Anthropology Midterm 2 (Chapter 6 – 9)

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The dental pattern of Old World higher (anthropoid) primates is


High, pointed crowns indicate a diet of


Living lemurs are found only in


Primate females

Give birth to fewer offspring than do many other mammals.

Relative to other primates, prosimian adaptations include

An enlarged olfactory bulb and enlarged scent glands.

Anthropoids different from prosimians in that they

Have bette color vision.

Prehensile tails

Are present only in a few species of platyrrhines.

In class your professor shows you an MRI scan of a living primate brain. The professor points out the relatively large size of the olfactory bulb beneath the frontal lobe. This suggests to you that

The primate individual must be a member of a species of prosimian, s the earliest type of primate still relies heavily on the sense of smell for many aspects of its daily life today.

A skull with a foramen magnum positioned at the back belongs to

An individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a dog.

The Y-5 molar morphology is present in


The increased brain size observed in the order Primates

Results in extended periods of nursing and development to accommodate increasing behavioral complexity. Results in shorter developmental periods to accommodate the necessary energy expenditures of larger brain size.

Dietary plasticity in primates refers to

Eating a wide variety of foods.

A feature unique to contemporary human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is

A canine that shows wear on the tip.

Which of the following were identified by Sir William le Gros Clark as tendencies of primates?

Arboreal adaptation, parental investment, and the presence of dietary plasticity.

Among all primates human have

The most elaborate connections between different regions of the brain.

Brachiation refers to

Using the forelimbs to move from tree limb to tree limb.

The two suborders of primates are

Prosimians and anthropoids.

Modern primates are characterized by arboreal adaptations, including

Opposable thumbs.

Low, rounded cusps indicate a diet of


The suborder prosimians includes

Diurnal and nocturnal lemurs.

Anthropoids include

Monkeys, apes, and humans.

Colobine primates

Have specialized digestive anatomy for eating leaves.

Arboreal adaptation is

Adaptation to life in the trees.

In your primate anatomy lab you are shown the mandible (lower jawbone) of a species of primate. While looking at the teeth you notice a large space between canine and first premolar. In your lab book you note that

That this may be a species of Old World monkey or ape, as the space in the teeth of the mandible suggests the presence of a canine-premolar honing complex.

African monkeys, including Miss Waldron’s red colobus are

Among the most endangered animals due to human exploitation of resource.

Preadaptation is

The use of an anatomical feature in a way unrelated to the feature’s original function.

Phylogeny refers to

Evolutionary relationships that are based on shared characteristics including physical traits, genetics, and behavior.

Primates’ enhanced sense of vision stems from

Their color vision.

Relative to body size, primate brain size

Is larger among great apes than among other primates.

Among all primates, human have

The largest brain relative to body size.

in "The Mind of the Chimpanzee" it is shown that chimpanzee who learned American Sign Language (ASL)

Could teach it to other chimpanzees.

Prior to Goodall’s research, as presented in "The Mind of the Chimpanzee," it was accepted fact that

Humans were the only species capable of making tools.

When describing chimpanzee in the early years. Jane Goodall found that scientists considered it inappropriate for he to

Use the terms "childhood" and "adolescence." Describe chimpanzees’ personalities. Give names instead of numbers to the chimpanzees.

According to Robert Sapolsky, the braininess of humans as opposed to chimps has primarily to do with

A greater number of "off the rack" neurons with an exponentially greater number of interactions between them.

According to Robert Sapolsky, one of the main differences between human and chimpanzees is the fact that chipanzees

Lack of sense of aesthetics, spirituality and a capacity for irony or poignancy.

According to "The 2% Difference," the two percent difference between human and chimp genotypes is reflected in that

There are clear nucleotide differences in genes coding for transcription factors that turn on or off other genes.

Diversity in primate societies means that

Primates express themselves socially through a wide range of behaviors.

Many primate societies are complexly organized, enabling their members to form alliances including by

Rank. Age. Kinship.

Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance

Survival and reproduction.

Sexual dimorphism

Concerns sex differences in body size, shape, canine size, fur marking, not related to reproduction.


Refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offsprings.


Refers to a social group that includes one reproductively active female and several adult male and their offsprings.

Altruistic behavior

Is behavior that benefits others while causing a disadvantage to the individual.

Kin selection refers to

Altruistic behavior that increases the donor’s inclusive fitness and that of the donor’s relatives.

Three key factors that contribute to a female primate’s success at feeding are

Quality, distribution, and availability of food.

Distribution refers to

The location of food across the landscape.

Availability of food

Can be highly variable, depending on season and rainfall.

Variation in predator-specific vocalization in the monkeys of the Tai Forest

Includes two different loud alarm calls in response to predators, arial and terrestrial.

Why are primates social in the long term?

To reduce stress, promote longevity, and enhance reproductive success.

Male reproductive strategies emphasize

Competition between males for access to reproductive-age females.

How do primates acquire food?

Through a wide variety of food-foraging strategies.

A male and female gibbon that are similar in size are likely showing

The lack of sexual dimorphism due to decreased competition for mates in a monogamous social structure.

Male primates most often compete for males while female primates compete for other resources, demonstration that

Reproduction places different energy demands on males and female, resulting in varying reproductive strategies.

Altruistic behavior can still be explain by natural selection for the generous, caring impulse on the part of an individual even if there is no direct benefit to that individual. All the following reasons explain why it exists in primate societies EXCEPT _____?

Altruistic behavior is random.


Refers to a social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring.

Sexual selection

In the frequency of a trait’s attractiveness to members of the opposite sex.

Grooming involves

Bonding between two members of a social group, calming or appeasing the primate being groomed if he or she has a higher dominance.

Female reproductive strategies emphasize

Caring for young and ensuring access to food.

How do primates communicate?

Through vocalizations that serve a range of functions and contexts.

The higher the social rank of a female primate the

Greater her access to resources, which results in higher birth rates.


Explore the relationships between specific social behaviors and reproductive fitness.

Quality in feeding strategy refers to

A food’s providing energy and protein that are readily digestible.

The study of primate vocal communication

Can give us insights into the selective pressures that may have shaped the evolution of language.

Male primate compete for access to females and to maintain social groupings through all of the following social strategies EXCEPT

Forming long-term cooperative relationships with multiple females.

As noted in "Got Culture?" what accounts for the difficulty in recognizing cultural traditions among non-human animals?

The assumption that culture is, by definition, restricted to humans who have linguistic communication. The highly conservative natural of many tool traditions, which leaves the design and use of a took unchanged for thousands of years. Their customs of grooming, social hunting and courtship seems less symbolic than among humans.

Craig Stanford, in "Got Culture?" thinks that the most likely explanation for the variation across Africa among chimpanzee tool industries to

A matter of learned tradition.

According to Craig Stanford ("Got Culture?"), the tools made by chimpanzees qualify as cultural–as opposed to the sea otter’s use of tools–because chimpanzee tools

May be elaborately made. Used in variable ways. Are distinctively different from each other across Africa.

Which of the following seems to explain tool use among chimps and its absence among bonobos, according to Stanford?

A Strong element of chance that a cultural tradition will develop.

As claimed "Got Culture?" the notion of culture most relevant to primatologists is one that is

Broader than that normally used by cultural theorists.

As noted in "Dim Forest, Bright Chimps," chimpanzees living in the forest differ from those on the savanna in how they


As noted in "Dim Forest, Bright Chimps," dominant Tai chimps use tree buttresses as drums in order to

Let other group members know the direction of travel.

In contrast to the Gombe chimps, Tai chimps more often hunt

In groups, with coordination.

The study of fossils is called


The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is


Which is the following is NOT an ideal environment for fossilization?

Acidic jungle soils.

Most of the fossils discovered in African come from the eastern and western parts of the continent. Why is this?

These areas provided better preservation.

The three eras that make up earths history are

Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozonic.

To reconstruct and interpret evolutionary changes, it is crucial to place each fossil in time. This is called

A chronological sequence.

The earth’s age is

4.6 billion years.

The original continent that existed about 200 mya, from which the modern continents ultimately emerged, is called


If fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil species B, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of


A layer of stratigraphy in one location overwhelming represents one species, while the same species is discovered in a similar straigraphic layer fifty miles away. What method is used to provide an estimate of age for this payer and this species?


Which period saw the proliferation of mammals?


What is the basic difference between relative and absolute dating?

The use of an actual number of years.

During the Holocene artifacts like _____ began to appear.


A wooden tomb is discovered with a well-preserved mummy inside. What method could be used to date the tomb?


A mummy is discovered whose tomb includes cloth, food, and other organic remains. What dating method might be used to date the tomb?

Carbon 14.

Chemical analysis of _____ can provide information on diets and habitats.

Bones and teeth.

Paleosols and fauna in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia show that

The earliest hominins lived in wooded settings.

Fluorine dating is an example of what type of dating method?


The molecular clock has been useful to determine the phylogenetic relationships of species based on the assumptions that

A species accumulates genetic differences over time at a constant rate.

Based on the molecular clock, geneticists believe the split between chimps and hominins occurred

6-7 mya.

What is the most important feature of climate?


Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from an early hominid site in eastern Africa?

Potassium-argon dating.

Some of the best information on climate history is based on the study of


During crucial periods of human evolution, the Pleistocene was characterized by

Massive glaciation, then warm interglacials.

Studies of temperatures during the Cenozoic era suggest that

Temperatures have fluctuated, sometimes greatly, overtime.

The time it takes for 50% of an unstable isotope to decay to a stable form is called the


Scientist can determine the type of plant consumed based on

Carbon 13 and carbon 12.

Era are

Divisions in geologic time divided into periods and epochs.

As reported in "Chimps Grieve as Much as Humans," we can interpret the behavior of Pansy’s relatives and friends

As similar to that of humans who care about a dying and then deceased loved one. A Precursor to more elaborate awareness among humans that have must have been present in the ape ancestor we share in common with chimps.

Wild chimp mothers and primates in general often carry and care their dead infants for weeks or even months because

Their mother-infant bond is programmed by natural selection to be very strong.

As reported in "Are We in Anthropodenial?" Frans de Waal believes that

Scientists should not be blind to the human-like characteristic of other animals.

The action Binti, an ape who saved 3-year-old boy who had fallen into its enclosure, according to "Are We in Anthropodenial?", made a deep impression on people, mainly because

It benefited a member of the human species.

The most significant difference between the fossil australopithecine, Lucy, and modern chimpanzees, as identified in "Are We in Anthropodenial?" is found in their

Pelvis (hips)

A grinning rhesus monkey, is noted in "Are We in Anthropodenial?" signals


Compared to the situation among ape mothers, human mother in foraging societies need more help in rearing and offspring because

Human babies have more elaborate culture to learn than ape babies.

As explained in "Mothers and Others," cooperative breeding

Has enabled humans to thrive in many new environments.

Which of the following does Sara Blaffer Hrdy believe may be the MOST important for the survival of weaned children during food shortages

Older women.

As presented in "Mothers and Others," in modern foraging societies such as the Aka allomothers

Care for infants about half the time.

The arboreal hypothesis proposes defining primate characteristics in adaptions to life in the trees, such as

Grasping hand and feet, developed vision, and greater intelligence.

The visual predation hypothesis proposes that

Primate traits arose as adaptions to preying on insects and small animals.

The angiosperm ration hypothesis proposes that

Certain primate traits were responses to the evolutionary spread of fruit trees during the Cenozoic.

Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primates were


The fayum desert has yielded fossils of these tree primates

Oligopithecus, Apidium, and Aegyptopithecus.

The best accepted hypothesis for the dispersal of African monkeys to the New World is

Platyrrhines evolved from anthropoids in Africa that migrated across the Atlantic to South America.

Comparisons of tooth wear in living apes extinct Miocene apes suggest that some extinct species of ape ate

Leaves, nuts and fruits.

Which two genera may be the ancestor to the orangutan?

Sivapithecus and Khoratpithecus.


Stood ten feet tall and weighed 660 pounds.

Canadian primate paleontologist David Begun proposes that climate changes in Europe prompted late Miocene apes to

Move from Europe from AFrica following the expansion of tropical forests.

The evolution of apes began in Africa continued into

Europe an Asia

Monkeys underwent massive _____ in the Pliocene and Pleistocene

Adaptive radiation.

Apes first appear in Europe and Asia from about

17 mya.

A species that is adapted to a wide range of environments, climates, and diets is

Biologically diverse.

A rapid temperature incerase about 55 mya created tropical conditions around the world, resulting in the

Adaptive ration of Euprimates.

During the Miocene epoch of the Cenozoic era, there was an adaptive ration of which kind of primate?


Apes went extinct in southern Europe (including France, Spain, Italy, and Greece) during the late Miocene, probably as a result of

Climate change.

The most distinctive feature of ape dentition, which clearly distinguishes apes from Old World Monkeys, is

a Y-5 molar pattern.

Which of the following apes has been proposed as the last common ancestor of living African apes and humans


Based on genetic analysis of living primates calibrated by the fossil record it is estimated that apes and Old World monkeys diverged into separate lineages around

25 mya.

Which fossil group is characterized by an eye orbit fully enclosed by bone?


The ape between the canine and the first premolar in the lower jaw of some primate is called a


Which anatomical feature would you expect to find the fossil remain of a nocturnal species?

Large eye orbits

The most likely contender for the common ancestor of all later catarrhines is


The shift from the Miocene, which had greater diversity of ape species and fewer monkey species, to a living assemblage with greater diversity of monkey species and fewer ape species may be the ersult of

Differences in ability to exploit the habitats the resulted after a change in global climate.

Which Eocene organisms had clear primate characteristic like a post orbital bar, opposable thumbs, nails, and a large brain?

Adapids and omomyids.

A reported "What Are Friends For?", which of the following lessons does Barbara Smuts derive from her study of friendship among baboons?

Among our primate relatives, males clearly provide mothers and infants with social benefits even when they are unlikely to be the fathers of those infants.

The male baboon, as stated in "What Are Friend For?" may function as an alternative caregiver for infants

Undergoing weaning.

As noted in "What Are Friends For?", all of the following factors were true regarding which baboons paired up in a friendship EXCEPT

Friends that have never mated.

According to Barbara Smuts, among baboons,

One of the main advantages of female friendship with a male is protection from attack from other baboons.

As noted in "What’s Love Got to Do With It?" a difference between bonobos and other primates is that

They have specially under restrained sexual behavior.

As noted in "What’s Love Got to Do With It?", an important function of GG-rubbing between bonobo females has to do with

Aiding in the assimilation of transferring females into a new community and sisterhood.

According to Meredith Small in "What’s Love Got to Do With It?", bonobos differ from chimps in

Frequently copulating face to face.

Among bonobos sexual behavior occurs

Like grooming (but quicker), to cement bonds between all members. To reduce tension around competing for food resources. The reconcile individuals after male-male aggression. Many times a date, much more than sex in any human culture.

Which of the following is true of the female bonobo?

They leave their mother, transfer to another group, and live as adults which unrelated females. They are the Alpha leader of their group along with their sons. They are not dominated or sexually coerced by males.

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