AP Art History 250

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1. Apollo 11 Stones

Form: -stones with charcoal drawings of animals -geometric designs – 4-5" Function: – depict animals =some of world’s oldest works of art Content: – animal figures with human legs added on probably later Context: – found in Apollo 11 caves in Namibia -probably were made about 25500 BCE (oldest representational art in Africa) and buried in these caves -named because it was discovered at the time of the Apollo 11 moon landing

2. Great Hall of the Bulls

Form: -naturalistic charcoal drawings in a cave -natural materials: plants, charcoal, iron ore -twisted perspective – human are stick figures while animals are realistic looking Content: – pictures animals in motion – pictures on top of pictures (all from different artists from many time periods) -cows, bulls, horses, deer -650 paintings Function: – to show an animal ritual (very unusual to find pictures of humans/hunting) -ancestral animal worship Context: -sacred place (deep in a cave)- in situ -not a dwelling because the creators of these were nomads -Paleolithic Europe- Lascaux, France

3. Camelid sacrum

Form: – carved bone Function: -spiritual mask -house spiritual essence of a hunted animal -sacrum bone powerful symbolism of Osiris and rebirth- triangle Content: – sacrum bone (hip bone) carved in shape of a canine/wolf Context: -found in a tomb in Mexico (MesoAmerica) -14000-7000 BCE

4. Running horned woman

Form: – canyon painting (layers of painting from different times so makes it hard for carbon dating) -depicts motion Function; – show this person as holy or a god bc of the horns Content: – shows a woman with horns running – dots on her body represent body painting – shows a deity wearing ceremonial headgear? Context: – in situ on canyon walls in the Sahara – 6000-4000 BCE (neolithic)

5. Bushel with ibex motifs

Form: -painted terra cotta, clay – geometric forms – set in registers, controlled and repeated planar composition Function: -funerary object Content: -dog figures, mountain goat, cranes Context: – Susa, Iran in 4200-3500 BCE -neolithic -new technology: use of potter’s wheel

6. Anthropomorphic stele

Form: -sandstone Content: – 3 of them all 3ft tall -belted robe with knife hanging from it Function: – used in incense trade -religious/burial practices Context: -found on trade routes in the Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia -fourth millennium

7. Jade cong

Form: – carved jade -low reliefs -abstract designs – square with a circle inside Function: -jade usually appears in burials of high ranked people Content: -low reliefs decorations on this refer to spirits/ deities Context: – Liangshzu, China in 3300-2200 BCE -jade in China is linked with virtues like beauty, durability, and subtlety

8. Stonehenge

Form: – sandstone -post and lintel (two vertical posts support a horizontal beam) – arranged in a circle (cromlech) Content: – stones in a centralized plan -small stones surrounding in no specific pattern Function: – probably religious ceremionies – burial? – marker of mid-summer solstice Context: -Wiltshire, UK in 2500-1600 BCE

9. The Ambum stone

Form: -greywacke stone Content: -sculpted to look like an anteater -human/animal characteristics (mostly animal) Function: – objects like these are believed to have supernatural power – used as a spirit stone in rituals Context: – Ambun Valley, Papua New Guinea around 1500 BCE

10. Tlatico female figure

Form: -ceramic Content: – pinched waist and big hips with two-heads – no hands or feet -naked except for jewelry Function: – show fertility -two heads represent life and death that happens everyday Context: – Central Mexico in 1200-900 BCE -many of the other figures show deformities like this

11. Terra cotta fragment

Form: -terra cotta with dentate stamping Content: -dentate designs (circles, hatching, dots) Function: -unknown Context: – Lapita peoples – Solomon Islands, Reef Islands in 1000 BCE

12. White Temple and its ziggurat

Form: – mud brick -collosal scale -built to resemble mountain Content: – sloping walls, bent access (ramp up to enter the altar), 3 entrances -mosaic surface Function: – temple that is a meeting place for humans and gods in the center of the city -votive figures and dedicated to Anu the sky god -top temple was only for royals or clergy to enter Context: – Uruk; Modern day Warka, Iraq -Sumerian – 3500-3000 BCE

13. Palette of King Narmer

Form: -greywacke -organized in registers -hierarchic scale -low relief, twisted perspective Content: -Front: Narmer (on large scale) looking on the beheaded bodies of his enemies wearing crown of lower Egypt, harnessed lionesses (symbol of unification), bull knowcking down a city fortress (Narmer knocking over enemies) -Back: Hawk=Horus, Narmer wearing bowling pin crown (symbol of unification), stands barefoot (he is a divine king), palette for eye makeup, hieroglyphics Function: -represents the unification of Egypt and country’s growth as a powerful nation Context: -found in temple of Horus -Old Kingdom of Egypt -3000 BCE

14. Statues of votive figures

Form: – bilateral symmetry – eyes exaggeration (beholding the divine) -gypsum and black limestone Content: -the hands are placed in prayful gesture – elite male and female figures Function: -placed in ziggurat to resemble the people that aren’t allowed to be in the ziggurats Context; – found in the Square Temple of Eshunna (modern day Tell Asmur, Iraq) -2700 BCE

15. Seated Scribe

Form: -painted limestone -crystal limestone eyes Content: -royal scribe -depicted with sagging body (realistic not ideal), thin face -holding tools to show he is ready to write Function: -shows that the scribe is important but not perfect like a pharoah -made for tomb at Saqqara for the ka Context: -Saqqara, Egypt 2500 BCE -found near tomb (funerary object)

16. Standard of Ur

Form: – wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and black limestone -mosaic -hierarchic scale to show who was more important in society -front shoulds, body in profile Content: -2 sides: war side and peace side -war side: shows Sumerian king on larger scale descending from his chariot to inspect captives, lower register shows him riding over dead bodies in his chariot -peace side: food brought to a banquet, ruler wears a kilt of wool (larger scale) Function: – shows the different classes of people -democratic leadership Context: – found in the Royal Tombs at Ur (modern day Iraq) – 2600-2400 BCE Sumerian

17. Great Pyramid (Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx

Form: -square base with 4 sloped sides (represents rays of sun) -polished limestone Content: -pyramids with adjoining funerary complex; get to these through secret passageways -Great Sphinx: human head with lion head -descending order on West side of Nile Function: -maintain and protect tombs for eternity -Great Sphinx: protecter the pyramids behind it Context: -built by Khufu, Khafre, and Menkuare (each temple name after) -Khufu temple (oldest and largest) -Old Kingdom- 2500BCE -Giza, Egypt

18. Menkaura and queen

Form: -greywacke -under life-size -symmetrical -Egyptian style: one foot in front of the other Content: -king and queen same height, idealized figures -pharaoh crown -wife gives simple affectionate gesture Function: -temple sculpture -symbolize his power and kingship Context: -Old Kingdom 2500 BCE

19. Code of Hammurabi

Form: -black-stone stele with words carved in it -basalt -frontal shoulders, everything else profile Content: -divine law code carved in stone -sun god, Shamash, giving laws to Hammurabi to be king -god is bigger (hierarchic scale) Function: -tells us where the laws came from -exercises justice and divine authority to carry out the law Context: – Babylon (modern day Iran) -Susian (1760-1750 BCE)

20. Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall

Form: -cut sandstone and mud brick -hypostyle hall -symmetrical plan, axial plan -open ceilings -colossal columns with sunken relief Content: -134 sandstone columns -inscriptions/images of kings and gods on walls and columns -gates (suggesting old world to new world) Function: -used for festivities and prayer -only priests and pharoahs allowed Context: -Karnak, near Luxor -New Kingdom 1250 BCE -East side of the Nile

21. Mortuary Temple of Hatsheput

Form: -sandstone -red granite statue -built into rock cliff Function: -mortuary temple for Hatsheput but she wasn’t buried there -statue shows her power in male ways (beard and kneeling is priest-like gesture Content: -statue of Hatsheput kneeling: offering plants to Amen, the sun god -ascent up to temple -chapels and shrines dedicated to her -hypostyle hall Context: -site specific -across from Amun temple

22. Akhenaton, Neferiti, and three daughters

Form: -sunken relief piece, limestone, hieroglyphics Content: -couple receiving blessing from Aten (the sun god-rays shown) -show husband and wife seated with their children -rays shining upon the family showing their divinity Function: -shows intimacy of the family -conveys realistic fidgetiness of children -state religious shift in evolving Egyptian art Context: -New Kingdom (Amarna) 1350 BCE

23. Tutankhamun’s tomb (innermost coffin)

Form: -gold -inlay with stones and enamel Content: -crook and flail- symbols of Osiris -cobra and vulture coming from headpiece- gods of Upper and Lower Egypt -Son of Akhenaton Function: -sarcophagus (body inside) -materials used represent the royal wealth (143 objects buried with him) Context: – New Kingdom 1325 BCE

24. Last Judgement of Hu-Nefer (page from Book of the Dead)

Form: -painted papyrus scroll -continuous narrative Content: -Hu-Nefer being lead to final judgement -heart weighed on scale against Osiris (test to see if has a heavy heart) -sin must weigh less than feather -Hu-Nefer is accepted into afterlife Function: -guide people to the afterlife and make journey from life to death Context: -New Kingdom 1275 BCE -found in Hu-Nefer’s tomb -from the Book of the Dead

25. Lamassu

Form: – alabaster -limestone Content: -god-like figures -animal body, human head -5 legs Function; -support doorways of Assyrian palaces -intimidate those who enter Context: – from the citadel of Sargon II (modern day Iraq) – 720-705 BCE -Sumerian

26. Athenian Agora

Form: -long buildings (stoa) -covered places- public markets -at foot of Acropolis, road that leads up Function: -marketplace/meeting area -temple (pay tribute to Athena) Content: -participated with government -democracy- didn’t vote representatives but instead participated directly Context: -600-150 BCE -Athens, Greece

27. Anavysos Kouros

Form: -marble with remnant of paint -archaic smile -Egyptian inspiration shown through the stance of one foot slightly in front of other -incaustic paint Content: -not a specific civilian depicted (not individualized) -male nude (warrior) -observing the human body Function: -grave marker Context: -530 BCE -large scaled

28. Peplos Kore from Acropolis

Form: -archaic smile -patterned hair -marble with paint remains -smaller scale Content: -women with arm out (supposed to hold out a oil lamp but hand broken off) Function: -in front of temples to "light the way" -votive figure Context: -530 BCE

29. Sarcophagus of the Spouses

Form: -terra cotta (sign that this is Etruscan) -lifesize -archaic smile, patterned hair -extending arms Content: -husband and wife reclining on a couch dining "dining in banquet for eternity" -four pieces put together Function: -funerary container to hold ashes not the body Context: -520 BCE Etruscan

30. Audience hall (apadana)

Form: -hypostyle hall -cut sandstone and mud brick -built in a hillside with big platform -72 columns (3 portico made of 12 columns) Content: – relief on the side pictures Darius and Xeres -stairs have central relief of king enthroned with attendants -reliefs Function; -used to hold thousands of people (audience hall), king’s receptions – ascend upwards symbolic Context: – Persepolis, Iran; Persian influence – 520-465 BCE -built by Darius and Xeres; destroyed by Alexander the Great

31. Temple of Minerva and sculpture of Apollo

Form: -temple: wood, mud brick, tufa (volcanic rock) -sculpture: terra cotta -animated and moving sculpture (estruscan) Content: -Apollo apart of a narrative of Herakles, acroterion (roof sculpture) -deep porch, 3 cella (entrance is emphasized) -archaic Greek smile Function: -Estruscan temple made to be a place to worship the Estruscan gods and goddesses -acroterians probably shows a mythic event Context: -Veii (near Rome, Italy) -Imperial Rome 2nd centry BCE -sculpture made by Vulca

32. Tomb of the Triclinium

Form: -tufa and fresco -wall paintings -great detailed piers -color coding to show genders (not race) Content: -pictures people casually dining in triclinium (reclined on couches) -fully furnished -lively paintings of people dancing and in motion Function: -keep record of domestic life -holds ashes (crematorium) and any other offerings to the dead Context: -Tarquinia, Italy -Estruscan 480-470 BCE

33. Niobides Krater

Form: -calyx krater (type of painted pot) -stiffness in the figures contrast the other relaxed side of the vase -sense of depth perception -red figure technique with white highlight Content: -one side: mortal woman named Niobe with 12 children would always brag to the goddess Leto that she had more children so Apollo and Artemis (Leto’s children) take revenge for their mother by killing all 12 children -other side: Hercules (identified with club and lions skins) is actually a sculpture (contraposta) and Greek soldiers are offering tribute and prayer to protect them before going into battle Context: -460-450 BCE -not signed

34. Doryphoros (spear bearer)

Form: -marble (Roman); bronze (Greek) -contrapposto: shifted weight -not meant to portray a specific person but rather specific characteristics of a Greek Function: -portray the physical perfection of a human figure Content: -everyone is imperfect but brings together different body proportions to make physical -missing its spear -athlete and warrior -gazes off in the distance Context: -Artist= Polykleitos of Argos in 450 BCE -Roman copy of the Greek original

35. Acropolis

Form: -marble (wealth) -winged figure (nike) -elevated Content: -buildings, temples, statues -Parthenon (constructed under Pericles): -doric temple -East Pediment on parthenon: birth of Athena from the head of Zeus (Helios) -plaque of ergastines: procession held for Athena every 4 years -Temple of Athena Nike: commemorate Greek victory over the Persians -Victory Nike adjusting her sandal Function: -hold image of goddess Athen (in cella) -celebrate the female figure -civic pride (Athena) -commercial, civic, religious, and social building Context: -Athens, Greece 450-410 BCE

36. Grave Stele of Hegeso

Form: -marble with paint -hierarchic scale -drape accentuates the body Function: -funerary object -put on graves in Classical period -commemorates the death of Hegeso Content: -genre scene: slave bringing jewelry box to nike figure for her to examine the jewelry -inscription identifies Hegeso Context: -410 BCE

37. Winged Victory of Samothrace

Form: -marble -textures shown -very dramatic motion, explosive, -forward movement counteracted by the backward movement of her wings Content: -nike lands on front of ship descending from the heavens -wet drapery look to the sculpture -twist and contrapposto of the torso Function: -war monument -commemorating a naval victory -nike is a symbol of victory Context: – 190 BCE Hellenistic Greek

38. Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon

Form: -marble frieze -elevated with steep dramatic staircase -complex forms with big muscles showing violent energy and detail -ionic columns Content: -frieze wrapping around the monument shows gods overpowering the Titans -Titans vs. Olympians -"Athena": gigantomachy, battle between the gods and giants (gods win) Function: -war monument (Greek defeat of Gauls) -break architectural boundaries -altar dedicated to ZeusContext: -175 BCE – Asia Minor, Turkey

39. House of the Vettii

Form: -cut stone and fresco -axial symmetry Content: -atrium (inner courtyard with pool) -reception area (atrium) has open ceiling -catch basin to collect rainwater -peristyle garden in back of house -living room with frescoes -frescoes show person’s taste and used as conversation pieces for businessmen to discuss Function; -represents the wealth of the people who lived there Context: -Pompeii, Italy -Imperial Rome 2nd century BCE rebuilt 62-79 CE -wealthy family’s home set in the middle of markets

40. Alexander Mosaic

Form: -mosaic copy of a Greek wall painting -tessarae: individual pieces of a mosaic -spacial illusionism -interweaving of figures Content: -Alexander the Great confront Darius III at Battle of Isos -dead tree signifies the death and sadness Function: -floor mosaic showing dramatic representation of a historical event -last major defeat of the Persians Context: -Roman Republic -House of Faun, Pompeii 100 BCE

41. Seated Boxer

Form: -bronze -realistic- shows the exhaustion of a real athlete Content: -boxer seated naked with only his boxing gloves -copper shows blood -cuts and bruises Function: -show a boxer after a fight Context: -Greek 100 BCE -Hellenistic

42. Head of a Roman partician

Form: -marble -deep wrinkles, hooked nose, defined cheek bones Content: -realistic portrayal of a Roman patrician -show sense of civic virtue: wisdom, seriousness, public service Function: -kept in shrines of Roman houses -mask of values and virtues of Republican men in Rome Context: -Republican Roman 75-50 BCE -influence of Greek Hellenistic art

43. Augustus of Prima Porta

Form: -marble, over life-size -elevated to be more god-like -contrapposto Content: -Augustus barefoot -cupid riding dolphin (shows divinity -breastplate is about the Pax Romana: the power of empire is due to the military Function: -shows Augustus as a god because he thought he was (barefoot and cupid riding dolphin signs of this) -shows him as civic ruler (judge’s robe) and warrior (breastplate) Context: -Imperial Rome (early empire) 1st century CE

44. Colosseum

Form: – stone + concrete -Corinthian, Doric, and ionic columns -outside mostly intact -barrel vaults, thick walls, groin vaults, arches Content: -2 theaters -downward force of arches -bronze shield on top, 4 layers -76 entrances Function: -entertainment for the public -usually dangerous like gladiator fights or animal hunts Context: – Rome, Italy 70-80 BCE – Imperial Rome

45. Forum of Trajan

Form: -column: marble, low relief -brick and concrete architecture -scroll-like frieze on column- continuous narrative -groin vaulting/barrel vaults in market Content: -forum: basilica in back with equestrian figure in the center and two libraries -marble column of trajan: ashes of trajans put in bottom, crowded composition, story of defeat of the Dacians -market of trajan: multilevel mall with 150 shops Function: -column: monuments celebrates the victory in the Dacian war -forum: marketplace Context: – Rome, Italy 106-112 CE column 113 CE

46. Pantheon

Form: -marble -coffers: indentations in the ceilings -15′ thick walls Content: -big portico in the front with a rotunda in back that has a dome with an oculus -sculptures of gods in niches Function: -houses all 7 planetary gods -famous burial space -coffers create illusion of heaven Context: -imperial Rome 118-125 CE

47. Ludovisi Battle Sacrophagus

Form: -marble -high relief Content: -figures piled on top of each other, crowded surface -Romans shown as the good guys (ideal/noble) -Romans trampling over defeated barbarians – enemies very caricatured with great detail Function: -tomb Context: -late imperial empire; 250 CE

48. Catacomb of Priscilla

Form: – excavated tufa and fresco -figures flat and with less detail (roman painting style) -passageways underneath city of Rome, 100 miles long -pendentives with picture Content: -shelves for bodies; wealthier people: sarcophagus -scenes of New and old Testament -curriculum -Good Shepherd Fresco -orants figure: arms stretched out Function: -tombs of poor and wealthy for 1000s of people -poor people has body one on top of the other Context: – wealthy woman donated land for her family and other Christians to be buried -3 stories deep -Greek and Latin

49. Santa Sabina

Form: -brick, stone, wooden roof -2 levels: upper (windows), lower (arches/columns) -spolia (reuse of architectual pieces from other buildings) Content: -apse: half dome in back that is decorated -narthex: lobby -nave: center aisle -depiction of crucifix on doors -3 aisled basilica -columns from temple of juno in Rome (spolia) Function: -basilica- diverse building -used aisle for law courts -early Christian church Context: – Rome, Italy 422-432 CE -Late Antique Europe

50. Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, from Genesis

Form; -tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum (animal skin) -illuminated manuscript (pictures with words) -continuous narrative Content: – stories from Genesis -Jacob wrestles an angel at night -Rebecca quenches thirst of camels and camel driver -letters black now bc silver oxidized -Greek writings> Byzantine Function: -tell stories Context: -Early Byzantine Empire 6th century CE

51. San Vitale

Form: -brick,marble, stone, veneer, mosaic -all glass covered in gold leaf -octagonal plan -groin vaulting -not longitudinal Content: -central domed octagon surrounded by radiating wall niches (exedrae)- attention directed at the center -big windows -covered by vaults -mosaic: clergy on right, military on left, Justinian in the middle Function: -holds icons -basilica -reestablish Orthodox Christianity Context: – Ravenna, Italy- Early Byzantine 526-547 CE -Julianus Argentarius financed this building

52. Hagia Sophia

Form: -brick, ceramic elements -mosaic veneer -ionic columns -centralized dome supported by penditives -buttress supports -pendentives: triangular curving vault section -squinches- quarter domes Content: – Byzantine architecture -attention to detail -mystical building -altar at the end of nave (center aisle) -minarets Function: -originally a basilica (church) -converted to mosque- now has minarets Context: -Justinian’s reign -changed to mosque by Ottomans 1452

53. Merovingian looped fibulae

Form: -interlacing (zoomorphic) -bowed -filigree 2-4" -silver gilt (thin layer of gold) Content: -animals (fish represents Christ and eagle represents St. John) Function: -clip for holding fabric -clasp that hold fabric to the shoulder Context: -mid 6th century CE -Frankish kingdom -found in tomb of rich woman

54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George

Form: -encaustic (wax base paint) on wood -spacial recession but compressed space Content: -angels looking towards heaven -Mary looking over viewers while the warrior saints look directly at viewer -light falling on Virgin -depicts Mary and Jesus in a different realm than others Function: -portray Mary and Christ protected by saints and hand of God Context: -6th-7th century -Early Byzantine

55. Lindsfarne Gospels

Form: -illuminated manuscript Content: -cross carpet page: cross forms out of chaos, creates illusion of 3D in which viewer can lose themselves in contemplation -portrait page (luke): holds quill/looks prepared to write, gold halo (divinity), ox above his head, robe with purple and streaks of red -incipit page (Luke): it "begins", animal life, spiral forms, swirling vortexes Function: -earliest known translation of the Bible Context: -created by monks

56. Great Mosque

Form: – hypostyle mosque -spolia (using roman and Christian pieces from old church it used to be -vossoir: wet stone that holds arches up -grid vaulting -culturally diverse Content: -horseshoe arches with vaults above -mihrab- niche is Qibla wall (mostly decorated in geometry and text) -wooden cieling -mosaics everywhere- byzantine artists from Constantinople -Qibla Wall- direction of where Muslims have to pray in order to pray towards Mecca -Kufic calligraphy -856 columns Function: -1st: Roman temple (Janus) -2nd: Chirstian church -3rd- mosque -now: cathedral Context: -Cordoba, Spain- Umayyad 785-786 CE

57. Pyxis of al-Mughira

Form: -ivory -carvings of text and pictures -text used as a decoration Content: -roaring lions -4 8-lobed medallions showing pleasure activities -human and animal figures -geometrical and vegetal motifs Function: -luxury cosmetic holder: text on top/decorated richly -coming of age present from caliph to his younger son Context: -968 CE Umayyad, Muslim Spain

58. Church of Sainte-Foy

Form: – romanesque style -symbolic Latin cross plan -vaulting, groin vaults -spolia -archivolts: bands that go around tympanum Content: – reliquary of Saint Foy -tympanum of Last Judgement (Christ as the judge of the damned and saved) -gallery on top (distributes the weight) -barrel vaulting -tympanum -radiating chapels, nave arcade -3 aisles -dark building Function: – pilgrim church, people come to see -built so that it could handle a lot of people -reliquaries – part of monastery where monks lived Context: – Conques, France 1050-1130 CE (12th century)

59. Bayeux Tapestry

Form: -embroidery on linen -Romanesque (English or Norman) -2/3 of a football field in length -continuous narrative Content: -a great epic -2 main scenes -story of William’s conquest of England in the battle of Hastings -Haley’s Comet Function: -show Norman conquest Context: -Cantebury, NW France -commissioned by Bishop Odo -1066-80 CE (11th century)

60. Chartres Cathedral

Form: -3 phases of Gothic (Early in facade, High French in back, Late in the North Spire) -painted arches, rib vaults- Gothic elements -colors vivid -knowledge, nature, light -limestone, stained glass Content: -stained glass- triforium -narrow passageway -jamb figures -relic: Mary’s dress Function: -Church with great beauty that honors Mary and gives her the respect she deserves -built after they found Mary’s Tunic unharmed in the fire Context: -Chartres, France 1145-55 CE reconstructed in 1194 because of a fire Roman> Gothic

61. Bible Moralisees

Form: -dedication page -Gothic -gold leaf, tempera, ink on vellum -illuminated manuscript Content: -King Louis IX -Blanche of Castile -passages from Old and New Testament Function: -made for Frnech royals’ home (King Louis IV) -create a moral through visionary readings Context: -Paris, France 1225-45 CE (center of learning and bookmaking)

62. Rottgen Pieta

Form: -painted wood -Medieval/Gothic and realistic Content: -Mary holding her dead son after Cruxifiction -Mary is pained and anguished Functions: -versperbils (German devotional) -feel the pain she feels -intended to be used in contemplation and prayer -devotional image -shows them closer to the humanity side Context: -Bonn, Germany 1300 -German Gothic

63. Arena (Scrovegni)

Form: -fresco -brick and architechture -painted plaster -grisaille (gray tones) -quatrefoils -tracing -plain outside, transformative inside Content: -Last judgement scene -lancet windows -Scrovegni at bottom offering up chapel to Jesus (artist portrait included) -The Lamentation (Jesus has been crucified and now he is being mourned) -Mary with others grieving -Life of Mary>Passion of Jesus Function: – private family chapel (connected to a house) Context: -Padua, Italy -on grounds of an old arena -artist: Giotto di Bondone 1303 CE -Italian Gothic -Proto-Renaissance

64. Gold Haggadah

Form: -illuminated manuscript -pigments and gold leaf on vellum (animal) Content: -Left: plagues of Egypt -Middle: scenes of liberation (Israelites leave) -Right: Passover Function: -book used by a wealthy Jewish family to tell the story of Passover around the sedar table each year Context: -Late Medieval Spain 1320 CE -similar to Christian Gothic manuscripts

65. Alahambra

Form: -whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint, and gilding -complex arches -elevated on top of a hill (power) -arabesques (organic/natural designs- flowers/vines) on arches Content: -court of lions: courtyard with gardens and water- luxurious -4 quadrants -channels of water run throughout Function: -complex of palaces -some markets -garden provokes sense of paradise/heaven -palace of Nasrid Context: -Granada, Spain- Nasrid Dynasty 1354-1391 CE

66. Annunciation Triptych

Form: -triptych -altar piece (portable) -renaissance -Flemish (oil paint, glowing, vivid color) -hyper reality/hyper clarity -closed during the week, open during mass Content: -scene of the Anunciation -Holy Spirit and Jesus coming through window -couple asking for divine intervention -Joseph on right making mouse traps -Mary laying down on pew -image of Chris coming from the window going to Mary’s womb Function: -private devotional place Context: -workshop of Robert Campin (master of flemalle) 1427-32 CE (15th century) -Flemish Renaissance

67. Pazzi Chapel

Form: -masonry -articulate, everything white on the inside -dome cieling -simple geometry -pietra serena- soft gray tone -inlaid marble, terracotta tiles -strigil pattern -Franciscan Content: -entablature -arch forms -family crests Function: -show Pazzi family wealth -served as chapter house (meeting room for the Franciscan monks) Context: -Filipo Brunelleshi (architect) -Florence, Italy 1429-61 CE (15th century)- Early Renaissance

68. The Arnolfini Portrait

Form: -oil on wood -Renaissance Content: -betrothal (engagement) -dog represents wealth and fidelity -barefeet- something sacred taking place -Patron saint of domesticity (St. Margaret -Vaneyck signature and reflection in mirror -witnesses of the marriage shown in the mirror Function: -shows status, wealth, power Context: -artist: Van Eyck -1434 CE (15th century) -Flanders

69. David Donatello

Form: -bronze -exaggerated contrapposto -beautiful, ideal, classical, cultured, independent, wealth, power (like Florence) Content: -shepherd’s hat with flowers of Florence (small can conquer giants) -biblical figure of Florentine Republic -religious AND political connotation -return to the nude powerful figure in contrapposto -Goliath’s head under his foot Function: -made for private viewing -made for Medici Courtyard Context: -Florence 1440-60 CE (15th century) -early renaissance -artist: Donatello

70. Palazzo Rucellai

Form: -3 levels (like classical) -round arches Content: -3 levels: each different column style -built around courtyard -levels around divided by entablatures with frieze -Medici and Rucellai symbol in frieze -humanism: domestic architecture Function: -show allegiance to Medici -civic pride -beautiful city -residences and businesses -show their good taste Context: -architect: Leon Battista Alberti -1450 CE Florence, Italy -Giovanni Rucellai commissioned it -Early Italian Renaissance

71. Madonna and Child with Two Angels

Form: -tempera on wood -3D figures -sense of space -elegant lines/curves -humanism Content: -all humanized (mischievous look) -Mary’s halo slowing going away (divinity fading) -Mary youthful/beautiful -landscape through window (Flemish background) -pearls (symbol of immaculate conception Function: -relate more to viewers by making humanistic images -connect us to Mary and Jesus Context: -artist: Fra Filippo Lippi (monk of Carmelite order) teacher of Botticelli -1465 CE Early Renaissance Italy

72. Birth of Venus

Form: -tempera on cancas -curvy body (flexibility) -neoplatonic love (classical and Christian) -sense of pattern and beauty Content: -Venus standing on seashell -born by the sea fullgrown -couple intertwines; pushing Venus to land -someone on shore ready to receive Venus with cloth -floating figures -Earthly and celestial love Function: -probably wedding gift Context: -artist: Sandro Botticelli 1484-86 CE -Medici commission -Venus is goddess of love -Early Renaisasnce

73. Last Supper

Form: -linear perspective, spatial illusionism, frieze-like -triangle in center (Christ @ the point) -monumental forms -oil and tempera Content: -Jesus and his apostles having a final meals before Jesus is arrested -the betrayal (Judas) -the Eucharist (body and blood of Jesus) given to his people -uses models to paint the people so he can make it more realistic Function: -dining hall/refectory for monks eating in silence Context: -artist: Leonardo DaVinci -High Renaissance- Milan 1494-98

74. Adam and Eve

Form: -engraving on metal -contrapposto -tiny details (high renaissance) Content: -animals representing temperaments and humors being let into the world -artist signature on sign -Tree of Knowledge and Life -fall of humanity Function: -shows his knowledge of classical act Context: -artist: Albrecht Durer (german) -Latin -1504 CE -High Renaissance (north) -16th-17th century

75. Sistine Chapel ceiling and altar wall frescoes

Form: -frescoes -sculptural element to his paintins -neoplatonic (classical and Judeo-classical) -hellenistic figures Content: cieling: -scenes from the OT (9) -Noah’s Ark -men working on ark hoping for salvation -duster seeking sanctuary altar wall: -counter reformation -last judgement, life and death -saved and damned people -sibyls: monumental (hellenistic figures) -portraits of certain artists on lower walls Function: -election of new pope and masses happen in this building -art is made for this building (Sistine Chapel) Context: -artist: Michaelangelo -High Renaissance 1508-12 (ceiling), 1536-41 (altar wall) Vatican City, Italy -under Pope Julius II

76. School of Athens

Form: -fresco -spatial illusionism -fluid/interlocking -same style as Sistine figures -roundalls -barrel vaults -coffers Content: -branches of knowledge under faith -philosophy and science -Plate: idealism (points up) -Aristole: realism (points down) -Raphael self portrait -Michaelangel on block of marble -poetry, imagination -disputah: faith and reason -heavenly court of prophets and saints -Jesus in full body halo -Stanza della Segnatura: room of signatures -acorns: symbol of family Function: -expresses knowledge and faith Context: -artist: Raphael High Renaissance 1509-11 Vatican Palace under Pope Julius II

77. Isenheim Altarpiece

Form: oil on wood, diptych (two panels/wings) Content: -predella: base of the altarpiece -1st panel: shows Jesus suffering on the cross symbolizing the suffering of the patients -2nd panel: shows Jesus resurrection -3rd panel: statue of St. Anthony who was patron saint of the hospital Function: – made for a hospital to relate their suffering to Jesus’ suffering in order to make them feel better Context: – no longer in situ – Boarder of France and Germany -Made by Matthias Grunewalkd in 1512-1516 CE

78. Entombment of Christ

Form: -manneristic: shows great knowledge of Renaissance but distorts it -figures stylized and elongated -primary colors and white -roundalls above of Evangelists -space is nonsensical -1D (no depth) Content: -no symbols of holiness (no cross, etc.) -Mary proportionately larger -everyone mournful -lower Jesus from the cross -chaotic figures/constant movement -self portrait -non balance (lots of different directions) Function: -altar piece -doesn’t look Renaissance Context: -artist: Jacob de Pontorina -Florence, Italy 1525-1528 -family chapel

79. Allegory of Law and Grace

Form: -woodcut, letterpress -Protestant -German text Content: -written in people’s voice -left: being chased by death (shows 10 commandments) -right-washes over with Holy Spirit (can only be saved by God’s grace Function: -propaganda during Reformation -debates between Catholics and Luthers on how to get to heaven Context: -artist: Lucas Cranach the Elder (High Renaissance North 1530 CE) -German; worked with Martin Luther

80. Venus of Urbino

Form: -oil on canvas -rich colors (red) -nude reclining -celebrating female body -paints thin layer of paint to create flow and softness Content: -woman reclining while maids get her clothing -dog=wealth -seduction look= erotic Function: -wedding gift Context: -artist: Titian -Ventian Renaissance 1538 CE

81. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza

Form: -codex -city laid out in 4 sections -text -ink and color on paper Content: -Part 1: creation of the City of Tenochtitlan (eagle on cactus describes how city was founded) -Part 2: conquests achieved by Aztec alliances -Part 3: daily life -Templo Mayor -canals dividing cities Function: -made for Spanish viceroy -historical account for the Aztecs Context: -Aztecs 1541-42 CE

82. Church of Il Gesu

Form: -building: marble, brick -ceiling: fresco and stucco -Lation cross plan, simple -single aisle -Post Reformation Content: -faith through the senses -Last Judgement (ceiling) spatial illusionism, end of Baroque period -IHS: interpretation of Jesus’ name Function: -mother church for the Jesuits of the world Context: -architect: Giacomo da Vignola -facade: Giacomo della Porta -ceiling: Giovanni Battista Gaulli -Jesuits are great defenders of the pope -ceiling made 100 years later (1676) -Rome, Italy

83. Hunters in the Snow

Form: -endless, winter landscape -panoramic view -apart of series of 4 seasons -oil on wood Content: -hunters coming back after an unsuccessful hunt (only one rabbit) -people iceskating and curling (shows daily life) -broken sign above inn -vastness and beauty of world Function: -part of calendar series 0show how they had to get their food 0for dining room of wealth merchant in Antwerp Context: -artist: Peter Bruegel the Elder 1565 High Renaissance North -Antwerp

84. Mosque of Selim II

Form: -brick and stone -similar to Hagia Sophia -dome, squinches, piers, apses -richly decorated dome from the inside -centralized, octagonal mosque Content: -slender, tall minarets -centralized with 8 piers -courtyard and prayer hall -madrassa (college for Islamic instruction) -souk: shops in the mosque -Qibla wall faces outwards showing openness Function: -mosque made to replace Hagia Sophia Context: -Edirne, Tukey: Ottoman -made by architect, Sinan, in 1568-1575 CE -part of a complex

85. Calling of St. Matthew

Form: -metaphysical painting -Baroque (Counter Reformation, through your sense) -diagonal light (tenebrism) -realism/illusionism -unusal setting for Jesus Content: -meant to be contemplated -Jesus extended hand (same hand as in Sistine Chapel) -Matthew sitting with fellow tax collectors Function: -body and soul are between a spiritual reality and physical reality -Jesus shown in modern environment -part of 3 part series -use of light -in chapel Context: -artist: Caravaggio; Rome, Italy -1559-1600 -Contarelli Chapel

86. Henri IV Recieves Portrait of Marie de ‘Medici

Form: -oil on canvas -floating figures -part of a cycle -shows an event in her life -Catholic Baroque Content: -Henry IV present the picture of Marie that confirmed his religious identity; married a Catholic queen -marries her so he can have a son and recreate him in a Catholic way -Jupiter and Juno gives blessing to them Function: -"early harmony" -part of a tribute to her life -show that their marriage was official bc portrait -shows political power, sophistication, and stability Context: -Peter Paul Rubens (Flemish painter) -from Marie de’ Medici cycle displayed in the Louvre -1621-25 CE Flemish Baroque

87. Self Portrait with Saskia

Form: -Dutch Baroque -difference in emphasis on the figures -exists in 3 different states -rich tonal quality -abrupt spatial construction -etching (exposing metal) -genre: private movement between husband and wife -small scale Content: -Rembrandt and wife in historical clothing -wife, Saskia died at the age of 30 (only piece he did of her) -Rembrandt drawing his drawing -exploring who he is Function: -self portrait/marriage portrait -role playing Context: -Rembrandt 1636 -he is mostly a portrait maker -Dutch, Amsterdam -Dutch Baroque

88. San Carlo alle Quatro Fontane

Form: -pure white inside with complex geometry -stone, stucco -rich orientation -balance convex vs. concave -flowing walls Content: -Trinitarian order in centers of ceiling (triangle=HS) -big columns -4 fountains Function: -dedication to Saint Carlos -represent the trinity -reminder of the Renaissance -Monastic Church (Trinitarian Order) Context: -Rome, Italy -architect: Borromeo 1638-46 CE (17th century) -Italian Baroque

89. Ectasy of Saint Teresa

Form: -marble, stucco, gilt bronze -rich color -many shapes and directions -spiritual vs. physical -Baroque -shallow carving -Counter-Reformation Content: -St. Teresa having a vision (physical and spiritual experience) -fresco on ceiling -Holy Spirit as a dove, light coming from HS -columns serving as a frame as you enter chapel -real daylight explosion Function: -Bernini’s comeback after his scandal with mistress -inspire and involve the viewer by bring sculptures to life -after St. Teresa canonized -shows union of world Context: -Rome; 1647-52 -artist: Bernini (very religious) -sculpter, architect, painter -Italian Baroque

90. Angel with Aequebus

Form: -Spanish Colonial Baroque -idealistic -Latin inscription -oil paint -part of a large history Content: -guns from 80 years war -feathered crown -nobility -elegant clothing -Catholic missionary -Asiel fears God -Church=army -angel=soldiers -aristocratic clothing -Angel with gun Function: -militarist approach to faith -propaganda for war Context: -17th century Peru -artist: Asiel Timor Dei

91. Las Meninas

Form: -use of mirrors (Baroque) -movement in strokes not as detailed as you think -large painting -gaze Content: -maids of honor and daughter -dog=wealth -self portrait of Velazquez -painting in a painting (Velasquez painting this painting -people looking at viewer Function: -view of palace life -show wealth/status -made for Philip IV (the viewer) -genre painting Context: -1656 CE; Prado, Madrid -artist: Diego Velazquez -Spanish Baroque

92. Woman Holding a Balance

Form: -Catholic elements -Scientific lighting -genre scene -small scale, oil on canvas -use of light -vanishing point -color palette Content: -women part of upperclass (fine clothing) -fur coat -balance has nothing in it -weighing valuables -Last Judgement scene above Function: -material wealth -painting for merchants -religious meaning but not painted just for Church -time and change Context: -artist: Johannes Vermeer -1664 Dutch Baroque

93. The Palace of Versailles

Form: -east-west axis -rigorous geometry -classical architecture (symmetry, repetitive, and based on Greek temples) -gold -painted ceilings -outside is not as "ornate" -symmetrical -Greek/Roman influence -mirrors (hall of mirrors) Content: -Hall of mirrors (social gatherings) -700 rooms -gardens -sculptures, paintings, fountains tributed to him Function: -King Louis XIV decided to build a new palace -example of nobility -living for King, his close friends, family, servants, and soldiers) -emphasize Louis’ importance (everything revolves around him Context: -Versailles, France -Louis Le Vaw and Jules Hardouin-Mansart= architects -began in 1669 CE, French Baroque

94. Screen with Seige of Belgrade and hunting scene

Form: -Japanese folding screen (Biombo) -Spanish Colonial Baroque -tapestry -tempora/resin on wood -shell inlay (Aztec) Content: -historical event from Europe -one side: battle scene -other side: landscape -Great Turkish War -combines multiple cultures Function: -expresses exonomic power of the Spanish in Colonial Mexico -made Spanish viceroy -room divider (biombo- Japanese folding screen) -relationship between Japan and Latin America Context: -Circle of Gonzalez Family, 1697-1701 CE -Spanish Colonial

95. The Virgin of Guadalupe

Form: -based upon the original -oil on canvas on wood inlaid with pearls Content: -artist signature -traditional view -story of Juan Diego (Aztec man) -roses with her image -radiating light off Mary -indigenous coming to Roman Catholic Church -dark-skinned people portraits FunctionL -tribute to Mary and show her as divine Context: -1698 CE, Spanish Colonial -Mexico City, Basiclia of Guadalupe -artist: Miguel Gonzalez

96. Fruit and Insects

Form: -still life -Baroque -oil on wood -colors, detailed Content: -insects, fruit -wheat and grapes= Jesus? -bringing different compositions together Function: -harvest in autumn -microscopic organisms: used microscope to study these organisms Context: -artist: Rachel Ruysch (Dutch arist; last famous still painter) -Florence, Italy 1711 CE (18th century)

97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo

Form: -casta painting (displays mother, father, and child) possibly modeled after the Holy Family -text is the title of the piece -enlightenment Content: -woman wearing traditional Indian clothing and white father with their mixed race son (Father wearing French-style European clothing) -servant carrying the son -family appears content -racial purity=whiteness Function: -displays social status (tied up in one’s racial makeup)- helped maintain European power and control Context: -artist: Juan Rodriguez Juarez -1715 CE (height of slave trade)

98. The Tete a Tete from Marriage a la Mock

Form: -looks like French Rococo (uses to make fun of the French Content: -critques upper-class for getting married because of bloodlines and family -shows the couple is married but not faithful to eachother -man being sniffed by dog because smell of another woman’s perfume -woman has been out all night trying to become popular -part of a series (arranged marriages end badly, marriage should be about love) -sign that sex occurred before husband came back home (flipped over chair) -merchant gives up on couple because they won’t take finances seriously Function: -satire from British to French -art being made for the growing middle class Context: -artist: William Hogarth (social critic) -1743 CE

99. Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

Form: – style: enlightenment -oil on canvas Content: -typical nun looks -surrounded by books (educated) -nun=sor -wearing a shield -has painting of Virgin Mary -hold St. Jerome’s translation of the Bible (her religious order is named after him) -toys with rosary in her left hand -gaze directly at viewer -red curtains shows higher status -woman taking on the clergy Function: -conveys religious and intellectual status -feminist Context: -artist: Miguel Cabrera -1750 CE -location: Mexico City

100. A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery

Form: -Tenebrism now used in secular aspects (mimicking Caravaggio) -Chiaroscuro: contrast between light and dark Content: -orrery: model of the solar system (heliocentric) -philosopher explain something to people in painting (education is sacred) Function: -introduction to science -celebrates access to knowledge -shift from religion to science -philosophical groups emerging Context: -1763-1765 CE -artist: Joseph Wright of Derby

101. The Swing

Form: -style: Rococo- love, pastels, aristocracy, arabesques, delicate paint application -oil on canvas Content: -ideal love gardens with sculptures -cupid whispering -attendant swinging her=elite -foot with expensive shoe -French garden -"peeping tom" in lower left Function: -made for aristocrats to decorate buildings -show the pleasures and decadence enjoyed by the elite Context: -1767 CE (18th century) -artist: Jean-Honore Fragonard -Enlightenment

102. Monticello

Form: -classical and enlightenment ideals (neoclassical) combining Italian Renaissance and French Classical architecture -domestic -symmetrical -brick, glass, stone, wood Content: -expresses American virtue of a Republic through architecture -two column deep extended portico that support triangular pediment decorated by a semicircular window (doric columns) -shallow dome Function: -plantation house for Jefferson Context: -Virginia, USA 1768-1809 -Romanticism/Classicism on the rise

103. The Oath of the Horatii

Form: -neoclassical (physicality and intense emotions) -dramatic, rhetorical gestures -geometric forms with the contrasting curvy formed women -single light shined upon them at the heightened drama of the scene Content: -"what are you willing to die for?" -3 brothers saluting towards the swords which are held by their father (take oath to defend Rome) -woman grieving in back ground because they have to deal with consequences of war (either lose husband or their bro) -sacrifice oneself for good Function: -challenge aristocracy Context: -Jacques-Louis David 1784 (before the revolution) -commissioned by King of France

104. George Washington

Form: -contrapposto -neoclassicism (influenced by essence of Greek art as opposed to Rococo) -realistic -idealistic Content: -captured the duality of Washington (private citizen and public soldier) -bundle of 13 rods (symbolizes not only power but strength found through unity Function: -commemorate momentous occasion after the revolutionary war Context: -artist: Jean-Antoine Houdon (commissioned by Jefferson) -1788-92 CE made by foreigner

105. Self Portrait

Form: -oil on canvas -portrait -light brushwork and colors (Rococo style) -Enlightenment Content: -shows her in process of creating the self portrait of Marie Antoinette (she was her court painter) -holding palette and paint brush (showing she is skilled) -interrupts her but she welcomes the interruption Function: -shows that she is a painter -several different version Context: -artist: Elizabeth Louise Vigee Le Brun -1790 CE, Rococo-Neoclassicism (in between)

106. Y no hai remedio (And There’s Nothing To Be Done)

Form: -style: romanticism (challenging power and oppression) -etching, drypoint Content: -part of series of 82 called Disasters of War -what human beings capable of -government misuse of power on helpless victims -man is blindfolded with head down tied to wooden pole (christ-like) -recently deceased corpse with extreme detail of his grotesque face (behind body on pole is a dead body on pole) Function: -pictures the atrocities of war -visual indictment and protest against French occupation of Spain Context: -publish 1863, made 1810-1823 CE -artist: Francisco Goya (trained by Rococo)

107. La Grande Odalisque

Form: -romanticism (exoticism) -classical figure -proportions are messed up -oil on canvas Content: -physically unreal body -peacock fan, turban, enormous pearls, hookah (eroticism based on exotic content) Function: -what a French male’s fantasy would look like Context: -artist: Jean-Auguste-Dominque Ingres (court painter for Napoleon -1814 CE

108. Liberty Leading the People

Form: -romanticism -seems as though it is overpowered by chaos but filled with subtle order -oil on canvas Content: -people of both the working class and middle class join in the fight against the government -lady carrying the French flag meant to serve as an allegory, in this case a moral or political idea of Liberty (looking back to make sure people are following, represents an idea) -background: Notre Dame Function: -allow us to believe anyone can be a revolutionary Context: -artist: Eugen Delacroix -1830 CE

109. The Oxbow

Form: -romanticism -Manifest Destiny -not based of a real place -oil on canvas Content: -reverence for nature -filled with life -based on real life area -divides the painting into two unequal sections -one shows sublime view of land untouched by man (wild, untamed) -other side shows land humankind has taken over (overtaken by agriculture) -self portrait of himself wandering Function: -landscape painting -shows respect for nature Context: -Northampton, Massachusetts -artist: Thomas Cole (leader of Hudson River School) -1836 CE (19th century)

110. Still Life in Studio

Form: -classical art -daguerreotypes record precise detail -photography Function: -elevate photography to art Content: -reversed image -long exposure and can’t record movement -upstairs underneath the skylight due to no flash -fills his photos with plaster casts (angels) Context: -artist: Louis Jacques Maude Daguerre -1837 CE (earliest dated photography)

111. Slave Ship

Form: -romanticism (sublime) -combines a beautiful and horrible scene together -rich colors -loose brushwork -oil on canvas Content: -beautiful seascape looking at first but if u look close you see slaves drowning and being eaten alive -disease breaks out on ship and overthrows all the dead and sick overboard so they can get insurance (money is motivator for what they did) Function: -political and social activist piece Context: -artist: Joseph Mallord William Turner -1840 CE -inspired by a book

112. Palace of Westminster

Form: -Hammer Beam Construction in the Westiminster Hall -Romanticism -classical building with a Gothic exterior, Gothic revival -limestone, masonry, glass Content: -central lobby -westiminster hall (oldest section) Function: -where the House of Lords and Commons meet -rebuilt because a fire burned down old palace that was originally there Context: -London, England -architect: Charles Barry -designer: Augustus Pugin -1840-70 CE

113. Stone Breakers

Form: -Realism (anti-heroism -oil on canvas/chunky -rough brushwork -against neoclassical style that dominated French art -dark palette Content: -young and old man -faceless men doing painful work that will neber get them out of poverty -this owrk is punishment for chain gangs -rock=faces Function: -"painting of nothing" -cycle of poverty -works: economically and physically trapped -accurate display of abuse and deprivation that was common in French rural life Context: -1849 (destroyed during bombing of Dresden in 1942) -artist: Gustave Courbet (prolific artist)

114. Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art

Form: -lithograph: process of making a design on ston eblock with greasy crayon, ink applied to wet stone and stick to greasy parts to make a print (cheap way) -Realism Content: -Nadar- awkward photographer/businessman on high and attempting to raise photography to high art (takes first aerial shots of France Function: -make lithographs as a new mass media print method -crave of art in Paris -new kind of photography Context: -artist: Honore Daumier -made 6000+ lithographs -satirist, uses caricatures -1862, Paris -published in Le Boulevard

115. Olympia

Form: -realism (genre scene) -flatness of body -rejection of use of space -angle of body -heavy paint application -features not perfect or idealized -woman makes eye contact with the viewer Content: -naked modern woman -unidealistic features -prostitute -cat (wealth) Function: -looks like a real woman -Olympia=prostitute (cortisone) -genre scene -sexual interest -scandy Context: -Edowuard Manet 1863 -based on his favorite model

116. Saint-Lazare Station

Form: -oil on canvas -diagonal but flat lines -abstract -everything=light or color -non-heroic Content: -commuter railroads/trains -urban scene with trains, not just outdoors/nature Function: -make modern life look beautiful -emphasizes new ways of taking day trips on trains -urbanization Context: -Claude Monet 1877 Paris -impressionism

117. Horse in Motion

Form: -impressionism -Albumen print -still photos/filmmaking -take pics of horse using trip wire on cameras set up that could take pics at 25th of a second -cut up and put on cylinders Content: -chronophotography -motion -horse with jockey Function: -photography on rise Context: -Eadweard Muybridge 1878 CE

118. The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel

Form: -landscape painting -romantic and neoclassical aesthetics (new type of genre painting) -scientific accuracy -landscape as historical narrative -light/shadow directs our view -vast panorama Content: -travelers (tiny detail of mother and children walking into nature away from city) -island in middle of lake -Tepoyac (spot of Virgin’s appearance -volcanoes -basilica of guadalupe Function: -about history of the land -celebration of Mexico -international movement towards nature -shows effect of Industrial Revolution Context: -1882, Mexico City -artist: Jose Maria Velasco -different styles together: impressionism, nationalism, realism, romanticism

119. Burghers of Calais

Form: -big, powerful, emotional statues -bronze -public monuments -fabric appears fused to ground -put on our level Content: -6 men who gave up lives to go outside walls during 100 Years War -nervous men before they were released -can see each face individually -look of anguish Function: -show desire to live vs. need to save their city -shown equal in status -make personal connection with each one Context: -Paris, 1884-95 -artist: Auguste Rodin -impressionism

120. Starry Night

Form: -oil on canvas -post-impressionism -color expression (express inner reality) Content: -study of the night -everything has spiritual pulsing, swirling spin -cyprus tree= cemetery tree -church Function: -night has more color than the day -everything shown alive -gives hope -request for love Context: -artist: Vincent Van Gough 1889 -painted in hospital -St. Remy

121. The Coiffure

Form: -impressionism -overall curves and crisp line -drypoint/aquatint -genre scene -etching Content: -her prints are accessible and they can own them -influenced by Japanese Wood Block Prints (ukiyo-e) -preparing one’s hair refers to ideals of femininity and beauty Function: -gives image of glamorous woman in glam setting -Japanese influence -capture fugitive, fleeting moment of the busy lives of the working class Context: -America w/ Japan twist -1890-91 CE -artist: Mary Cassat

122. The Scream

Form: -post-impressionism -dark and sinister colors -elegant, graceful, and linear -foreground and background blend together -tempera and pastels on cardboard -foreground and background blend -gender unknown Content: -red clouds -people in distance -boardwalk where he grew up Function: -someone experiences mental breakdown -outward display of inner thoughts -world transforming -scream through nature? Context: -artist: Edvard Munuch -Norway, 1893

123. Where Do We Come From? What are we? Where are we going?

Form: -human, animal, and symbolic figures across the isalnd landscape -powerful oclors -text (title) -figures out of proportion -read right to left Content: -lizard, cat, goat -Eve in center -blue idol representing the beyond -cycle of life -volcanic island in Pacific -themes of life, death, poetry, and symbolic meaning -synthetism: search for spiritual journey Function: -paradise -where do we go after we die? -cycle of life Context: -artist: Paul Gaugin (grew up in Paris and Catholic) -post-impressionism -1897-98, Tahiti

124. Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building

Form: -Medium: iron, steel, glass, and terra cotta -Horizontal emphasis -Decorative elements Content: -Maximum window areas to admit light -Terracotta tiles to decorate exterior -Heavy cornice at top of building (historical touches) -Elevator and glass (modernistic) -Grand entrance Function: -Horizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of floor space -Expressing democracy and capitalism -Shopping Context: -influence of Art Nouveau in decorative touches "form follows function" -Louis Sullivan, 1899-1903 CE

125. Mont Sainte-Victoire

Form: -3 sections -warm and cool contrast -multiple vantage points -shatters one point perspective -faceted brushwork -relationship of forms Content: -orange: rooftops -green: trees -mountain Function: -landscape painting -paints how things relate to eachother Context: -Paul Cezanne -1902-04 -Southern France, post impressionism

126. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (young woman of Avignon)

Form: -style: Proto-Cubism Content: -incorporated works from different periods of times: Kouros, African masks, Manet’s works -5 women (prostitutes) with direct stare at the viewer Function: -embodies new world of movement in art Context: -artist: Pablo Picasso -1907 CE, street in Barcelona

127. The Steerage

Form: -photograph/photogravure -German Expressionism Content: -Alfred on way back to Germany -below him: americans being sent back -elites on top while lower class is on the bottom Function: -converys message about the immigrants who were rejected at Ellis Island or people returning to old country to try to encourage people to come to US -show social status

128. The Kiss

Form: -Art Nouveau (jugendstil) -flat figures, rich colors -gold (Byzantine influence) Content: -couple laying in a field of flowers -"eternity of a kiss" -both crowned with leaves or flowers Context: -artist: Gustave Klimt -1907-08 CE

129. The Kiss

Form: -modern abstraction, little detail -symmetrical -stone Function: -version of The Kiss by Klimt Content: -two bodies becoming one, interlocked with each other -one thin line separating the two Context: -artist: Constantin Brancusi

130. The Portugese

Form: -Analytic Cubism (no color, plain, simplified, cubes) -text as art with images -resembling broken glass, fragmented Content: -guitar player on a dock? -stenciled text Function: -transitional piece into the new form of Cubism Context: -artist: George Braque -1911 CE

131. The Goldfish

Form: -color expressionism (joy, emotion, physiological, spirituality) -fauvism -color contrast -abstract Function: -relaxation of the viewer, goldfish represent a tranquil state of mind -use of pictorial space Content: -graceful movement of goldfish -plants and tables -view of side and view from top of goldfish shown at the same time -used his own memory of it to paint this Context: -artist: Henri Matisse -1912 CE

132. Improvisation 28 (second version)

Form: -German Expressionism -expressing things through colors -non-objective Content: -concerning the spiritual in art -synesthetic experience -black diagonal lines -color as the keyboard Function: -each color plays chord in your soul -music as art Context: -artist: Vassily Kandinsky -1912 CE

133. Self Portrait of a Soldier

Form: -German Expressionism -angular/powerful colors -explosion of color Content: -dehumanizing aspects of human life -Kirchner as a soldier standing in his studio -right hand amputated, bloody stump -nude model behind him (showing that he is the artist) Function: -emotion expressed through color -effects of war on a soldier or anyone involved -call for young people to fight Context: -artist: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner -1915 CE

134. Memorial Sheet for Karl Liebknecht

Form: -german expressionism -lamentation, woodcut Function: -honors the communist without depicting his ideologies so people would know she wasn’t a communist -depicts this with great compassion Content: -densely packed with figures (multitudes coming to show their respects) Context: -artist: Kathe Kollwitz, approached by family to make this

135. Villa Savoye

Form: -Domino House: concrete slabs -Reinforced concrete -Open floor plan -Natural lighting -Simplistic white Content: -Garage (green) that is very big and can fit limo cars in it for their chauffeurs -Slender columns -Non-load bearing walls -Horizontal windows -Roof garden -Spiral staircase or ramps to go up -Ribbon fenestration (windows wrap around house) Function: -Weekend home for the Savoye Family Context: -artist: Le Corbusier (architect) -Poissy-sur-Seine, France -Designed the furniture too

136. Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow

Form: -Primary palette -Nonobjective -Dynamic asymmetry -Grid with lines of varying thickness -Neoplasticism: create new non-objective visual language Content: -Horizontal and vertical black lines -Red, blue, and yellow blocks Function; -Utopian: aim for a state of perfection; idealistic -Idealism about art’s potential to change society Context: -Piet Modrian, 1930 -Painted in Paris, France

137. Illustration from the Results of the First Five-Year Plan

Form: -Photomontage: images combined and manipulated to express the message artist wants to convey -Dynamic composition -Graphic art (book and magazine) Typography: text turned into art (what Stepanova is famous for) Content: -Stalin’s Five Year Plan of 1928 for agricultural, industrial, and military growth -Vladimir Lenin -Industrialism -Red: color of the Communist Soviet Union Function: -Soviet propaganda -Show Stalin’s economic policies to the world -Constructivism as utilitarian modernism -Artist’s interpretation Context: -Varvara Stepanova, 1932 -Russian Constructivism

138. Object

Form: -Fur-covered cup, saucer, and spoon -Surrealism: pure physic automatism (unconscious/conscious), world of dreaming Content: -Saucer, cup, spoon -Gazelle fur Function: -Turning something dainty into something naughty (pubic hair reference) -Interpretations can be different for everyone Context: -French -Meret Oppeheim (Surrealist painter) -Was at a café with Picasso and wearing a fur covered bracelet. He exclaimed that anything could be covered in fur and she got inspiration because they were drinking tea together. Proceeded to go to a store right next to the café and get a cheap saucer, spoon, and, cup.

139. Fallingwater

Form: -Ribbon fenestration -Organic plan/space -Horizontality -Irregularity and complexity of design Content: -Hearth in center of house -Cantilevered porches extending over waterfall -Living room with glass curtain wall around 3 of the 4 sides Function: -Weekend house for the Kauffman family (owned a department store in Pittsburgh) -Harmony with nature Context: -architect: Frank Lloyd Wright, 1936-39 CE140 -Site specific -Designed furniture as well

140. The Two Fridas

Form: -Surrealist -Ex Voto Tradition -Victorian European (left)/ Mexican (right) Function: -Self portrait, search for herself -Show her two heritages (European father, Mexican mother) -Blood on lap suggesting abortions and miscarriages Content: -European Frida on left and Indian/Mexican Frida on the right -Right: holds small portrait of (almost) ex-husband Diego as a child -Left: holds hemostat (stop bleeding of her heart) -Stormy sky (everything going wrong) -Heart twined together by veins that are cut by scissors at one end and lead to portrait of husband Context: In midst of divorce with Diego Rivera -Frida Jahlo, 1939.

141. Migration of the Negro, panel no. 49

Form: -Synthetic cubism (flat, angular) -60 panels in series -Tempera paint on hardboard -Unmodulated colors Content: -Anonymous faces -Split down the middle -Public restaurant in city segregated Function: -Historical narrative series that depicts the migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North after WWI -Segregation emphasized by yellow poles that zigzag down the center Context: -artist: Jacob Lawrence, 1940-41 -Parents migrated North so he lived during this period of migration

142. The Jungle

Form: – gouache on paper mounted on canvas – more dense on top, more open on the bottom of the work – surrealism and afro-Cuban elements Function: – large painting made after Wilfredo returned to his homeland of Cuba from Europe – work of art rejects stereotypes bc of the slaves he shows growing sugarcane in the jungle Content: -cluster of faces, limbs, bamboo, and sugar cane – shows slaves growing sugarcane in jungle (which didn’t happen) -Santeria: mixes African beliefs and customs with Catholicism -femme cheval: half woman, half horse Context: – Wilfredo Lam made this in 1943 – made during WWII in Cuba-

143. Dream of a Sunday Afternoon in the Alameda Park

Form: -Fresco, 50′ long, 13′ high -Inspired by surrealism (dream/nightmare) Function: -Political propaganda and nationalism -Historical narrative -Decoration for a hotel across the street from the park -Show how involved the government was in Mexico Content: -Big urban park in Mexico City -Skeleton in middle- Diego as a young boy holding its hand -Older portrait of Frida -3 periods of Mexican history over 400 years (Conquest, Porfirio of Diaz dictatorship, revolution of 1910) -Historical figures in the government/ revolution Context: -Diego Rivera, 1947-48 -Diego’s memories of the park (moved to Mex. City at age of 10)

144. Fountain

Form: -dada art -approbation -readymade, glazed sanitary china Content: -transforms a urinal by turning it around and signing it Function: -challenge notion -moving something to a different context changed the meaning Context: -artist: Marcel Duchamp, 1917

145. Woman I

Form; -Slashing paint onto canvas (Picasso inspired) -Aggressive movement of paint (action painting) -Abstract style -Many layers of paint Content: -Smile is from a magazine ad -Great fierce teeth and huge eyes (not attractive) -Large breasts Function: -Breasts were a satire on women who were in magazines -Critical look at the post world war pinup and the disapproval of the pornographic culture Context: -Series of 60 "Woman" paintings -artist: William de Kooning: Dutch-American abstract expressionist painter

146. Seagram Building

Form: -Steel frame with glass curtain wall -Skyscraper -International style -Bronze veneer Content: -38 floors -Public space in front (doesn’t take up the whole block) with reflecting pools Function: -Symbol of capitalism and economic power (used expensive material) -Reflection of minimalist movement in painting "less is more" -Balance classical traditions with industrial materials and modern forms Context: -architects: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Phillip Johnson -Budhaus ideals: minimalistic, functional, efficient -Midtown Manhattan

147. Marilyn Diptych

Form: -Aimed at young people -Emphasis on sex, sarcasm, comedy -Pop art -Photo reproduction -Monumental scale (6 x 9ft) -2 silver canvases artist silkscreened images on Content: -Marilyn Monroe’s image 50 times -Image slowly disappears to the right Function: -Tribute piece -The "mask" of a celebrity -Illusion of commercial desires -Shows what image mass media has given to celebrities such as her -1D of the piece symbol for how she was just a one-dimensional sex symbol Context: -artist: Andy Warhol -After Marilyn has died from an apparent suicide

148. Narcissus Garden

Form: -Mirror balls "kinetic carpet" -Temporary installation/ been re-shown several times -Artist part of installation Content: -"Your Narcissism for Sale" sign -Sold the balls for $2 each -The artist (Kusama) wearing a kimono standing in front -1500 mass-produced plastic silver globes Function: -Wore a kimono to fulfill Japanese stereotypes about her -Self-promotion of artist -Infinity suggested by endless mirrored images -Critique of commercialism in the art world Context: -artist/performer: Yayoi Kusama -1966 Venice Biennale Public place: lawn outside the Italian Pavilion

149. The Bay

Form: -Abstract expressionism -Use of acrylic (had just been invented) -Soak-Stain method: pouring wet paint onto a canvas and moving it around -Paint seeps and flows and interacts with the fiber Content: -Prominent blue section shifting from violet to indigo then into navy -Blurring of the colors, blues blend together Function; -Color as the subject of the painting -Subject could also be a landform of some sort? Context: -Helen Frankenthaler, 1963 CE

150. Lipstick

Form: -Cor-ten steel, aluminum, cast resin -Painted with polyurethane enamel -Enlarged scale (24′) -Original was temporary (made permanent in ’74 with steel) -Made to be seen as a missile or a tank Content: -Massive lipstick (feminine) -"make love not war" Function: -War protest against Vietnam War -Alludes to military because of the caterpillar tracks -Pop art as seriousness and levity -Public monument -Combined feminine stereotype (makeup) with masculine stereotype (war) Context: -Claes Oldenburg, 1969-74 -Yale University alumni, Put on Yale’s campus

151. Spiral Jetty

Form: – earthwork: mud, salt crystals, rocks, water coil – arranged in counterclockwise motion Content: – a pathway that goes out in the Great Salt Lake Function: – this work of art is ever-changing because of the water levels – supposed to be a pilgrimage to get there Context: – Great Salt Lake, Utah -site-specific – made by Robert Smithson in 1970

152. House in New Castle County

Form: – Wood frame – Post-modernist Content: – Rear façade: Flat, classical, cartoony columns – Music room: quirky chandelier, colors, weird vaulting Function: – Show post-modernist ideals – We live in a diverse society, not simple – House designed for a family of three o Wife: musician (all the instruments and music room) o Husband: bird watcher (windows facing the woods) – Irony of using classical elements Context: -Robert Venturi, John Rauch, Denise Scott Brown 1978-83 -Delaware, USA -Post modernism: whimsical, fun, playful "less is a bore"(modernist doesn’t embody what the world is really like)

153. Chavin de Huantar

Form: -U-shaped temple -sunken relief -powerful curving -stone architecture -hammered gold alloy -granite sculpture Content: -only priest and high officials could see the Lanzon (human/jaguar) Lanzon statue: -enormous, shape of agricultural tool, dark tunnels lead to the illuminated statue -nose ornament: status symbol, serpent shape relief: jaguar Function: -ceremonial center for the Chavin people Context: -Northern Highlands, Peru Chavin People -900-200 BCE Center of Chavin culture

154. Mesa Verde Cliff Dwellings

Form: -indigenous North America -geometric designs on murals -sandstone Content: -living in communities -harmonizes with landscape for functional reasons -summer sun doesn’t hit the pueblos, but winter light warms it -painted murals Function: -residential places -storage places -ritual places -Kiva: communal gathering, ritual purpose for men Context: -Montezuma, County, Colorado -450-1300 CE -pueblo people, descendants are Hopi and Zuni -Anasazi tribe

155. Yaxchilan

*picture shown is relief found in this building Form: -limestone -built on platforms (ascent up) -3 doorways to a single room -corbelled vaulting -panel over doors -painted stucco designs -roof combs Content: -glyphs: each tell about an event, person, and when relief pictured: -Lady Xok’s vision after suffering blood loss -her and husband, Shiel Jaguar III -pulling a piece of barbed rope through her tongue -vision of great warrior coming out of serpent’s mouth Function: -affirms reign of Sheild Jaguar III Context: -Chipas, Mexico -725 CE

156. Great Serpent Mound

Form: -1300′ long, 3′ high follows a river east/west axis earthwork site specific Mississippian culture Content: -numerous mounds forming the shape of a serpent Function: connection to Haley’s comet might have been used to mark time/seasons Context: -Adams County, Ohio 1070 CE (11th century)

157. Templo Mayor (Main Temple)

*4 pictures for this but only the coyolxauqui stone is pictured here Form: -built in layers -two great staircases -stone temples -the Coyolxauqui Stone: volcanic stone -mask: jadeite -calendar stone: basalt Content: -two temples on top (one for sun God Huitzilopochtli and one for the Rain God Tlaoc) -base of the pyramid is a serpent and the Coyolxauhqui Stone -Coyolxauhqui Stone: retells the story of Huitzilopochtli (after his sibs killed their mother, he takes revenge on them and dismembers his sister Coyolxauhqui which is shown on the stone) -Calendar stone (central is the sungod, shows the days) Function: -ceremonial place for the Aztec people -human sacrifice victims were thrown on this stone from atop the temple Context: -Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), only foundation of Aztec culture that exists today Aztec 1375-1520 CE

158. Ruler’s feather headdress

Form: -featherworking -gold Content: -very hard to get these feathers, they were acquired through the vast Aztec trading network Function: -unknown Context: -Axtec -1428-1520 CE -gift for Motecuhzoma II from the Viceroy of Spain -made by artist who specialized in featherwork

159. City of Cusco

Form: -plan in shape of a cat and at the head is a fortress -intricate stone work -trapezoid shapes -andesite Content: -city is divided by social class -massive stone walls without using mortar -foundation of city is all that is left today -Qorikancha (central temple dedicated to the Sun God, Inti) walls covered in gold to show the shrines’ significance -Saqsa Wayman: forstress that looks down on the city, zig-zagging walls, stones were quarried and hauled with incredible manpower Function: -capital of Incan empire Context: -Central Highlands, Peru Inka empire -Commissioned by Pachacuti 1440 CE

160. Maize cobs

Form: -Realism: sheet metal pressed against actual maize to get the texture (repousse) -oxidized silver (black maize) Content: -corn was revered because of its importance to the diets of the Incans Function: -show importance of corn Context: -1440-1533 CE Inka

161. Machu Picchu

Form: -careful placement of stones -channels throughout -built into mountain Content: -observatory with niches -calendars -cosmological though -terrace common way of growing agriculture (potatoes) -Intihuatana stone (carved from bedrock stone, corners are aligned with the compass points) Function: -religious pilgrimage site for the Inka Context: -agricultural complex -Central highlands, Peru 1450-1540 CE

162. All-T’oqupu Tunic

Form: -camelid fiber and cotton -squares filled with geometric motifs -no repetitive geometric figures Content: -more colors=higher status -dyes from different regions of the Incan empire Function: -elite men’s tunic Context: -Inka empire 1450-1540 CE -foreigners wore black

163. Bandolier Bag

Form: -new art form resulting from trade for beads among Anglo-Americans -rounded forms -beadwork Content -decorations vary based on status Function: -worn primarily for decoration -show social status -worn by men and made by women Context: -Lenape Tribe (eastern Delaware) -1850 CE

164. Transformation Mask

Form: -animal and human share -symmetrical Content: -pull string causing mask to open up -bird=crow Function: -used in Potlatch -Potlatch: used to memorialized the dead, mark union of families through marriage -help tell a story, dance around Context: -Kwakiutl (N. Coast of Canada) -late 19th century CE

165. Painted Elk Hide

Form: -elk skin Content: -animal hide painting of the Sun Dance Function: -record history Context: -Constigo -Wyoming

166. Black on black ceramic vessel

Form: -Blackware ceramic -Coil, not wheel -Contrast of matte black and shiny, polished black finishes -Symmetrical (walls evenly thick) -Surfaces free from imperfections Function: -Food container Content: -Revival of ancient Pueblo pottery and designs -Orgins from 1000 year old tradition in the Southwest Context: -Maria and Julian Martinez, New Mexico mid-20th century -Maria made the pots, Julian painted the pots

167. Conical Tower + circular wall of Great Zimbabwe

Form: -coursed granite blocks -battered walls -ornamental stonework Content: -adobe living structures -towers (32 ft high) -great enclosures -narrow passageways Functions: -trade center in S. Africa (jewels, beads, gold) -was a major city (most likely palace complex) -granary tower Context: -Shona people -Great Zimbabwe 1000-1400 CE

168. Great Mosque of Djenne

Form: -adobe (clay and straw) -takes on forms familiar in W. Africa -raised on a platform (protection from flooding) Content: -pier buttressing, torons (types of posts) -ostrich eggs on top to represent fertility Function: -mosque -south sahara trade, learning, and cultural center -center of religious and cultural life in Mali and community of Djenne Context: -Mali -found in 1200 CE rebuilt 1906-1907

169. Wall Plaque

Form: -high relief 3D -hieratic scale (bigger they are more important) -strong patterned background Content: -Oba: divine leader -power: lack of narrative -background contains healing river -being attended to bye the covering -someone always holding an Eben (fan-shaped sword) Function: -to show royal power (attached to the columns of the palace) Context: -Oba’s palace -resemble books brought by the Portugese, who also brought large amounts of metals that was used in the Benin court -Edo people (Benin, Nigeria) -16th century

170. Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)

Forn: -carved from a single piece of wood -gold over wood -four corner posts and open central post -saddle shaped seat -gold leaf -retangular base Content: -Story of Golden Stool (priest named Anoyke had power to bring stool from the sky into lap of Osei -gold in Ashanti culture= trade material -at death, ancestral stools are blackened and kept in special shrine rooms Function: -symbolic stool signifying divine royal power (soul of the ashanti people) Context: -Ashanti royalty in Kumasi -South central Ghana -1700 CE

171. Ndop (portrait figure)

Form: -hardwood, rubbed with palm oil -seated in a cross-legend posture on a rectangular base with Kuba textile patterns -emotionless -epicene body -often holding idol, symbol of particular ruler Content: -not idealized portrait -associated with the king’s fertility -symbol on the base identifies each specific Ndop -at death, placed with his throne in a shrine near his grave -once it rots or is damaged, new one is carved as a replacement Function: -symbolic portrait of Kuba leaders -holds the spirit double of the Nyim Context: -royal spaces of Kuba people -democratic republic of the congo -1760-80 CE King Mishes

172. Power Figure (Nkisi n’kondi)

Form: -wood with screws, nails, blades, cowrie shell, -46" high -geometric abstraction: emphasis on belly and neck -each one is unique and has different stuff in it Function: – used to address issues in the community like political unrest and social strife Content: -container in the belly that holds powerful materials indicated to activate the spiritual to protect the patron Context: – created by a nganga (holy person) of the Kongo peoples in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the late 19th century

173. Female (pwo) mask

Form: -smooth, brown surface with rich patina created by red clay and oil -eyes nearly closed -long thing nose -thick braided hair -high forehead -symmetric -naturalistic form with slightly geometric abstraction -protruding ears with earrings Content: -older female role model -beautiful, archetypal woman -forehead and right cheek are marked with cosmogram tear marks -danced by mean with fiber costumes, bookbs, and carries flywhisk Function: -entertainment -expression of female beauty -initiation ceremony for young men to separate from theirs mothers Context: -Chokwe people (Congo) -19th-20th century CE

174. Portrait Mask (Mblo)

Form: -individual portrait that is naturalistic and abstract, refined features -polished surface suggesting health -complex coiffures -scarifications -introspective look on face Content: -individual portraits of specific people -expressing beauty -commissioned by husband -kept out of sight until preformed -preformance goes along with music Context: -Moya Yanso is the person who is portrayed -Baule people artist: Owie Kimou -early 20th century CE

175. Bundu Mask

Form: -three zones -shiny surface evokes water -"metal helmet" -small and nearly closed eyes -complex hair that comes in a great variety of forms -sheen=beautiful Content: -ceremony takes place in the forest on the "outside" on the edge of society -idealized beauty and moral guidance -neck rolls (health) Function: -life transition Context: -kept hidden until preformed -Mende people -19th-20th century CE

176. Ikenga (shrine figure)

Form: -tall -abstracted male figure -wood -prominent horns -holding swords -expresses strength Content: -a person object associated with an individual -male power of the right hand -large horns -right hand holds the sword -seated -left hand holds severed trophy head Function: -given to young males -Igbo person shrine figure Context: -Igbo people -19th-20th century

177. Lukasa (memory board

Form: – wood, beads, and metal – covered in material and shaped like a turtle shell Function: -used by the Luba peoples (Mubydye people) -interpreted by a specialist in different ways – shows the different aspects of the Luba culture Content: -each is unique and shows different stories of the Luba people Context: -Democratic Republic of the Congo -Luba peoples in the 19th and 20th century

178. Aka Elephant Mask

Form: -geometric beading on long, vertical fabric -highly stylized -triangle patterns refer to leopards -body is covered with leopard skins and red feathered headdress Content: -worn by male during dance -Bamileke people see the divine king (fon) as representing the supreme being and ancestors (supernatural powers extend into religion and politics) Function: -reaffirms the King’s power Context: -Bamileke people (Cameroon) -Kuosi Society -19th to 20th century CE

179. Reliquary figure (byeri)

Form: -bilateral symmetry -abstract/stylized -geometric shapes -close or metal eyes -clasped hands often hold an object -exaggerate belly button Content: -for protection of relics and village as a community -they can be male and female Function: -guardian of ancestral relics (bones and other materials in a container) -used during certain rituals for young men Context: -Fang people (Cameroon)

180. Veranda post of enthroned king and senior wife (Opo Ugoga)

Form: -veranda post -frontal -enlarged eyes -elongated -hieratic -negative space -deep blue color Content: -King is seated on the throne -senior wide stands behind him -secondary wife is smaller and underneath him -family portrait -associated with divine Function: -architectural support/sculpture -expressing King Yoruba’s power Context: -was one of four carved posts by Olowe of Ise for the royal palace at Ikere -Yoruba people 1904-10 CE

181. Petra, Jordan: Treasury and Great Temple

Form: -cut rock -treasury carved into a cliff -red sandstone walls -lower platform paved with hexagonal stones Content: -complex water system -temple on platform like apadana and built on hillside -buried dead in tombs cut out of sandstone cliffs Function: – city of powerful nomadic Arabic tradespeople (Nabataeans) -important commercial center -connected silk road and other trade routes Context: -found in 1812 -probably made around 400-100 CE -ancient city in Jordan -influence of Greek and Roman

182. Buddha

Form: -cut rock with plaster and polychrome paint – carved into niches on the side of a cliff Content: -staircase that ascended up to the Buddha’s shoulder for travelers -mutras: hand gestures -hair in bun and big ears Function: -was the largest Buddha sculpture in the world until it was blown up in 2001 by Taliban -travelers were Buddhists who offered gifts of thanks or prayers to the statue Context: -Bamiyan, Afghanistan- Gandaran 400-800 CE -located on crossroads of the Silk Road

183. The Kaaba

Form: -calligraphy on cloth covering the cube (kisna) -corner points on the cardinal points -granite with silk curtain -set in a mosque Content: -kaaba in middle of Mecca -kaaba filled with pagon god statues and the Black Stone Function: -holds relics of Muhammad -walking meditation in counter-clockwise motion -place of pilgrimage-hajj (one of the 5 pillars) Context: – Mecca, Saudi Arabia -pre-Islamic monument -631-632 CE

184. Jowo Rinpoche

Form: -gilt metals with semiprecious stones, pearls, and paint Content: -various offerings, candles Function: -sacred image of Tibet -idea is that you don’t have to meditate or site a mantra; just seeing this will be a religious experience itself -pilgrimage site -believed to have ability to grant wishes Context: -enshrined in the Jokhang Temple -Llasa, Tibet- Yarlung Dynasty -brought to Tibet in 641 CE

185. Dome of the Rock

Form: -octagonal centralized plan -arcades, colonades -heavily decorated on outside -stone masonry decorated -wooden roof and cermaic tile -bronze dome Content; -building surrounding a rock -mosaic contains no human or animal figures Function: -building over rock Context: -Jerusalem, Palestine 691-692 CE -Umayyad- islamic -rock is where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son -Mohammed’s night journey

186. Great Mosque (Masjid-e Jameh)

Form: -stone, brick. wood. plaster, and glazed blue ceramic -each entrance corbelled Content: -built around a courtyard with 4 arches coming from it -madrassa- place for Islamic instruction -iwan: vaulted space that opens on one side to the courtyard) Function: -prototype for future iwan-mosques -connects political, commerical, social, and religous activities within the city Context: -Isfahun, Iran- 700 CE -Islamic, Persian- Timrud and Safavid dynasties

187. Folio from a Qu’ran

Form: -ink, color, and gold on parchment -wide page rather than vertical like normal Content: -brown Arabic ink read from right to left -vegetal and geometric motifs because animal and human figures not allowed Function: -made for a wealthy patron -Mus’haf: a codex Qu’ran (bound version) Context: -Arab, North Africa, or Near East- Abbasid -8th-9th century

188. Basin

Form: -brass inlaid with gold and silver -very detailed, interconnected Content: -battle scenes on interior -sea animals interconnected designs -men on horseback -men hunting -artist’s signature (6 times) Function: -orginially: washing hands at ceremonies -later: used for baptism in the French royal family (St. Louis) Context: -Mumluk artists -1320-40 (14th century) -Egypt and Syria

189. Bahram Gur Fights the Karg

Form: -ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper -shown wearing European clothing but background looks Chinese (combination of cultures) Content: -Bahram Gur went on the court of Hind disguised so he could observe the kingdom and its civilians -king tricks him into showing his true identity and decided to send him away by making him slay a karg (horned wolf)- Barham pierces the wolf with arrows and cuts off his head -this folio shows Bahram after he has defeated the wolf- confident and relaxed Function: -expresses political power attempting to legitimize the Elkhanid’s claim to Iranian kingship -shows the ideal king (crown and halo) Context: -folio from the Great II-Khanid -1330-1340 CE (Islamic/Persian) -from the Book of Kings

190. The Court of Gayumars

Form: -ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper -clothing identifies who they are not their faces -minute scale drawing and detail Content: -opening page of the Shahnama -Gayumar is surrounded by his son and grandson he looks down on the court to address them Function: -telling ancient history of Persia Context: -folio from Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnama -artist: Sultan Mohammad -1522-1525 CE

191. the Arbabil Carpet

Form: -many many details -silk and wool carpet -central sunburst medallion creates illusion of a heavenly dome with lamps reflection in a pool of water full of lotus flowers -slightly symmetrical Content: -two different lamps suspended from the ceilings -one panel with inscription that tells you who made it and when Function: -made for the funerary shrine of Safi al-Din Ardabil -prayer carpet Context: -Maqsud of Kashan 1539-40 CE -one in a pair of carpets

192. Great Stupa at Sanchi

Form: -mandala plan (map of the cosmos) -sandstone Content: -4 gateways -hemispherical dome -yakshis and yakshus- nature goddess/god Function: -monastery -reliquary mound holds Siddhartha’s relics -symbolic representations of the Buddha (footprints, lion, elongated pathway, empty seat) -no actual pictures of Buddha’s face -show inclusiveness of Buddhism Context: -300-100 BCE Madya Pradesh, India -late Sunga dynasty

193. Terracotta warriors

Form: -lifesize painted terra cotta warriors Content: -warriors with individual faces but same bodies Function: -funerary art -express imperial power and authority Context: -Qin Dynasty in China -221-209 BCE

194. Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui)

Form: -T-shaped painted silk banner -over 6′ long -set in registers -depth shown -naturalistic scenes not just abstract shapes -bi: disc with a hole that represents the sky Content: -registers represent the 3 layers of the universe -Lady Dai stands on platform with her servants as she is pictured ascending into heaven -dragons frame the scene on both sides -sacrificial funerary rituals shown taking place in a mourning hall in the bottom register Functions: -put over the tomb Context: -Han Dynasty, China- 180 BCE

195. Longmen caves (grottoes)

Form: -limestone -guardians and vajrapani are more in motion and engaging figures Content: -110k Buddhist statues, 60 stupas, 2800 inscriptions carves on steles -the Vairocana Buddha (representing the celestial Buddha) with bodhisattva, a heavenly king, and a thunderbolt holder on the sides Function: -signifies the arrival of Buddhism in China Context: – Luoyang, China- Tang Dynasty – 493-1127 CE

196. Gold and jade crown

Form: -metal work with gold and jade Content: -3 prongs in the back; prongs look like antlers coming out the sides -jade pieces hanging down- connected by thin wiring Function: -queen crown Context: -found in tomb of a queen -Silla Kingdom, Korea -Three Kingdoms Period -5th-6th century CE

197. Todai-ji

Form: -bronze and wood (sculpture) -wood and ceramic roofing (architecture) -bracketing system to support the roof -massive pillars -contrapposto stance of the Nios (powerful, dynamic bodies) Content: -50′ tall wood statues: Ungyo (open mouth) and Agyo (closed mouth) -Colossal Buddha image (bronze) Function: -Buddhist temple -meant to meditate with the Buddha statue -expression of Buddhism and State mixing in Japan Context: -743 CE rebuilt 1700 CE -various artists of Kei school -commissioned by emperor Shopu -Nara, Japan 1st imperial capital, end of Silk Road

198. Borobudur Temple

Form: – relief sculptures – elevates – clockwise up and around Content: -72 stupas, 1460 reliefs, 9 platforms in sets of 3, 504 Buddha statues -narrate Buddha’s teachings -Jataka tales (Buddha’s past lives) Function: -built as monument to Buddha -pilgrimage site/shrine -narrative guides you -physical and spiritual journey to higher state of consciousness Context: -Buddha- poet, thinker, and architect of this temple -Saliendra dynasty commissioned this (the leaders of maritime power

199. Angkor, the temple of Angkor Wat, and the city of Angkor Thom

Form: -Panchayatana plan (one main room with 4 surrounding, on a platform) -Mandala (cosmic map of the world) -Enter a grand space -Corbelled gallery roofing Content: -Water surrounding temple -Angkor Thom: Buddhist part -Angkor Wat: Hindu part -Sculptures in rhymic dance poses -Horror vacui of sculptural reliefs Function: -Meant to be a tomb, express the divine power of a leader -Built complex to show his power and might Context: -Hindu and Buddhist parts of a medieval capital of Cambodia -Cambodia, Hindu, Angkor Dynasty 800-1400 CE

200. Lakshamana Temple

Form: -Sandstone -Axial plan -Panchayatana temple type: Configuration of 5 rooms is the typical setup for Indian temple -High base/platform -Deep entrance porch -Complex horizontal banding crosses the ribs of the tower Content: -Series of rooms -Tallest part of building: marks spot of most important part of building (inner sanctuary that holds the image) -4 shrines/chapels around main room -Lion statues (symbols of male figures) -Murti: embodied image of a divine figure -Mandapa: hall -Sensuous couple (controversial figures): shows deeper connection with gods Function: -Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu -Mandir temple: Space that is the house for gods (in this case, for Vishnu) -place of worship, the divine endowed in its idealized architectural form Context: -Chandella Dynasty 950 CE -Khajuraho, India (North Central India)

201. Travelers among Mountains and Streams

Form: -hanging scroll (see all at once) -ink and colors on silk -in proper scale -Neo-Confucianism ideals Content: -Chinese landscape (no specific place) -waterfall, travelers, boulders, trees, mist Function: -reverence for rocks and stone because of their "chi" (energy) -evoke Buddha -after long period of political disunity Context: -artist: Fankuan (scholarly artist) -Song Dynasty, China -1000 CE

202. Shiva’s Lord of Dance

Form: -cast bronze -stance signifies refuge for troubled soul Content: -Shiva: destroyer god-keeps us from afterlife, but also creator -flaming circle crushing Apas mara (dwarf) -Hindu trinity: Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer/transformer) -Wedas: sacred texts of Hinduism Function: -shows the never-ending cycle of life Indians believe in -immortal symbol that in this physical world there will always be ignorance or things we have to overcome Context: -Hindu, India -Chola Dynasty 1000-1100 CE

203. Night Attack on the Sanjo Palace

Form: -combining image and text -Yamato-e: high vantage points, strong angles, cropping, narrative scroll -read right to left -strong angles -handscroll -extraordinary detail Content: -rival families (Fujiwara and Minamoto) attack the Taira clan and defeat them -establish shotgun empire -battle: 1159 -extreme detail of armor, weaponry, war tactics -struggles between emperor and rising shogons Function: -turning point in Japanese history Context: -piece made 1250-1300 CE -Karamkura Period, Japan

204. David Vases

Form: -Mongolian style -white porcelain with cobalt blue underglaze from Iran -2 1/2 feet tall -text Content: -peonies= prominent scrolling flower -inscription with date, location, temple, patron, and purpose -phoenix and dragon balanced (symbol of Daoist faith- ying and yang) -elephant handles Function: -made for Daoist temples to honor a military leader who was diefied -expression of Silk Road -held flowers beside an altar Context: -apart of wealthy man’s collection -1351 CE -Yuan Dynasty, Mongol Empire -Beijing, China

205. Portrait of Sin Sukju

Form: -crisp and angular lines -color characterization -hanging scroll -ink and color on silk -possible collaborative pice Content: -head slightly turned (1 ear shown) -rank badge worn on front and back -peacocks with plants and cloud -intellectual scholar -seated in specific chair Function: -respect for one’s elders and ancestors -officially honors for his distinguished service @ court and loyalty to the King during hard times -portrait cherished by descendants Context: -Imperial Bureau of Painting, Korea -1417-1475 CE

206. Forbidden City

Form: -Stone masonry, marble, brick, wood, and ceramic tile -Layout based on Chinese philosophy -Certain palette to signify (dark red-sun, yellow-earth, blue-heaven) Content: -30 ft. tall walls surrounding the city -Moat around the wall -Series of bridges -Front Gate (Mao Zedong’s portrait over doorway), Meridian Gate -Private realm: where the royal family lives (outer and inner court) Numbers everywhere -Complex of roughly 100 buildings, 9000 rooms Function: -Express that the emperor is the Son of heaven -Political and ceremonial center for nearly 500 years -Main building: to discuss the issues of the state -Importance of numbers spiritually -Walls provide privacy and protection for the families Context: -Largest political complex in the world -City at center of a city -Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty 15th century CE-later

207. Ryoan-ji

Form: -asymmetrical -abstract -gravel=flowing elements -stones=islands, shore, bridges Content: -15 stones -raked stone garden -monastery (Zen Buddhist monks) -mirror pond Function: -can only enter garden through your mind (spiritually enter) -power of emptiness -each rock is a different visual "pull" -Zen seated meditation Context: -1480 CE, Kyoto, Japan -Muramachi Period -Zen Buddhist

208. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings

Form: -texts, geometry, natural world -Persian traditions -proportions play into importance Content: -manuscript pages -Mugal leader sitting on throne -text describing reign -children dressed up -guy at bottom is the court artist -Suffi: Muslim mystic giving gift to Jahangir -combo of the sun and moon symbolizing ruler’s emperorship and divine truth Function: -Mughal painting skill -cross-cultural nature of Art -artist puts himself at lowest class Context: -artist: Bichitr (Hindu) -1620 CE -signed

209. Taj Mahal

Form: -Iwan -Onion domes -cross axial plan -fused aspects of other Islamic traditions -marble, stone masonry -stone inlay -symmetrical harmony Content: -charbagh- Persion garden into 4 quadrants representing paradise on Earth -flowing water throughout -Arabic text from the Quran -chartriss -mosaics -cenotaphs: inscriptions (symbol of tombs, tombs are actually empty) -minarets Function: -resting place for Shah Jahan’s wife, Mumtaz Mahal -India 1632-53 CE -architect: Usted Ahmad Lahori -Mughal Empire

210. White and Red Plum Blossoms

Form: -ink, watercolor, gold leaf -swirling illusion of expansion -byobu: painted screen -rich colors/gold Content: -swirling water -nature/flowers alongside -early spring -two flowering trees -vantage points -turns simple landscape theme into dream vision Function: -rimpa school painting -painted screen Context: -1710-16 CE Japan -artist: Ogata Korin -Edo period

211. Under the Wave off Kanagawa

Form: -polychrome and woodblock priint made of ink and color on paper -Ukiyo-e: Japanese woodblock prints made during Edo Period -part of series of 36 showing Mt. Fuji in each -genre scene in series/travel -flat colors, high angles, cropped, large foreground, nature specific -large foreground Content: -text: name of series, artist, censor’s seal -crashing wave (dragon claws) -Mt. Fuji in background (small in comparison) Function: -show moutain and wave’s resemblance -show Dutch influence -genre scenes in seires’travel of the sacred Mount Fiji Context: -artist: Katsushika Hokusai -1830-33 CE Edo Period

212. Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan

Form: -Propaganda -Portraiture -Socialist realism (clear, intelligible subject/emotionally moving themes) Content: -Mao on way to organize a coal worker/miner strike -Portrait of Mao (oil paint) -Telephone poll and water cascades from a dam (modernity) -Chinese landscape -Umbrella under his arm Function: -Used Chinese landscape to portray that Mao was capable of leading a revolution -Combatting tradition Chinese art but still not modern -Mao as a person working for the people Context: -based on oil painting by Lui Chunhua -artist unknown 1969 CE

213. Nan Madol

Form: -basalt boulder -prismatic columns -headers and stacker (use of stacking) Content: -90-100 manmade structures -lagoon -"floating world" -92 artificial islands -canals running throughout site Function: -great lost city -ceremonial complex -political center -tombs, dwellings, administrative centers Context: -Pohnpei, Micronesia -Saudeleur Dynasty 700-1600 CE

214. Maoi on platform (ahu)

Form: -Mostly volcanic tuff but some are basalt -Missing inlaid coral eyes -Emphasis on head and ears -Vary in size -Later backs were reworked -On platforms (ahu) facing the sea -Basalt base Function: -Ancestors/rulers "mana" protection -Connect with ancestors -Guardian figures Content: -Ancestors watching the sea Context: 1100-1600 CE, Easter Island, Rap Nui

215. Ahu’ula (feather cape)

Form: -Semi-circular form/crescent shaped -Feathers woven into fiber: knotted into fiber base Function: -Power of Ruler: identified with divine power -Symbol of individual leader -Worn into battle for protection/intimidate enemies -Given as gifts to reinforce political transactions Content: -Only worn by men elite (usually royal) -Feathers signifying wealth and power Context: -Worn in battle and during rituals -Late 18th century CE, Hawaii

216. Staff god

Form: -Wood; Carved by men- penis on one end and head on other -Women wrapped tapa (barkcloth made by women) around the whole thing -Feathers -Figures in profile/abstract -13′ high (largest known) Content: -Combination of male and female elements Function: -Wrapped staff god -Protects ancestral power (mana) of the deity -Contains it in the wrapping within its layers Context: -May 1827 this god figure was brought to John William and their wives -Cook Islands, Central Polynesia; late 18th-early 19th century

217. Female deity

Form: -15" high -Breadfruit (wood) -Minimalistic/simple form -Oval head -Smooth surface, flattened buttox, long torso -Undefined hands and feet Content: -Male and female gods -Facial features hinted or nonexistent -Horizontal lines that indicate knee caps, navel, waistline Function: -Most likely part of ritual ceremonies honoring gods for harvest and fertility of land, sea, and people -Collected by missionaries -Some placed in central temple Presented with food and flowers Context: -Nukuoro, Micronesia 18th-19th century -Many kept in religious buildings that belonged to the community

218. Buk mask

Form: -Turtle shell, wood, fiber, feathers, and shell -Seashell eyes inlaid -Raffia for hair -Discs on wings amplify the sense of a bird in flight (dynamic -Lattice work around the face Content: -Masks representing human forms, and some depict birds, fish, or reptiles, or both -Perhaps a faith hero or ancestor -Bird as a totem? (connected to the person or family) Function: -Male initiation ceremonies -Funerals -Used with grass costumes in ceremonies about death, fertility, or male initiation Context: -Torres strait (between Australia and New Guinea) Mid-late 19th century CE

219. Hiapo (tapa) Niue

Form: -Tapa cloth/bark cloth (woman would harvest inner bark of mulberry tree and pound it flat with an anvil or wooden beater) -Freehand painting -Abstract/geometric, in a grid -Use of stencils; dyed the exposed parts of the tapa with paint to create shapes Function: -The most traditional uses for this would be clothing, bedding, and wall hangings -Specially prepared and decorated for people of rank Each set of designs interpreted symbolically (images with rich history) Content: -Plant and sometimes animal motifs -Text (where and when it was made) Context: -Made by women -Polynesia, 1850-1900

220. Tamati Waka Nene

Form: -19th century European academic style of painting Content: -Portrait of Tamati Waka Nene (Maori chief/warrior) 0Kiwi feather cloak, green stone earring -Moko: facial tattoos Function: -Record likenesses and bring ancestral presence into the world of the living not just a representation of Tamati but an "embodiment" of him -After a person has died, portrait may be hung on walls of family homes or in community center -Nene represents the time of change that was occurring in the Maori world Context: -Artist: Gottfried Lindaur -1890 CE

221. Navigation Chart

Form: – wood and fiber, cowrie shells (used to show the location of an island) Function: – horizontal and vertical sticks – curved sticks represent wave swells – used as to map out the wave swells of the Marshall Islands Content: -depicts the wave patterns surrounding the Marshall islands -sailors would memorize them and then leave them behind Context: – Marshal Islands, Micronesia – 19th-early 20th century – made for sailors

222. Malagan Display and Mask

Form: -wood, pigment, shell, fiber -anthropomorphic mask Content: -masks uniquely decorated for a deceased and worn by dancers in ceremonies celebrating the dead Function: -used in rituals that took place in Papua for the deceased people of their clans -displayed in village for temporarily -shows family importance Context: -New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea -20th century

223. Presentation of Fijian mats and tapa cloths to Queen Elizabeth II

Form: -Multimedia performance (costume, cosmetics, chant, movement) -Photographic documentation Content: -Queen of England’s royal visit to Fiji -Fijian women and men displaying their culture to the queen -Women wearing barkcloth skirts -Rolls of woven mats that each woman in procession carries (mats served as ritual exchange) Function: -Political pageantry as art -Show the Fijian culture to the queen of England -Performance art Context: -Fiji, Polynesia, 1953

224. The Gates

Form: -Mixed-media installation – 7503 saffron-colored fabric panels stretched across two beams to created a 16ft tall gate – gates make a 23 mile pathway through Central Park Function: – wanted to create "a golden ceiling creating warm shadows" after the struggling times NY was going through after 9/11 – wanted to create unity among the NY community and bring joy to them all Content: – gates put over 23 miles of sidewalks through Central Park – site-specific Context- – Christo and Jeanne-Claude. – took from 1979-2005 to make and was put up for only 16 days – Central Park, NYC

225. Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Form: -Black Granite -Typography (words as art) Content: -Located between Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial (bringing together past and present) -Thin walls sunken into the ground (cut into earth) with the names of all of the veterans that died in the Vietnam war (chronologically ordered) -Names as the subject of the piece Function: -Use of polished granite to see our reflections and incorporate us in the memorial -Connection to US history -War monument that doesn’t focus on war heroes but focuses on everyone -World we cannot enter -People come to terms with their loss -As a journey (walk down and out of the monument) Context: -Artist: Maya Lin, 1982 CE -Washington D.C, USA

226. Horn Players

Form: -Acrylic and oil paint stick on three canvas panels -Words as part of art -Triptych (3 panels) -White swatches of paint on each panel Content: -Urban text of NY -Words as shapes -Picasso-inspired faces -"ORINTHOLOGY", "DIZZY", "PREE", "TEETH" repeated Function: -African American history -black Jazz musicians Context: -1983 CE -Artist: Jean-Michel Basquiat; based in NY (famous for graffiti there) -"the black Picasso"

227. Summer Trees

Form: -Paint movement (abstract expressionism) -Korean tradition of ink -Ink wash painting (ink blend together) Content: -Abstract group of pine trees -Parallel brush strokes Function: -Modern but rooted in tradition -Song’s exploration of tone -Reference to "literati painting" (ink wash painting) -Express her Korean identity -Could be her statement of optimism in the rediscovery of traditional values recreated in modern times -Trees represent a gathering of friends? Context: -Song Su-nam 1983 CE -Korean artist that grew up in the 30s-40s, lived through the Korean War

228. Androgyn III

Form: -Burlap, wood, nails, strings, resin -Figures in large groups -Hollow cast, soaked coarse burlap Content: -Figure its on a stretcher made out of wood -Characteristics of a woman and man (androgynous) -Wrinkled skin and implication of backbones -No arms, legs, or head (suffering) Function: -Alludes to the brutality of war and the totalitarian state -Viewer reflects on this -Enduring regine Context: -artist: Magdalena Abakanowicz. 1985 CE. -Worked as a nurse caring for wounded soldiers in WWII as a teen

229. A Book from the Sky

Form: -mixed media installation -3 long scroll-like pieces of paper on the ceiling Content: -paper filled with Chinese characters (real and made-up) -waves of book on bottom= sea, writing on walls= landscape, writing on ceiling=sky Function: -Xu Bing invents new Chinese characters that don’t mean anything Context: -Xu Bing- artist: grew up in society where everything was structured

230. Pink Panther

Form: -Glazed porcelain -Cartoonish -Kitsch: cute, cliché, gaudy, tasteless but ironically compelling/moving -Highly polished -Life-size Content: -Hollywood star and pink panther cartoon thrown over her shoulder Function: -Take a cheap cartoon and make it into a permanent delicate and priceless object -This kitsch thing treated as high art -Idealized woman stereotype: big breasts, very blonde, red lips and fingernails -Commentary on celebrity romance, sexuality, commercialism, stereotypes Context: -Porcelain from best porcelain factory in Germany -American artist: Jeff Koons 1988

231. Untitled (#288)

Form: -Photograph, self portrait -Costumes, decor Content: -The artist appears as the model, costumer, hairdresser, photographer, and makeup artist in each work -Theme of Salome decapitating St. John the Baptist (mask-like, alert, bloodless) -Richly costumed and decorative drapes -Shows no emotional attachment to the murder Function: -Showing how history develops meaning -Comments on gender identity and class distinction -Heavy costuming and setting acts as commentary on late 19th century versions of the subject Context: -Did this in Rome, 1990 CE -Cindy Sherman-New Jersey born, American artist

232. Dancing at the Louvre, from the series The French Collection, Part I.

Form: -Acrylic on canvas, tie-dye, fabric border -Painting on quilt -Narrative element Content: -Show her dream of being able to visit the Louvre with her family -Creates a character who takes her friend and three daughters to the museum with her -Quilting technique (always seen as female thing) In the Davinci room of the louvre Function: -White feminist vs. black feminist -Combines traditional use of oil paint with quilting technique of African Americans -Act out history that might have never taken place Context: -1991 CE -Faith Ringgold, NY born African American artist

233. Trade

Form: -Mixed media/oil paint -Collage elements -Abstract expressionist brushwork Content: -Team logos that use Indians as their mascot in a stereotypical way (Noles, Braves, Redskins) -String across top with emblems -Newspaper clippings, images of conquest over a large canoe Function: -Native American stereotypes -Stories within a community -Red: symbolic of bloodshed of American Indians -Show the social issues of Native Americans caused by European occupation stress: poverty, unemployment, disease, alcoholism Context: -Jane Quick-to-see Smith, Native American artist -1992: 500th anniversary of Columbus sailing to America

234. Earth’s Creation

Form: -Dump dot technique using brush to pound color into canvas creating layers of color and movement Content: -4 panels, 11 meters wide Function: -Simulates the color and lushness of the "green time" in Australia after the rains when the outback flourishes -History of Australia Context: -Emily Kame Kngwarreye. 1994 CE. Alice Springs, Australia

235. Rebellious Silence, from the Woman of Allah series

Form: -Black and white photography -Ink on photograph Content: -Terrorist (gun) -Gun splits picture in half into darker and lighter side -Farsi text (would assume Arabic bc Muslim) poem on face -Gaze at the viewer Function: -Muslim stereotypes (making judgements from partial information) -Caught between American and muslim culture -Female oppression Context: -1994 CE -Cynthia Preston, Iranian born artist raised in the US

236. En la Barberia no se Llora

Form: -Environment installation, site specific -Big multimedia environment -Tacky and grimy setting -Kitsch items everywhere Content: -Photos of famous Latino men on walls -Interior of barber shop where "no crying is allowed" -Video screens on the headrests depict men playing, a baby being circumcised, and men crying Function: -Recreating the centering of Latino male culture (the barbershop) -Kitsh items: symbols of consumerism culture Context: -Pepson Osorio, Puerto Rican artist 1994 CE

237. Pisupo Lua Afe

Form: -Mixed media piece -Life-size cow Content: -Reused corn beef cans -Smalled concealed wheels Function: -Canned food was Pacific Islanders’ favorite source of food -Canned food led to more health problems for people (obesity) -Canned meat often given as gifts on special occasions -Industrialization in the Pacific Islands -Reflect on the ironic impact and exploitation of the Pacific’s resources Context: -Michael Tuffery 1994 CE -Corn beef was favorite food in Polynesia -Theme of recycling emphasized by the reuse of these cans

238. Electronic Superhighway

Form; -Explosion of sound and images -Neon lighting Content: -Video screens behind outline of the USA (each state has own video feed) -Maps/travel Function: -Information overload (before web was created) -Viewer incorporated in the piece (picture of you) -Fascination with interstate highway system -Neon symbolizes motel and restaurant signs Context: -Nam June Paik, Korean artist -1995 CE

239. The Crossing

Form: -Video and sound installation Content: -Two screens of color video projects from opposite sides of large dark gallery onto two large back to back screens suspending from the ceiling and mounted to the floor. -Fire and water -Figure walking in slow motion -Film shot a very slow speed Function: -Promotes video as an art form -Evokes eastern and western spiritual traditions -Spiritual reality Context: -Performer: Phil Esposito -Bill Volia, Artist from Queens, NY

240. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

Form: -Titanium , glass, and limestone -CAD (computer assisted design) -Titanium covered -Bending and arching walls -Effect of shimmering surface -Deconstructionist architecture: seeks to create a seemingly unstable environment with unusual special arrangements Content: -Multiple galleries -Central atrium like Wright’s Guggenheim in NY Function: -Bending walls represents how history is never-ending and never stops unfolding -History has many ways of being constructed -Swirling forms and shapes mark a contract with the industrial landscape of Bilbao -"Bilbao effect": refers to the impact that a museum can have on a local economy Context: -1997 CE -Frank Gehry: Canadian-American architect based in Los Angeles

241. Pure Land

Form: -Color photograph on glass -Huge scale -Basic iconography Content: -Artist= Model/musician/performer (hybrid) -Self portrait -Buddhist figures -Creative interpretation of Japanese art forms -Animated figures of lighthearted aliens play musical instruments on clouds -Her as a deity that comes blessing and bearing good things Function: -Romanticized views of pop culture -Looking back on Buddhist tradition but there are futuristic aliens and stuff -Religious sense while incorporating religious background Context: -1998 CE, LA, California – Mariko Mori: Japanese artist -Constructs this whole thing (set designer)

242. Lying with the Wolf

Form: -Skin-like paper feel -Against contemporary art -Large wrinkled drawing pinned to a wall Content: -Nude woman lying down with a wild wolf (emphasize woman strength) Function: -Contrast between delicate woman and wild wolf -Sexual identity -Based in religious, history, personal narrative, mystical worlds -Wolf seen as traditionally evil or dangerous symbol but not in this drawing -Wolf looks tamed by the woman’s embrace Context: -Kiki Smith: American artist, born in Germany, lives in NYC (2001)

243. Darkytown Rebellion

Form: cut paper and colorful projection on the wall Function: – make the viewer apart of this time in history and question th – shows the racial stereotypes but the black silhouettes do not show you the color or gender of the figure- that is for the viewer to decide Content: – depicts racial stereotypes and exaggerates the physical appearance of different groups of people Context: -made by Kara Walker in 2001 – Whitney museum in NY

244. The Swing

Form: -based on Fragonard’s Swing -global contemporary/post modern -3D version of the painting Content: -viewer becomes apart of the piece (we become the peeper in the painting) -fabric used in the piece is Dutch Wax Fabric (Vlisco) -textile worn in Africa -deep respect for African Ancestors -headless which refers to the Reign of Terror when French aristocracies were publicly beheaded Function: -pictures the increasing disparity between economic classes and the growing culture of paranoia, terror, and xenophobia (fear of immigrants) in post 9/11 world Context: -artist: Yika Shonibare -2001

245. Old man’s cloth

Form: -due to its flexibility, it can be hung in different ways forming differnt shapes -repurposed arts Content: -feels like Kentai cloth -liqour bottle caps are used to create the design of the "cloth" -materials come from the West -what gets dumped in Africa by Aristocratic europeans -recalls African traditions and combines it with Western World Function: -contemporary piece Context: -El Anatsui -2003 CE

246. Stadia II

Form: -Ink and acrylic on canvas -Gigantic scale painting -Architectural drawing, using photographs -Global modernism Content: -Flags, corporate icons -Sweeping lines create a vibrant pulse -Stadium architecture -Multi-layered lines to create animated effect Function: -Sense of memory and time -Invoking individual memories/experiences -Form of this suggests excitement of a competition held in a circular space like a stadium, arena, etc. Context: -2004 CE -Works with assistants -Her art is about place – Julie Mehretu: Artist from Ethiopia, lives and works in NYC

247. Praying Mantra

Form: -Mixed media on mylar -Twisting -collage Content: -Female figure lost in patterns and twinkling lights reclined in relaxed position -Kuba cloth -Cyborg? Person whose function is aided by a mechanical device or computer implants Function: -Wordplay: "praying mantra" sounds like praying mantis -Female praying mantis eat the males (symbol of female power and identity?) -Kuba cloth showing African background Context: -2006 CE -Wangchei Matu: Kenyan artist, now in Brooklyn

248. Shibboleth

Form: – crack in the concrete floor of the Tate Modern Function: – addressing racism in this modern culture -sees what side of the "crack" someone is on (each person takes a side) -addresses social exclusion in society Content: – 548 ft crack Context: – site specific- temporary installation in the Tate Modern (can still see where the crack was now) – "shibboleth" comes from the bible and who ever could say the word correctly was apart of the group and if you couldn’t say the word correctly you were not in the group – made by Doris Salcedo (cuban artist) in 2008

249. MAXXI National Museum of XXI Century Arts

Form: -CAD (computer designed architecture) -Glass, steel, cement -Walls flows and melt into one another -Natural light -Articulated geometry with lighting -Concrete influenced by ancient Rome Content: -Public plaza -Lit up stairs -Open ceiling -Wind through the spaces Function: -Walk through the art -Library, auditorium, and cafeteria Context: -Zaha Hadid, 2009 CE -North of the Tiber, no one ever went to this part of Rome

250. Kui Hua Zi (Sunflower Seeds)

Form: -Sculpted and painted porcelain Content: -Hired a lot of people to hand paint millions of individual sunflower seeds -Crunching sounds of people walking all over them Function: -Political rebellion -Ideology of Chairman Mao: He was the sun, the seeds were his followers -Initially supposed to always be you as a participant but the ceramic dust rising when people walked on it became too harmful -Seeds symbolically represent an ocean of fathomless depth Context -2010-11 CE -Ai Weiwei: brave artist, often gets in trouble for what he says

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