Anthropology- Ch. 6 & 7

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is flatter against the face and contributed to a decreasing sense of smell.

The nose structure in all primates

both a and c: A. eyes rotated forward.
C. color vision.

Primates’ enhanced sense of vision stems from


Orangutans are an example of which residence pattern?

that this may be a species of Old World monkey or ape, as the space in the teeth of the mandible suggests the presence of a canine-premolar honing complex.

In your primate anatomy lab you are shown the mandible (lower jaw bone) of a species of primate. While looking at the teeth, you notice a large space between the canine and first premolar. In your lab book you note

give birth to fewer offspring than do many other mammals.

Primate females

canine size

The presence of a honing complex relates to

both b and c: B. male baboons are likely to compete regularly for resources, including access to females.
C. male baboons of this species disperse from their natal groups and are less likely to be related.

In your primate anatomy lab, you are asked to observe the skulls of a male and a female baboon. After examining each skull and making notes about the large difference in canine size, you conclude that

are present only in some platyrrhines.

Prehensile tails

is larger among humans than among other primates.

Relative to body size, primate brain size

2 / 1 / 2 / 3.

The typical catarrhine dental formula is

They are the only primates known to depend on material culture for survival.

What trait makes humans unique?

lemurs, lorises, galagos, and tarsiers.

The suborder Prosimians includes

both a and c: A. results in extended periods of nursing and development to accommodate increasing behavioral complexity.
C. demonstrates the importance of intelligence in primate evolution.

The increased brain size observed in the order Primates

4,000-5,000 yBP

Chimpanzee material culture dates to

the lack of sexual dimorphism you see is due to decreased competition for mates in a monogamous social structure.

When observing primates at the zoo, you notice a male and female gibbon quite similar in size, unlike what you previously saw in the hamadryas baboon enclosure. You know that

have better color vision.

Anthropoids differ from prosimians in that they

to reinforce social structures and cement social bonds.

In nonhuman primates, grooming relationships serve


Living lemurs are found only in

pottos, lories, and other similar species

A finger pad with primitive dermal ridges most likely belongs to which of the following?

much of their time foraging for food.

Primates spend

the researchers are relying on anatomical classifications of chimpanzees and humans, as this is most appropriate when looking at adaptation and anatomy.

You are reading a scientific paper regarding the relationships of the anatomical and behavioral characteristics of chimpanzees and their implications for early hominid evolution. You note that the authors refer to human ancestors as hominids. This implies that

this primate must be a species of prosimian, as that suborder of primates still relies heavily on the sense of smell for many aspects of daily life.

In class your professor shows you an MRI scan of a primate brain. The professor points out the relatively large size of the olfactory bulb beneath the frontal lobe. This suggests to you that

passed this new behavior to relatives

Chimpanzees taught by humans to make simple stone tools

ring tailed lemurs

The rhinarium is present in

four functionally distinctive tooth types.

Primate dietary adaptation is facilitated by

chimpanzees using spears to hunt for small primates.

Jane Goodall’s observations of chimpanzee behavior in the wild documented all of the following except

monkeys, apes, and humans

Anthropoids include

opposite thumbs

Modern primates are characterized by arboreal adaptations including

a species of prosimian, because they retain the rhinarium commonly found in other mammal species.

While at the zoo you see an exhibit with a small group of primates you have not seen in your textbook. However you notice they have wet, snout-like noses similar to a dog’s. You tell your friend that this is

have specialized digestive anatomy for eating leaves.

Colobine primates

both b and c: B. capuchin monkeys.
C. orangutans.

The use of different natural objects to obtain food, similar to that observed in chimpanzees, has been observed in


The tarsiers belong to the taxonomic suborder of

all of the above: A. social transmission of learned behavior.
B. a type of "culture" that is learned and passed between individuals.
C. evidence of the cognitive capabilities of primates.

In studies of primate cognition and tool use, researchers have taught chimpanzees to crack open nuts with stones. Later in life, these chimpanzees have taught other young chimpanzees and offspring the same skill. This could be considered

a derived trait, because it is present in only one or few species of a group.

Humans are the only primates who lack a sectorial complex on the premolar. This is an example of

includes three subfamilies within hominids: pongines, gorillines, and hominines

The genetic classification for apes and humans

longer arms than legs

Suspensory primates generally have what type of body structure?


Which of the following are prosimians?

have a reduced sense of smell.

In comparison to Prosimians, anthropoids

is greater in societies where males compete.

Sexual dimorphism in canine size


All of the anthropoids live in social groups except

nails instead of claws on all limbs

Because of the enhanced sense of touch, most primate species have

an individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a dog.

A skull with a foramen magnum located on the back, which positions the skull in front of the body, belongs to

all of the above: A. the use of stick tools by chimpanzees.
B. predatory behavior of chimpanzees.
C. the enduring nature of the mother-offspring bond in chimpanzees.

Jane Goodall was the first to document

that material culture is unique to humans.

Chimpanzee tool use challenges the assumption

ring-tailed lemurs

Which of the following prosimians spend considerable amounts of time on the ground?

a canine that shows wear on the tip.

A feature unique only to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is

all of the above: A. the presence of arboreal adaptations
B. increased parental investment
C. the presence of dietary plasticity

Which of the following were identified by Sir William le Gros Clark as tendencies of primates?

prosimians and anthropoids

The two suborders of primates are


The Y-5 molar morphology is present in

a New World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.

While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to move throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely


Suspensory locomotion is characteristic of which primate?


Monogamy is characteristic of

masticatory muscles

Sagittal crests are pronounced in some primates with highly developed ________ .

2 / 1 / 3 / 3.

The typical dental formula of lorises and lemurs is

males compete for access to females.

Sexual dimorphism in body size is greater in societies where

galagos, lorises, tarsiers, and lemurs.

The suborder Prosimians includes

an enlarged olfactory bulb and enlarged scent glands.

Relative to other primates, prosimian adaptations include

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