. parties do not have the staff to work at polling stations
c. voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties
d. parties are subject to capture by special interests
e. parties do not have money to buy media ads to mobilize voters

c. voters are distant from and do not identify with weak parties

If you wanted to improve voter turnout, which of the following would you suggest?
a. holding elections more frequently
b. removing the Electoral College in favor of a direct vote
c. moving toward a system of national nominating caucuses
d. turning Election Day into a national holiday
e. using earlier registration deadlines

d. turning Election Day into a national holiday

If you were a campaign manager trying to target the largest
population of likely voters, at which place would you suggest your candidate campaign?
a. at a local employment agency
b. at the local senior citizens association
c. in an American government class at the local college
d. attending a nearby Latino cultural festival
e. attending a nearby farmers association meeting

b. at the local senior citizens association

If you wanted to have the most informed voters during a party nomination, you would use which nomination system?
a. caucus
b. collegian
c. primary
d. proportional
e. retrospective

a. caucus

If, as a member of a state legislature, you wanted to avoid political accountability for a controversial proposal, you might suggest holding a(n) __________.
a. initiative
b. plurality
c. mandate
d. recall
e. referendum

e. referendum

Front-loading benefits __________.
a. challengers
b. front runners
c. incumbents
d. third parties
e. special interests

b. front runners

If you are competing for your party’s nomination for office, you must first participate in a(n) __________.
a. initiative election
b. caucus election
c. leadership election
d. primary election
e. referendum election

d. primary election

When is the initiative process the most useful?
a. when a state legislature wants to avoid a controversial vote on increasing taxes
b. when removing an elected official for high crimes and
misdemeanors.
c. when replacing a member of Congress who has resigned from office before an election
d. when seeking to amend the US Constitution to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples.
e. when trying to enact a controversial law such as the
legalization of marijuana

a. when a state legislature wants to avoid a controversial vote on increasing taxes

If a state wanted to increase its influence in the presidential
nomination, what could the state do?
a. control media access to campaign events
b. frontload the primaries
c. mandate candidate debates in the state
d. switch to a caucus system
e. use a winner-take-all system

b. frontload the primaries

Which presents the greatest threat to incumbents of the president’s party?
a. a caucus election
b. a general election
c. a midterm election
d. a primary election
e. a runoff election

c. a midterm election

Which is true of citizens who are highly interested in politics?
a. They are usually in their early twenties.
b. They are less likely to join a civic organization.
c. They tend to be secular rather than religious.
d. They constitute a small percentage of the population.
e. They rarely vote.

d. They constitute a small percentage of the population.

How would you go about strengthening political parties in the United States?
a. Allow a multi-party system.
b. Allow public financing of elections.
c. Hold more elections.
d. Let voters elect the party leadership.
e. Switch to caucus systems in all the states for nomination
contests.

a. Allow a multi-party system.

According to the "Take a Closer Look" box in your text, which of the following is true if you are a young voter?
a. You are more likely to vote for a write-in candidate than older voters.
b. You are less likely to vote than older voters.
c. You are more likely to vote Republican than older voters.
d. You are more likely to participate in caucuses than older voters.
e. You are more likely to vote in midterm elections than older voters

b. You are less likely to vote than older voters.

Which of the following is the least likely reform to occur with respect to the Electoral College?
a. direct election of the Electoral College electors by voters
b. increasing the number of electoral votes needed to win
c. letting the Senate break ties in the national popular vote
d. moving to the congressional district plan
e. determining the president through popular vote

e. determining the president through popular vote

Why might being a member of a civic group make you more likely to vote?
a. Civic groups have mandatory citizenship participation as a condition of membership.
b. Civic groups provide opportunities to learn important political skills.
c. Civic groups are directly associated with political party
mobilization.
d. Civic groups publish informative political newsletters.
e. Civic groups require proof of voter registration as a condition of membership.

b. Civic groups provide opportunities to learn important political skills.

According to your text, what is the general purpose of elections?
a. to advance special interest agendas
b. to check the influence of the federal and state judiciaries on the policy process
c. to confer legitimacy on government
d. to ensure social accountability on the part of government
e. to ensure that everyone is treated equally by the law

c. to confer legitimacy on government

Ballot measures often the subject of heated debate because they are unduly influenced by __________.
a. citizens
b. the courts
c. the media
d. political parties
e. special interest groups

e. special interest groups

Why did the original Electoral College hold separate elections for president and vice-president?
a. The Framers anticipated that partisanship would have little influence.
b. The Framers did not expect the country to become so large and diverse.
c. The Framers never expected the role of the media in elections.
d. The Framers were worried about the influences of factions and demagogues.
e. The Framers were trying to minimize the influence of the
wealthy.

a. The Framers anticipated that partisanship would have little influence.

What is the most immediate advantage of the congressional district plan?
a. It addresses the problem of the incumbency advantage.
b. It does not require a constitutional amendment.
c. It minimizes the influence of special interest money.
d. It reduces the number of states in play.
e. It reduces gerrymandering.

b. It does not require a constitutional amendment.

Why has there been a growing use of recall elections in recent years?
a. Federal law mandates recall elections whenever there are
accusations of wrongdoing.
b. Investigative journalism has made exposing political
corruption easier.
c. New technology has made it easier to organize and raise
money for recall campaigns.
d. Politicians are generally more corrupt now than in the past.
e. Voter turnout tends to be higher in a recall campaign than in the general election

c. New technology has made it easier to organize and raise money for recall campaigns.

If proportional representation primaries are fairer to the public, why might some state parties choose not to adopt them?
a. They are difficult to schedule.
b. They create intra-party competition between candidates.
c. They can lengthen the nomination process.
d. They may require more special interest support to finance.
e. They reward moderate candidates.

c. They can lengthen the nomination process.

How can redistricting threaten incumbent members of Congress?
a. It can alter district-based funds from special interest groups.
b. It can force members of Congress to relocate their families.
c. It can shift incumbents into a caucus district.
d. It can pit incumbents against one another.
e. It increases the probability of a strong minority challenger

d. It can pit incumbents against one another.

Why are some people concerned about electronic voting?
a. Electronic voting could increase election costs to the states.
b. Electronic voting could increase election fraud.
c. Electronic voting could increase the amount of uniformed
voters.
d. Electronic voting could increase the influence of special
interests in elections.
e. Electronic voting could increase the probability that the
working poor will vote.

b.Electronic voting could increase election fraud.

When does party identification matter most in voting?
a. in a presidential election
b. in a race between two incumbents
c. during midterm elections
d. in a low visibility election
e. when there is no incumbent running

d. in a low visibility election

Which of the following is a criticism of early voting?
a. It allows for more special interest influence.
b. It decreases the importance of campaigns.
c. It increases the potential for voter fraud.
d. It leads to front-loading.
e. It requires more volunteers to staff polling places

b.It decreases the importance of campaigns.

During his campaign for reelection in 2012, Barack Obama de-emphasized his work on health care reform. Which of the following reasons is the most plausible explanation for this decision, given what you know about the interaction between public opinion and policy and politics?
a. The continuing global economic crisis was too distracting.
b. Deep divisions in public opinion on the issue were apparent.
c. Unemployment remained high in the Southeast.
d. The popularity of Republicans continued to rise after the Republican National Convention.
e. The reaction against rising foreclosure rates was strongest in Florida.

b. Deep divisions in public opinion on the issue were apparent.

In your American government class, you learn that most Americans’ level of knowledge about history and politics is quite low and is declining every year. You also learn that political knowledge and political participation have a reciprocal effect on one another. Which of the following statements aligns with the statements presented in this scenario?
a. In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go up.
b. In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go down.
c. On many traditional measures, Americans’ knowledge of foreign policy issues is likely to increase in the future.
d. On many traditional measures, Americans’ knowledge of domestic policy issues is likely to increase in the future.
e. The gender gap in political participation appears to be unaffected by falling levels of political knowledge at present.

b. In the future, the degree of political participation in America is likely to go down.

How does the Missouri Plan suggest that judges be selected at the state level?
a. They should be appointed by a nonpartisan nomination
commission.
b. They should be appointed by the state governor.
c. They should run for election as party candidates.
d. They should run for election with no party affiliation.
e. They should be selected by the state legislative caucuses

a. They should be appointed by a nonpartisan nomination commission

What does the Pew Global Attitudes Survey assess?
a. the attitudes toward globalization held by citizens in a sample of countries
b. the attitudes toward global warming held by citizens in a sample of countries
c. the attitudes toward the United Nations held by nonmember states
d. the attitudes toward the United Nations held by member states
e. the attitudes toward global powers held by citizens in a sample of countries

e. the attitudes toward global powers held by citizens in a sample of countries

The Gallop organization predicts that Andrew Cuomo, the governor of New York, wins the 2016 presidential election with 61 percent of the popular vote. If Cuomo actually wins by capturing 49 percent of the popular vote, to which factor, more than the others, would you attribute the discrepancy, given what you know about how successful Gallup has been in making presidential predictions?
a. the presence of a prominent female candidate
b. the presence of a prominent third-party candidate
c. the age of a major-party candidate
d. the religion of a major-party candidate
e. the absence of grassroots action

b. the presence of a prominent third-party candidate

In 1948, the Chicago Tribune wrongly predicted that Republican Thomas E. Dewey would beat incumbent President Harry S. Truman. Knowing what you know about the accuracy of various polls, what kind of poll would most likely have led the Chicago Tribune to make this erroneous prediction?
a. an exit poll
b. a push poll
c. a random-digit dialing poll
d. a straw poll
e. a tracking poll

d. a straw poll

Which of the following voter profiles most strongly suggests that an individual will identify with the Republican Party?
a. Hispanic, female, Catholic
b. Protestant, male, annual income over $75,000
c. senior citizen, Jewish, from the Midwest
d. white, Catholic, from the Northeast
e. white, female, Evangelical Christian

b. Protestant, male, annual income over $75,000

You are a pollster about to analyze polling data in order to reveal the data’s implications for public policy. Which of the following subgroups within the data would you, as a representative of a reputable polling organization, pay least attention to?
a. men versus women
b. Democrats versus Republicans
c. seniors versus first-time voters
d. stockholders versus shareholders
e. independent versus party-affiliated voters

d. stockholders versus shareholders

Who is included in the "party in the electorate"?
a. party officers who seek to educate the public on key party stances
b. party officers who seek to steer the electorate through media spin
c. public officials who are registered with one major party
d. voters active in the business of the party
e. voters who identify with a party label

e. voters who identify with a party label

How are exit polls conducted?
a. over the telephone
b. on the Internet
c. through the mail
d. via e-mail
e. in person

e. in person

What has become the most powerful predictor of congressional voting in recent years?
a. economic stance
b. campaign finances
c. hot-button issues
d. party labels
e. trust

d. party labels

Which of the following statements best reflects the Framers’ attitudes about public opinion?
a. Public opinion is the best measure of the soundness of government policy.
b. Public opinion is potentially divisive and should, therefore, be encouraged.
c. Public opinion is potentially counterproductive and should, therefore, be tempered.
d. Public opinion should be monitored closely in election years.
e. Public opinion should be represented in government by lobbyists.

c. Public opinion is potentially counterproductive and should, therefore, be tempered.

In a random sample of 1,000 high-school students, 29 percent indicated that they had read the Declaration of Independence at least once. If the margin of error is calculated to be 4 percent, which of the following statements is more likely than the others to be true?

a. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be above 33 percent.
b. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be below 25 percent.
c. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be between 25 and 33 percent.
d. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be equal to 25 or 33 percent.
e. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned having read the Declaration of Independence would likely be equal to 33 percent, if the margin of error were less than 4 percent.

c. If the poll were conducted again, the percentage of those questioned who have read the Declaration of Independence would likely be between 25 and 33 percent.

The years 1860-1928 saw the ascendency of which party?
a. Democratic-Republicans
b. Democrats
c. Federalists
d. Republicans
e. Whigs

d. Republicans

Decreasing numbers of __________ have been identified as one cause of increasing polarization.
a. East Coast conservative Democrats
b. Midwest independents
c. northern liberal Republicans
d. southern conservative Republicans
e. West Coast liberal Republicans

c. northern liberal Republicans

Which of the following surveys is more likely than the others to generate self-selection error?
a. a mail-in survey of retirement community members about the privatization of Medicare
b. a phone survey of randomly selected voters about the job performance of local council members
c. a yes or no phone survey that asks, "Will you vote in the upcoming presidential election?"
d. a door-to-door survey about home energy use
e. a mall-intercept survey about restaurant preferences

a. a mail-in survey of retirement community members about the privatization of Medicare

President __________ is as close to a nonpartisan president as modern America has ever had.
a. Andrew Jackson
b. Dwight D. Eisenhower
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt
d. John F. Kennedy
e. Theodore Roosevelt

b. Dwight D. Eisenhower

Which democratic function of political parties was nonexistent until the early twentieth century and has given voters greater input into politics?
a. party machines
b. party nominations
c. policy coordination
d. critical elections
e. primary elections

e. primary elections

How does the textbook answer this question: why are traditional telephone polls becoming increasingly difficult to conduct?
a. Many people distrust pollsters.
b. Many people do not have landlines.
c. Pollsters are no longer exempt from federal do-not-call lists.
d. Pollsters are no longer exempt from state do-not-call lists.
e. Polling is a form of constitutionally protected speech.

b. Many people do not have landlines.

What serves as the glue that holds together the disparate elements of the U.S. governmental and political apparatus?
a. bipartisanship
b. Congress
c. the political machine
d. the political parties
e. the winner-take-all-system

d. the political parties

When they become ten or eleven, what political opinion of Democratic presidents would you expect of children raised in politically active Republican households?
a. that they would be indifferent to Democratic presidents
b. that they would have roughly the same feelings toward Democratic presidents as Republican ones
c. that they would be more skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones
d. that they would, because of the liberalizing effect of age, be less skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones
e. that they would, because of the increasing influence of their peer group, adopt the attitudes of their peers toward Democratic presidents

c. that they would be more skeptical of Democratic presidents than Republican ones

What was a key contributor to the rare stability in Republican and Democratic political identities during the "Golden Age" (1860-1932)?
a. political arbitration
b. political compromise
c. political fund-raising
d. political machines
e. political mobility

d. political machines

Although campaign organizations generally deny conducting push polls, research indicates that push polls have indeed targeted political candidates. How many candidates have been targeted by this type of polling?
a. one-third
b. one-half
c. two-thirds
d. three-quarters
e. more than three-quarters

e. more than three-quarters

Which of the following is the clearest example of a push poll question?
a. Are you familiar with the candidate’s voting record on tax
subsidies for energy producers?
b. Would you approve of the candidate’s vote for the antipoverty bill if you knew that the candidate never read the legislation?
c. Do you plan to vote to reelect the candidate this November?
d. Do you agree with the candidate’s stance on programs for the poor?
e. Do you approve or disapprove of the job that the candidate is doing?

b. Would you approve of the candidate’s vote for the antipoverty bill if you knew that the candidate never read the legislation?

"All government rests on public opinion." Where is this sentiment expressed?
a. in the Bill of Rights
b. in the Declaration of Independence
c. in The Federalist Papers
d. in the Pew Research Center’s mission statement
e. in the Rules of the Senate

c. in The Federalist Papers

Leslie is a white, middle-class mother of two, who works as a librarian in the public library system of a large city in the American West. Shes 57 years old. Given her demographic profile and the information presented in Table 10.1 on differences in the political opinions of women and men, which of the following statements about her political
opinions would pollsters expect to be true?
a. Leslie believes that labor unions are not necessary to protect the rights of working men and women.
b. Leslie believes that American military interventions are usually a bad idea.
c. Leslie believes that school boards have a right to fire teachers who are homosexual.
d. Leslie believes that women’s opportunities for good jobs are equal to those of men.
e. Leslie believes that we should loosen restrictions on people coming to the United States.

b. Leslie believes that American military interventions are usually a bad idea.

__________ provides a basis for mediation and negotiation laterally among the branches of government and vertically among national, state, and local layers.
a. A critical election
b. Bipartisanship
c. Party affiliation
d. Polarization
e. The party platform

c. Party affiliation

Americans trust the government more when __________.
a. Democrats and Republicans work together in Congress
b. electoral votes indicate a clear win in the presidential election
c. it is not a "critical election" year
d. their chosen political party controls the White House
e. there is a strong third-party candidate

d. their chosen political party controls the White House

What are "feeling thermometer" questions?
a. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by signaling their approval or disapproval
b. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by answering with a simple yes or no
c. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by using a 0-to-100 scale
d. questions that measure how respondents feel about a particular issue by computing degree-of-affinity statistics
e. questions that measure how respondents feel about a particular issue by computing the intensity of their opposition to that issue

c. questions that ask respondents how they feel about a particular issue by using a 0-to-100 scale

What key issue led to the dissolution of the Whig party?
a. malfeasance in office
b. the Mexican-American War
c. post-Civil War Reconstruction
d. slavery in the South
e. federal taxation

d. slavery in the South

How are third parties usually significant?
a. They distract from important policy debates.
b. They effectively disprove Duverger’s law.
c. They intentionally spoil election wins by their ideologically closest major party.
d. They push major parties to incorporate new ideas or elucidate current ones.
e. They win elections in crucial swing states.

d. They push major parties to incorporate new ideas or elucidate current ones.

Since the __________, governmental decision makers have relied heavily on public opinion polls.
a. 1930s
b. 1940s
c. 1950s
d. 1960s
e. 1970s

a. 1930s

Which type of survey question is best suited to addressing concerns about errors in public opinion polling resulting from difficulty in measuring intensity?
a. simple yes-or-no questions
b. simple approve-or-disapprove questions
c. "feeling thermometer" questions
d. interviewee-bias questions
e. demographic-information questions

c. "feeling thermometer" questions

Refer to "How Do Demographic Characteristics Affect Public Opinion?" and indicate which is true about how age impacts views on whether or not the government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep.

a. More citizens over sixty-five years old think the government should guarantee every citizen have enough to eat and a place to sleep than citizens between eighteen and twenty-nine years old.
b. Citizens over forty-nine years old feel most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.
c. Citizens between fifty and sixty-four years old feel the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.
d. Citizens between thirty and forty-nine years old feel the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.
e. As citizens get older, they begin to feel more strongly that the government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep.

d. Citizens between thirty and forty-nine years old feel the most strongly that every citizen has enough to eat and a place to sleep when compared to the other age groups.

In 1787, John Jay wrote glowingly of the sameness of the American people. In Federalist No. 2, he wrote that we are "one united people— a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in manners and customs." Considering the sentiments expressed therein, which of these statements is Jay more likely to agree with?

a. He would likely agree that reliance on public opinion polls is unnecessary for good governance.
b. He would likely agree that obtaining an appraisal of public opinion through polling is essential for good governance.
c. He would likely agree that public opinion polls would confirm the presence of two different orientations toward governance among the people.
d. He would likely agree that interviews with citizens would yield a diversity of opinion.
e. He would likely agree that the public does not have consistent day to-day opinions on issues.

a. He would likely agree that reliance on public opinion polls is unnecessary for good governance.

Researchers have found that women are __________ similarly
qualified men to think about running for office.
a. more reluctant than
b. less reluctant than
c. equally as reluctant as
d. neither more nor less reluctant than
e. both more reluctant and less reluctant, depending on the situation,
than

a. more reluctant than

Web polls that allow anyone to weigh in on a topic are similar to
which of the following type(s) of polls?
a. exit polls and deliberative polls
b. deliberative polls
c. tracking polls and straw polls
d. biannual Cooperative Congressional Election studies
e. straw polls

e. straw polls

Which of the following was a prominent feature of post-World War II politics?
a. bipartisanship
b. candidate-centered politics
c. party realignment
d. political machines
e. secular realignment

b. candidate-centered politics

Which of the following statements about the shortcomings of polling is true?
a. Polls always allow respondents an appropriate range in which to register their opinions.
b. Polls always attempt to gauge attitudes toward issues about which the public has little information.
c. Polls never contain errors.
d. Polls sometimes fail to measure intensity of feeling.
e. Polls never incur data-entry costs.

d. Polls sometimes fail to measure intensity of feeling.

Although national committee activities attract most of the media attention, the roots of the party lie in __________.
a. the House of Representatives
b. the Oval Office
c. the Senate
d. the states and localities
e. Washington, D.C.

d. the states and localities

How did many city-dwellers and European immigrants view political parties during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
a. as a means of expressing their political views
b. as an extension of the law
c. as confirmation of a class-based society
d. as purveyors of housing, employment, and food
e. as something to be avoided

d. as purveyors of housing, employment, and food

What are some of the major barriers to third-party political success?
a. anti-fusion laws, campaign finance rules, and unpopular policies
b. ballot access, campaign finance rules, and voter perception
c. constitutional restrictions, voter perceptions, and poor media coverage
d. two-party system, constitutional restrictions, and poor media coverage
e. unpopular policies, voter perceptions, and campaign finance rules

b. ballot access, campaign finance rules, and voter perception

You are in a political science class. There is an argument about how to
define the target population for a survey to determine if families with
children would use school vouchers to send their children to charter
schools. From which of the following populations should you select a
sample?
a. women with children
b. married or divorced women with school-age children
c. mothers with children under age 18
d. parents
e. parents of children under age 18

e. parents of children under age 18

Which of the following statements best describes the interaction between public opinion and public policy in the United States?
a. The public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, closely mirrors policy.
b. The public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy in the short, but not the long, term.
c. The public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect the outcome of political events, such as elections, but not
particular policies.
d. The public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy.
e. The public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, have no discernible effect on policy.

d. The public’s views, registered through public opinion polls, can affect policy.

Which of the following statements about the relationship between political knowledge and political participation is true?
a. Increases in political knowledge lead to decreases in political participation.
b. Increases in political participation lead to decreases in political knowledge.
c. Decreases in political participation lead to increases in political knowledge
d. Increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation.
e. Increases in political knowledge have no effect on political participation.

d. Increases in political knowledge lead to increases in political participation.

Why do reputable polling firms eschew push poll tactics?
a. The intent of push polls is to give respondents some positive information about the candidate paying for the poll.
b. The intent of push polls is to give respondents some negative or even untruthful information about a candidate’s opponent.
c. The intent of push polls is to word questions about highly
emotional issues, such as abortion, same-sex marriage, and affirmative action, neutrally.
d. The intent of push polls is to yield information that helps
campaigns judge the strengths and weaknesses of their opponents.
e. The intent of push polls is to weigh survey results based on demographic characteristics of the national population.

b. The intent of push polls is to give respondents some negative or even untruthful information about a candidate’s opponent.

When is a child’s peer group most politically influential?
a. when the child enters preschool
b. when the child enters early elementary school
c. when the child enters late elementary school
d. when the child enters middle school or high school
e. when the child leaves high school

d. when the child enters middle school or high school

According to Figure 11.5, how have party unity scores in Congress changed over the last sixty years?
a. decreased dramatically over time
b. decreased slightly over time
c. increased dramatically over time
d. increased slightly in the past ten years
e. remained at a constant level

c. increased dramatically over time

In the context of public opinion polls, what is self-selection?
a. a reference to the timing of public opinion polls that may skew survey results
b. a reference to underrepresented groups in public opinion polls that may bias survey results
c. a reference to long-term studies of the electorate invalidated by short-term biases
d. a reference to short-term studies of the electorate invalidated by long-term biases
e. a reference to highly motivated respondents who decide for themselves whether or not to participate in surveys

e. a reference to highly motivated respondents who decide for themselves whether or not to participate in surveys

A critical election is typically associated with __________.
a. dealignment
b. electoral realignment
c. polar realignment
d. presidential realignment
e. proportional realignment

b. electoral realignment

Two types of errors are common to polls. What are they?
a. exit error and margin of error
b. margin of error and sampling error
c. margin of error and survey error
d. sampling error and stratified error
e. stratified error and survey error

b. margin of error and sampling error

When conducting surveys, why is the wording of questions a central concern?
a. how a question is worded can unintentionally skew results
b. how a question is worded can intentionally skew results
c. how a question is worded can intentionally or unintentionally skew results
d. how a question is worded can generate a low degree of consensus
e. how a question is worded can increase self-selection

c. how a question is worded can intentionally or unintentionally skew results

Which of the following voter profiles most strongly suggests that an individual will identify with the Democratic Party?
a. Asian, male, Evangelical Christian
b. black, female, from the Northeast
c. college-educated, male, from the South
d. senior citizen, male, annual income over $75,000
e. white, male, Protestant

b. black, female, from the Northeast

Why have National Election Studies (NES) researchers conducted surveys before and after every mid-term and presidential election since 1952?
a. to compile long-term studies of the electorate
b. to increase voter participation
c. to gauge the opinions of a selected group of respondents on a single issue over time
d. to safeguard elections from manipulation by political consultants
e. to clarify options for undecided voters

a. to compile long-term studies of the electorate

Which of the following is an element of a political party’s organization at the state level?
a. activists and volunteers
b. congressional district committees
c. identifiers and voters
d. national committee
e. precinct and ward committees

b. congressional district committees

Which of the following states has the greatest number of political parties represented in its legislature?
a. Brazil
b. Israel
c. Nigeria
d. United Kingdom
e. United States

a. Brazil

Since 1952, researchers at the University of Michigan have conducted surveys to assess the political attitudes and behavior of the American electorate. By what name is this research known?
a. American Electorate Studies
b. General Social Studies
c. Harris Interactive Studies
d. National Election Studies
e. National Public Opinion Studies

d. National Election Studies

Which demographic group currently most closely identifies with the Democratic Party?
a. African Americans
b. Catholics
c. Hispanics
d. Protestants
e. whites

a. African Americans

According to Table 11.2, women voters today are most likely to identify as __________.
a. apathetic
b. Democrats
c. independents
d. Republicans
e. Republicans or Democrats

b. Democrats

A gradual shift in party coalitions that is based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system is known as a __________ realignment.
a. demographic
b. district
c. party
d. piecemeal
e. secular

e. secular

What is the single greatest influence in establishing a person’s first party identification?
a. economic status
b. geography
c. hot-button social issues
d. parents
e. religion

d. parents

The key exception to the rule that state parties are free to act within the limits set by their state legislatures, without interference from the national party, is in the selection of __________.
a. congressional candidates
b. electoral college delegates
c. national convention delegates
d. governors
e. state party chairpersons

c. national convention delegates

Unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues are known as what?
a. deliberative polls
b. exit polls
c. push polls
d. straw polls
e. tracking polls

d. straw polls

In what way are George Gallup’s sentiments about the role of public opinion in governance similar to those of many of today’s political thinkers?
a. They are similar in believing that that leaders must follow the public’s view slavishly.
b. They are similar in believing that leaders should have an appraisal of public opinion and consider it in reaching their decisions.
c. They are similar in believing that straw polls should be used to gauge public opinion.
d. They are similar in believing that pollsters should expect a high degree of consistency in citizens’ day-to-day political views.
e. They are similar in believing that the public should be surveyed only when the relative importance of an issue is high.

b. They are similar in believing that leaders should have an appraisal of public opinion and consider it in reaching their decisions.

George Gallup undoubtedly had a vested interest in fostering reliance on public opinion polls. Why?
a. He was a politician.
b. He was a pollster.
c. He was a pluralist.
d. He held majority opinions.
e. He held minority opinions

b. He was a pollster.

Scholarship suggests that about __________ of the promises in the victorious party’s presidential platform are completely or mostly implemented.
a. less than one-fourth
b. one-fourth
c. one-third
d. one-half
e. two-thirds

e. two-thirds

How do minor parties facilitate democracy in the United States?
a. by bringing more citizens into the political process with issue awareness
b. by challenging the constitutional supports for the two-party system
c. by sending important delegates to the major parties’ national conventions
d. by thwarting the major party that is most ideologically distant
e. by winning a disproportionate number of local elections

a. by bringing more citizens into the political process with issue awareness

What did George Gallup mean when he said that public opinion polls "speed up the process of democracy"?
a. that polls define issues of concern to the public
b. that polls make elections run more smoothly
c. that polls accurately predict election outcomes
d. that politics without polls is undemocratic
e. that laws sail through the legislative process if public opinion supports them

a. that polls define issues of concern to the public

Recent polls concerning party identification might lead a political scientist trying to understand voter behavior to believe that voter registration __________.
a. indicates no change over the last two decades
b. indicates a significant Republican shift
c. indicates a significant Democratic shift
d. indicates more independents than Democrats or Republicans
e. has little if any significant predictive value

d. indicates more independents than Democrats or Republicans

What is the difference between simple random sampling and stratified sampling?
a. Stratified sampling combines random selection with
predetermined weighting of a population’s demographic
characteristics, whereas random sampling does not.
b. Stratified sampling gives each member of a targeted population the same probability of being polled, whereas simple random sampling does not.
c. Random simplified sampling incorporates random selection into the polling procedure, whereas stratified sampling does not.
d. Stratified sampling excludes the element of randomness from the polling process, whereas random simplified sampling does not.
e. Stratified sampling relies on techniques to eliminate bias, whereas simple random sampling does not

a. Stratified sampling combines random selection with predetermined weighting of a population’s demographic characteristics, whereas random sampling does not.

When questioned about their views of politics in Congress, the
majority of__________ expressed their desire for compromise over
standing firm in their beliefs.
a. Americans
b. congressional members
c. Democrats
d. independents
e. Republicans

a. Americans

Proponents of a government that includes minor parties might suggest that the United States consider Europe’s system of __________.
a. delegate elections
b. multi-party national conventions
c. non-partisan elections
d. proportional representation
e. tripartite platforms

d. proportional representation

Of the following statements about the 1936 Literary Digest poll, which predicted Roosevelt’s defeat for reelection, which is true?
a. The poll oversampled the upper middle class and the wealthy.
b. The poll oversampled groups heavily Democratic in orientation.
c. The poll excluded owners of automobiles and telephones.
d. The poll undersampled middle-class voters who owned
telephones.
e. The poll under sampled Republican voters who owned neither telephones nor automobiles.

a. The poll oversampled the upper middle class and the wealthy.

A polling firm has been commissioned by the New York Times to assess public opinion about the performance of FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) during the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. What should the firm do first?
a. determine the population
b. determine the content and phrasing of the questions they want answered
c. determine the method of poll selection
d. contact respondents
e. select the sample

b. determine the content and phrasing of the questions they want answered

Who was the first chief executive to win the White House as the nominee of a truly national, popularly based political party following the first national party convention in 1832?
a. John Adams
b. Henry Clay
c. Benjamin Franklin
d. Andrew Jackson
e. James Garfield

d. Andrew Jackson

How do political scientists define political socialization?
a. as the process through which individuals self-select themselves to participate in public opinion polls
b. as the process through which individuals acquire status as opinion leaders
c. as the process through which individuals seek out new polling technologies
d. as the process through which individuals seek out the beliefs and values of their peer groups
e. as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values

e. as the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values

Party identification is __________.
a. most determined by one’s parents and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior
b. most determined by geography and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior
c. most determined by one’s parents and is increasing in its utility to predict voter behavior
d. most determined by geography and is increasing in its utility to predict voter behavior
e. most determined by one’s parents and has maintained constant utility in predicting voter behavior

a. most determined by one’s parents and is declining in its utility to predict voter behavior

Of the following public opinion poll topics, which is more likely than the others to be subject to a screening procedure?
a. crime prevention
b. illegal drug use
c. the federal budget
d. race-based preferences
e. women’s role in society

c. the federal budget

Why does the United States have a two-party system?
a. The Framers wanted competition between political parties.
b. The Framers wanted to avoid the mistakes of Europe.
c. It was a compromise between a unitary system’s efficiency and a multiparty system’s diversity.
d. It developed in the struggle between slave owners and
abolitionists.
e. It developed in the struggle between Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans

e. It developed in the struggle between Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans

While the national congressional campaign committees work to garner more seats for their respective parties, the Democratic National Committee and the Republican National Committee focus on
__________.
a. aiding presidential campaigns and conducting general party building activities
b. aiding presidential campaigns and writing a focused party platform.
c. conducting general party-building activities and writing a focused party platform.
d. conducting oversight of state parties and deliberating over nomination of a presidential nominee.
e. conducting oversight of state parties and other general party building activities

a. aiding presidential campaigns and conducting general party building activities

The __________ is the formal governing body of both major parties.
a. national party assembly
b. national party committee
c. national party convention
d. national party delegation
e. national party legislature

b. national party committee

How does a delegate become a representative to a party convention?
a. appointment by the governor
b. appointment by the president
c. appointment by the national chairperson
d. selection by citizens
e. selection by party leaders

d. selection by citizens

A __________ results after fissures develop in each party’s coalition, which begins to fracture after new issues appear, dividing the electorate.
a. dealignment
b. national party convention
c. nonpartisan election
d. critical election
e. secular realignment

d. critical election

When a party’s base of supporters undergoes a fundamental and enduring alteration, what is this called?
a. critical realignment
b. dealignment
c. party realignment
d. party re-identification
e. secular realignment

c. party realignment

One of the various ways in which parties contribute to democratic governance is by __________.
a. dividing the electorate
b. narrowing voter choice
c. running candidates
d. reducing accountability mechanisms
e. reducing inter-party competition

c. running candidates

When did the Era of Good Feelings occur?
a. as political parties first began to develop (1800)
b. as the Federalist Party declined (1820)
c. at the beginning of the Golden Age (1860)
d. at the end of the Golden Age (1932)
e. during the modern era (1973)

b. as the Federalist Party declined (1820)

The U.S. electoral system is capable of producing a major third party. What features largely account for it failing to do so?
a. multi-member districts and a proportional voting system
b. single-member districts and a nonpartisan blanket primary system
c. multi-member districts and a plurality (first-past-the-post) voting system
d. single-member districts and a plurality (first-past-the-post) voting system
e. multi-member districts and a nonpartisan blanket primary system

d. single-member districts and a plurality (first-past-the-post) voting system

What reason does Andrew Kohut, president of the Pew Research Center, give to explain why public opinion polls have become critical players in national and international politics over the last three decades?
a. the sophistication of modern polling techniques
b. the rise in the number of public opinion polls
c. an increased reliance on polling by presidential contenders
d. the advent of the Internet
e. the speed with which computers can process election data

b. the rise in the number of public opinion polls

A collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas is called a __________.
a. caucus
b. convention
c. political machine
d. political party
e. think tank

e. think tank

Why is Walter Lippmann credited with spurring the growth of public opinion polling?
a. Lippmann tried to predict the winner of the presidential contest between Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams.
b. Lippmann was a pioneer in the use of the straw poll.
c. Lippmann’s polling methods were hailed widely as "amazingly right" and "uncannily accurate."
d. Lippmann discovered three fatal errors in the Literary Digest poll that wrongly predicted that Republican Alfred M. Landon would beat incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
e. Lippmann wrote a book in which he observed that research on public opinion was far too limited, especially in light of its importance

e. Lippmann wrote a book in which he observed that research on public opinion was far too limited, especially in light of its importance

As a pollster for Smart Polling, you are concerned about gauging the public’s attitudes about arms-control policy, because you believe that the public not only has little information on this complex topic but also has thought little about it. What procedure might you implement to decrease the inaccuracy of your polling data because of this lack of information?
a. a screening procedure
b. a grading procedure
c. a tracking procedure
d. a deliberative procedure
e. a randomization procedure

a. a screening procedure

Which entity has the responsibility of establishing a cohesive vision for partisan identifiers nationwide?
a. the delegates
b. the national caucus
c. the national chairperson
d. the national committee
e. the national party organization

e. the national party organization

According to Table 11.2, younger voters today are most likely to identify as __________.
a. apathetic
b. Democrats
c. independents
d. Republicans
e. Republicans or Democrats

c. independents

When can a party change its platform?
a. after a federal census
b. at the start of each fiscal year
c. during the national party convention
d. every two years
e. virtually anytime

c. during the national party convention

At what age do parents exercise the greatest influence on the political socialization of their children?
a. from birth to age 5
b. from birth to age 10
c. from age 10 to age 14
d. from age 14 to age 18
e. at age 18 and older

a. from birth to age 5

Researchers refer to the unintended influence of the questioner on respondents during in-person interviews as what?
a. interviewee bias
b. interviewee influence
c. interviewer bias
d. interviewer corruption
e. interviewer influence

c. interviewer bias

The __________ is a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll.
a. inaccuracy rate
b. margin of error
c. modal response
d. sample size
e. standard deviation

b. margin of error

Of the following, which is considered a demographic characteristic?
a. employability
b. gender
c. history
d. intelligence
e. security

b. gender

The most visible instrument that parties use to formulate, convey, and promote public policy is __________.
a. its articles
b. its constitution
c. its platform
d. its procedural document
e. its regulations

c. its platform

When did the last political realignment occur, according to most political scientists?
a. 1860
b. 1894
c. 1932
d. 1968
e. 2000

c. 1932

"Are American Political Parties Polarized?" suggests that both major political parties are moving ideologically __________.
a. apart, but Democrats are more extremely polarized
b. apart, but Republicans are more extremely polarized
c. together, but Democrats are more moderate
d. together, but Republicans are more moderate
e. together, but Independents still claim the moderate majority

b. apart, but Republicans are more extremely polarized

Why has the public become more of a critical player in national and international politics in the past three decades?
a. because the public opinion of the electorate responds to changing events
b. because the public opinion of the electorate has an effect on policy
c. because the public opinion of the electorate has become easier to calculate
d. because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is declining
e. because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is rising

e. because the number of polls regularly conducted and reported on is rising

Americans are likely to have the most difficulty forming opinions on which of the following topics?
a. topics involving bread-and-butter issues, such as jobs and unemployment
b. topics involving moral issues, such punishments for hate crimes
c. topics involving tax deductions for home mortgages
d. topics involving the European Central Bank and creditor nations
e. topics involving single-payer health care mandates

d. topics involving the European Central Bank and creditor nations

Modern national party conventions serve what ends?
a. They assemble delegates who will be assessed for their future political potential based on their writing of a largely
inconsequential party platform.
b. They mobilize supporters for the nominee, who has basically already been decided.
c. They deliberate on the party’s choices for presidential and vice-presidential nominees.
d. They hold elections to determine the new party leaders.
e. They write the party platform, which will be crucial over the next four years.

b. They mobilize supporters for the nominee, who has basically already been decided.

Who is considered the founder of modern-day polling?
a. George Gallup
b. William E. Harris
c. Alfred M. Landon
d. Walter Lippmann
e. John Zogby

a. George Gallup

Which of the following was a prominent feature of the era called the "Golden Age" of political parties?
a. bipartisanship
b. candidate-centered politics
c. party realignment
d. political machines
e. secular realignment

d. political machines

Gaps in the way that citizens view government, political leaders, and public policies may be the result of gender, race, age, party, and religion, which are collectively known as what?
a. demographic stratigraphy
b. demographic characteristics
c. political ideologies
d. agents of political socialization
e. social identity quotients

b. demographic chararcters

Married voters today are most likely to identify as __________.
a. apathetic
b. Democrats
c. independents
d. Republicans
e. Republicans or Democrats

d. Republicans

Polls may be inaccurate for a number of reasons. Which of the following is one of those reasons?
a. Polls measure only elite opinion.
b. Polls are unable to measure the intensity of feelings about issues.
c. Polls contain far too many errors to be deemed reliable.
d. Polls have too many respondent options in which to register opinions.
e. Polls have yet to perfect the sampling process.

b. Polls are unable to measure the intensity of feelings about issues.

What institutional feature of U.S. politics prevents the success of third parties?
a. a constitutional restriction
b. the electoral college
c. multi-member districts
d. proportional representation
e. open-primary systems

b. the electoral college

What do Americans often have difficulty forming opinions about?
a. about policies that involves issues of amorality
b. about policies that involve issues of morality
c. about policies that do not affect them personally
d. about policies that affect them personally
e. about policies proposed by women candidates

c. about policies that do not affect them personally

On Table 11.2, Who Identifies as a Democrat? A Republican?,
Hispanics are most likely to identify as __________.
a. Democrats
b. Independents
c. Republicans
d. Libertarians
e. Greens

a. Democrats

What typically precedes a major party realignment?
a. a caucus
b. censure
c. a critical election
d. economic crises
e. a key nomination

c. a critical election

Which of the following is a minor party that was formed to oppose desegregation?
a. the American Independent Party
b. the Green Party
c. the Liberty/Free Soil Party
d. the Progressive/Bull Moose Party
e. the States’ Rights Party

a. the American Independent Party

Which amendment removed the election of U.S. senators from the hands of state legislators and placed it in the hands of citizens?
a. the Sixteenth Amendment
b. the Seventeenth Amendment
c. the Eighteenth Amendment
d. the Twentieth Amendment
e. the Twenty-First Amendment

b. the Seventeenth Amendment

When were tracking polls introduced?
a. 1985
b. 1989
c. 1992
d. 1996
e. 1999

c. 1992

Why do state legislators rely more on their state and local parties for election assistance than do their congressional counterparts?
a. because state legislators are at the entry level of politics and need more guidance from the party
b. because state legislators are not able to make campaign-related decisions on their own
c. because state legislators base their main talking points directly on state and local public policy
d. because state legislators cannot enter a campaign without their party’s direct approval
e. because state legislators have a greater need for their party’s financial and technological resources

e. because state legislators have a greater need for their party’s financial and technological resources

In what, are many American ideals, including hard work and personal responsibility, rooted?
a. a belief in pure capitalism
b. causal explanations of human affairs
c. ancient Greek notions of the nation-state
d. our nation’s Protestant heritage
e. the two-party system

d. our nation’s Protestant heritage

What is the purpose of a "name recognition survey"?
a. to discover how a better-known candidate contemplating a run for office might fare against an incumbent
b. to discover how a local officeholder has affected the legislative climate
c. to discover how many people have heard of a potential candidate for office
d. to gauge how negatively the public views a potential third-party candidate
e. to gauge how negatively the public views a potential candidate

c. to discover how many people have heard of a potential candidate for office

How are critical elections and party realignments interrelated?
a. A party realignment occurs before a critical election, and may involve a national crisis.
b. A party realignment occurs during a critical election, and is characterized by gradual change.
c. A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections, and is characterized by gradual change.
d. A party realignment occurs before a critical election, and is characterized by gradual change.
e. A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections and may involve a national crisis.

e. A party realignment occurs after one or more critical elections and may involve a national crisis.

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