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Together, all of the alleles contained within a group of interbreeding individuals is known as a:

gene pool

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes:

no gene flow, mutation or natural selection

The physical location of a gene within the genome is called the:


In certain species of nonhuman primates there are groups where only one dominant female has access to mates. The other females must wait until the opportunity to gain mate access presents itself. This will have direct impacts on "fitness," influencing which of the following

reproductive success

Evolution can best be defined as:

a change in allele frequencies in a breeding population

When individuals of the same species are reproductively isolated, genetic differences may accumulate in sufficient number so that new species could emerge. Such an event would be an example of:


The type of selection that favored progressively lager brain size in human evolution is:

directional selection

The ABO and MN blood type frequencies of the Dunkers differ significantly from those of current American and German populations due to:

genetic drift

Which of the evolutionary forces is most likely to decrease variation between populations

gene flow

Mutations to which cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences

sex cells (gametes)

Transposable elements are DNA sequences that

insert themselves into other parts of the genome

Over a period of two generations, the frequency of green dung beetles in a population shifts from 75% to 71% while the frequency of brown dung beetles within this population shifts from 25% to 29%. This is an example of


The absence of the A and B alleles in Native American populations is a result of:

founder effect

Patrilocal societies are expected to display

greater mtDNA diversity then Y chromosome diversity

What effect does natural selection have on population variation?

it decreases variation

The vector for transmitting the malarial parasite to humans is:


The evolution of the modern horse with a single hoof on each limb from a dog-sized ancestor with multiple digits is an example of:


An individual who displays the disease sickle-cell anemia must have inherited the deleterious allele from both phenotypically normal parents. This individual is therefore:

homozygous recessive

Familial hypercholestrolemia, an autosomal dominant disease is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than in the population of Europe or the United States. This represents an example of:

founder effect

While conducting research with a small population in South America you note that an overwhelming majority of individuals exhibit signs of a specific genetic abnormality. This is most likely the result of:

founder effect

Another name for the evolutionary force called gene flow is:


The clinal decrease in type B blood from East Asia to Western Europe is probably the result of:

gene flow

Studies of Darwin’s finches have found that at certain points in time all finches on the island have either wide beaks or sharp narrow beaks. The type of evolution that leads to this phenotype distribution is:

disruptive selection

The best documented case of industrial melanism involves

peppered moths

A random change in allele frequencies over time is known as:

genetic drift

The mutation known by trisomy 21, in which an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, is more commonly known as:

down syndrome

As suggested in "Skin Deep," the ability of skin color to adapt over long periods to various environments to which humans have moved reflects

the importance of skin color to human survival

Dark skinned people who live in areas of relatively less sunlight are more likely than light skinned people to experience

vitamin D deficiency

As described in "The Tall and the Short of It," plasticity refers to the ability of an organism to:

adapt in response to changes in the enviroment

As reported in "The Tall and the Short of It," studies on height reveal that:

improving the diet and health of Maya refugees led to their having taller childern

The tallest people in the world are the


Which of the following is NOT and example of "plasticity" in humans?

lactose intolerance

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