Anthro Practice Final Exam

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True or False: The economy is composed of strategies for production, distribution, and consumption of goods


True or False: Humans first began to produce food approximately 200,000 years ago


True or False: Fordism is best defined as a model of production based on a social compact between labor, capital, and government.


According to the text, in the contemporary world, global cities are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:

large-scale industrial manufacturing

Henry Ford advanced the position that capitalism works best when the government has a role in moderating the basic welfare of all its citizens.


In Stephanie Black’s film, Life and Debt, the IMF loaned money to the Jamaican government to build a Free Trade Zone, where foreign manufacturers operate tariff-free and free of Jamaican labor regulations. This was a part of the Post-World War II strategies of wealthy nations to spur global economic growth, alleviate poverty, and raise living standards through strategic investment in national economies of former colonies. Today, these policies, referred to as neoliberalism, follow the rebirth of the liberal economic ideas of Adam Smith, which favor an open free market with little to no governmental invention. Which of the following most closely identifies Free Trade Zones as a neoliberal structural adjustment program?

privatization of state-owned enterprises

According to what we viewed in Stephanie Black’s film, Life and Debt, the IMF’s strategies to provide economic assistance to Jamaica are consistent with neoliberal economic policies, because these strategies

seek to eliminate trade barriers across international boundaries and promote trade

As discussed in the text, all of the following were negative reactions to neoliberalism, EXCEPT:

increased support for government spending on Medicaid and Social Security payments

The text discusses the Tsukiji fish market as an example of a global commodity chain because:

one can trace the hands fish pass through in a network that connects previously unconnected people and locations.

Currently, the world is consuming natural resources at a rate 50 percent more than sustainable levels.


Which of the following statements about human migration is true?

Only 3 percent of the world’s population moves beyond national borders

Economic resources that are transferred from migrants to their families or institutions in their country of origin are called:


Although globalization has produced increased flows of money, information, and goods:

governments regulate borders with passports and immigration inspectors.

Imagine that in a small city in the northern region of Brazil, students have learned English for a generation with a specific focus on working in Brazilian restaurants in New York City. Two in three inhabitants have already migrated to New York, and several support organizations exist solely to serve migrants from this city. What term might anthropologists use to describe how migration has become a way of life?

Cumulative Causation

Which of the following statements about immigrants to the United States is false?

Most migrants are undocumented, uneducated, and poor.

The migration of university students trained in Western-style professions who are enticed by high wages and opportunities is often referred to as:

Brain Drain

Although they are typically highly trained individuals, the author suggests that ________ migrants often face downward mobility in destination countries when they cannot obtain credentials necessary to work in the destination country.


Which of the following best describes how anthropologists conceptualize migration as a "gendered" process?

Migration by women has forced family members to adjust to shifting gender roles and family patterns.

According to the author, in addition to factories, the primary places where new immigrants find work in Los Angeles include:

suburban and urban homes where they work as nannies and housekeepers.

The ________ generation of young Dominicans studied by Ana Aparicio in New York have been able to negotiate their identity situationally, often shifting between categories of black, Latino, Dominican, and people of color.


Which of the following was the only immigrant group to be legally excluded on the basis of national origin in the United States?


People who stay actively connected with social, economic, political, and religious spheres across national borders are called ________ migrants.


What happened in the United States in 1965 that shifted patterns of immigration?

The policy of restricting immigrants with quotas by nationality was ended.

All of the following are effects of remittances sent back to countries of origin, EXCEPT:

increased consumer spending in communities that receive immigrants.

According to Judy Goode’s research in the article, "The Contingent Construction of Local Identities: Koreans and Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia," a local Korean American businessman ran for a Korean political office while living and working in Philadelphia. He returned to South Korea after winning. This is an unusual but a significant example of transnationalism, which is:

the maintenance of active participation in political, religious, social, and economic spheres across national borders.

True or False: Internal migration refers to immigrants who continue to travel back and forth between destination and origin countries.


Comparing the public identities and social experiences of Koreans against those of Puerto Rican in Philadelphia, Judy Goode argues that this population of entrepreneurial and professionalized Koreans were seen as model ideal immigrants compared to the ways in which the hegemony perceives the local Puerto Rican population. Goode states that this group of Koreans, who immigrated to the US in the late 1980s after and economic downturn in South Korea, possessed social capital, something most labor migrant, like the Puerto Ricans, did not have.
According to the text and as explained through the article, social capital is:

assets and skills such as language, education, or social networks that complement financial resources.

According to the textbook, one of the key reasons that immigration continues to be a controversial issue in the United States is because:

the perception that the diversity of the current generation of migrants raises cultural challenges

Which of the following statements about immigration to the United States is accurate?

Nearly 40 million residents of the United States were born in foreign countries

The "melting pot" model of immigration overly simplifies the way that migration actually took place in U.S. history for all the following reasons, EXCEPT:

that within two generations, most European immigrants became part of the racial majority.

While people are ________to migrate by job opportunities, educational opportunities, and access to health care, they are ________to migrate by poverty, famine, war, disease, and religious oppression, among other factors.

Pulled; Pushed

Entrepreneurial immigrants often rely on ________, where financial resources are borrowed at interest, repaid, and borrowed again

Revolving loan funds

Scholars call the generation of migrants who left their home countries as adults the ________ generation.


Remittances are often associated with:

All types of immigrants

The largest group of people who immigrated to the United States in 2011 by country of origin were from:


True or False: An independent territory under the control of a centralized government that makes laws and exercises military, economic, and political power to maintain order and defend this territory is a political structure known as a chiefdom


True or False: The ability of a person, group, or institution to use action or influence to affect change is known as power.


The ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force is referred to as:


In the United States, most Americans believe that jobs and status in society should be based on ability and achievement. It is considered inappropriate to gain high government office for being someone’s wife, brother, or cousin. Hiring family members who may not be qualified for a position is known as nepotism and considered a serious abuse of power. This belief, which prevents Americans from favoring family members over other people who are more qualified, is an example of what concept?


State domination is never complete, and people still contest established power relationships and structures through political, economic, and military means. They can and do change cultural norms, values, symbols, and institutions, and the ability to contest these is known as:


Modernization of agricultural production in Malaysia led to increasing inequality between the rich and the poor, but the poor laborers were able to find ways to resist the domination of the wealthy without risking confrontation through foot-dragging, slowdowns, false compliance with regulations, theft, sabotage, trickery, and arson. These are all examples of:


Collective group actions in response to uneven development, inequality, and injustice that seek to build institutional networks to transform cultural patterns and government policies are referred to as a(n):

Social Movement

In the 1950s, Jim Crow laws in many parts of the United States created a caste system of legal inequality. White Americans and black Americans had to live by different and inherently unfair rules and members of the civil rights movement held protests, sit-ins, and marches to oppose this legal inequality that eventually resulted in the Civil Rights Act, which eliminated much of the legal inequality in the country. This is an example of a:

Social Movement

The Occupy Wall Street movement was able to gain support by focusing on inequality with the motto "We are the 99 percent," and combining physical and virtual elements of their protest. This is an example of:

The Framing Process

Some societies use religious or other traditional institutions, such as the Fatwa council in Egypt, to deal with internal problems and avoid the interference and control of the state legal system. These are referred to as:

Alternative Legal Structures

True or False: Religion has been a central interest of anthropologists only recently in the history of the discipline.


Which of the following statements is true?

People make sense of the world, reach decisions, and organize their lives on the basis of their religious beliefs.

True or False: Anthropologists are primarily interested in:capturing religious expression and making it come alive for others.


French sociologist ________ viewed religion as ultimately something practiced with others and thus a social practice rather than a private or individual one.

Emilie Durkeim

According to anthropologist Victor Turner, the second state of rites of passage that involves a period of outsiderhood during which the individual is set apart from normal society and exists on the margins of everyday life is termed:


Which of the following theories contends that religious practices have likely developed in response to very practical problems as people sought to adapt to the natural environment?

Marvin Harris

For ________, the key to the development of Western capitalism were ascetic values of self-denial and self-discipline.

Max Weber

Anthropologist George Gmelch examined the rituals, taboos, and sacred objects of magic that are in almost constant use in which of the following sports?


True or False: Anthropologist George Gmelch found that players who use a particular ritual, such as touching the bill of their cap every time they are up to bat, generally tend to believe that good magic is contagious.


Anthropologist Clifford Geertz found that:

symbols used in religion acquire significance far beyond the actual material of which they are made and allow believers to feel that the religious world is truly real.

Anthropologist Talal Asad argues that:

universal definitions of religion can actually obscure local realities and, subsequently, local expressions of religion should be examined rather than universal ones.

Which of the following constitutes the complex historical and social developments through which symbols are given power and meaning?

Authorizing Process

Which of the following is transforming the ritual practices of religious communities large and small as congregations adapt to their members’ mobility and the lively flow of ideas, information, and money across borders?


According to the text, Texas colonias are of interest to medical anthropologists because:

their rates for many diseases are considerably above state and national averages.

Epidemiology is defined as:

the study of the spread of disease and pathogens through the human population.

Medical pluralism is defined as:

the intersection of multiple cultural approaches to healing.

Health includes not merely the absence of infirmity, but also complete physical, mental, and ________ well-being.


________ is a discrete, natural entity that can be clinically identified and treated by a health professional.


In the view of "technocratic birth":

mothers can receive epidural injections to manage their pain.

The author attributes the increased popularity of Tibetan medicine in recent decades to:

international migration.

Anthropologists who studied the rituals associated with surgery discovered that:

scrubbing the hands often reduces anxiety among medical personnel.

According to the author, Paul Farmer argues based on his fieldwork in Cange that:

anthropologists should use their knowledge for intervention to help solve problems.

Kuru is a disease that:

the Fore acquire through consuming cooked flesh.

In the United States, statistical data for racial disparities in health indicate that:

black babies are more than twice as likely to die in infancy as white babies.

Medical migration as discussed in the text does not include:

high-quality health care in New York City means lower rates of maternal mortality than national averages.

Illness narratives:

are the personal stories that people tell to explain their illness.

The first step healers should use when collecting illness narratives is to:

ask the patient to identify his or her perspective of the problem.

Where did Paul Farmer conduct his fieldwork?


What population did Anne Fadiman write about?

Hmong immigrants in the United States

Which population did Khiara Bridges study?

mothers in New York City

According to the text, medical anthropologists see health as a product of:

the environment, with absence of poverty and violence critical factors for good health.

Which of the following statements accurately describes Chinese medicine?

Chinese medical practices vary widely within China, from patient to patient, and also over time.

As discussed in the text, anthropologist Paul Farmer:

is cofounder of Partners in Health, which works with local communities in Haiti to improve the health conditions of poor Haitians.

Morrinho is important to anthropologists as a:

miniature Brazilian city where individuals act out everyday life.

Art in Western traditions is often associated with notions of ________ art.


As defined in the textbook, the aesthetic experience refers to:

the perception of art through one’s senses.

Anthropologists’ definitions emphasize that art is:

shaped by the viewers’ perspective and culture.

The anthropological approach to art:


Analysis of European Paleolithic cave art indicates that:

the paintings were modified over a 20,000-year period

________ is the perception of an object’s antiquity, uniqueness, and originality within a local


West African art is sold predominantly:

from a New York warehouse

The important aspects of any art market that ethnographers strive to understand are:

production, consumption and distribution

The author writes that the marketing of art created by the Pintupi of Western Australia:

stresses the authenticity of these designs through their link to the Dreaming.

Ethnographic studies indicate that art produced by local peoples presented on the global scale:

can help the local producers establish a visible ethnic identity.

Anthropologists find that in addition to its aesthetic value, art also serves often as a:

form of political protest, way of performing gender, critique of economic inequality, means of establishing identity.

According to the text, desis attempt to define their identity through:

music, dance, and fashion that blends U.S. and Indian cultural heritage.

Ethnomusicologists would be most likely to study:

the use of playground rhymes by U.S. rap artists.

The research of visual anthropologists focuses on:

the production, circulation, and consumption of visual images.

The majority of the 40 million people who read National Geographic at its peak were:

white and middle class.

Because anthropologist Tom Boellstorff describes Second Life as populated by people who interact, create intimate relationships, and develop a unique culture and sets of beliefs, it can be likened to Benedict Anderson’s notion of:

an imagined community.

Tom Boellstorff described Second Life as a community because:

participants have developed a unique culture and set of beliefs.

Through the Black Light Project:

young women performed street theater to engage in dialogue with members of the public in Detroit.

True or False: Since the Peripheral nation-states lack modern economic infrastructures, for many, Modernization Theory explains why the Periphery lags behind both the Industrialized Semi-Periphery and Core nation-states. For instance, in Jamaica, as seen in the film Life and Debt, and like in Malaysia, as discussed in the text, the modernization of agricultural production has led to significant reduction in poverrty within these nation-states.


Stephanie Black’s documentary, Life and Debt, illustrates the ability of the United States – as a member of the Core – to use its status in the hegemony to garner global consensus for neoliberal economic action, which favors U.S. interests. One way this has been achieved is through the U.S. control of the global financial institutions, like the International Monetary Fund, to which Periphery nation-states must turn when in financial trouble. This, in effect, yields control of internal Jamaican policies to the Core; and in essence, to the U.S. with the largest voting shares within such institutions. Based on these assessments, which of the following is not an example given by Black to demonstrate the U.S. power over the Jamaican sovereignty?

Although the arguments were based on an environmental issues, President George Bush lodged a complaint with the WTO to have a fishing method that wasprevalent within the Jamaican fishing industry banned, ultimately this gave the industrialized American fishing industry an advantage.

Cooking and building, fashion and oratory, decorating and dressing, and sewing and play all represent media through which artists and audience communicate.


Archaeologists discovered evidence of __________ in South Africa’s Blombos Cave

carved bison bones

Foraging is defined as

subsistence based on hunting, fishing, and gathering

an autonomous regional structure of political, economic, and military rule with a central government authorized to make laws and use force to maintain order and defend its territory


Groups of indigenous people like the Maasai, who live outside the direct control of the government of Tanzania and have had to form their own nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other political organizations to fight against the state’s efforts to act as though they did not exist, are today known as:


Globalization has produced unprecedented opportunities for the creation of wealth:

but it has also produced widespread poverty worldwide

Neoliberal economic policies:

seek to eliminate trade barriers across international boundaries and promote trade

the author associates all of the following problems with industrialized agriculture EXCEPT:

often fewer calories are used to produce food than the food provides when consumed

Systems of stratification and power such as class:

are not intrinsic to human culture

Social movements build support and justify collective action through the creation of common understandings of their cause, and this is called the:

framing process

Systems of class stratify individuals’ life chances and affect their possibilities for upward social:


Which of the following social processes is currently affecting the ways in which religion and religious practices are being stretched and shaped today?


As wages have been creeping upward for Chinese workers, one recent trend has been:

That factories are now shifting to Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos since they have cheaper labor

The participants in the Black Light Project with whom Aimee Cox worked were:


Economic resources sent back to countries of origin play an important role in:

supporting families and stimulating economic growth in local communities

The goods exchanged in the Triangle trade did not include:


Hunger reflects growing global inequality and is a result of

the uneven distribution of food despite the sufficient amount of food available to feed the world’s poor.

according to the textbook, an important factor that drives internal migration in China since the 1980s has been:

the creation of export processing zones

Lutz and Collins concluded after their investigation of National Geographic photos that the magazine provides readers a view of all the following messages, EXCEPT:

many regions are suffering conflict along gender, race, and economic lines

Anthropologists trace the roots of which of the following patterns of social stratification to the rise of intensive agriculture and populous market towns?

extreme stratification

Which of the following statements is true?

Each society develops its own patterns of stratification that differentiate people into groups or classes

Each society develops its own patterns of stratification that differentiate people into groups or classes

social mobility

Horticulture is defined as

cultivation strategy with non intensive use of land and labor

The total value of what someone owns, including stocks, bonds, and real estate (minus any debt) is referred to as _____________.


Which of the following locations is particularly experiencing increasing encounters between people of various religious faiths and new strategies for cultivating and educating participants?


in which ways has globalization affected the modern world system in the past forty years?

There is less predictability in the flow of goods between core and peripheral nations

Theorist Pierre Bourdieu found that which of the following systems did not provide opportunities for social class mobility, but instead helped reproduce the social class relations that already existed?


According to the text, rara festivals are closely founded in:

protests about historic social inequality and political repression.

The archaeological record shows evidence of human artistic expression dating back ________ years.


Stratification and inequality became:

more pronounced in industrialized capitalist economies over recent centuries, resulting in the concentration of wealth in the hands of fewer people.

since the mid- 1970’s, class inequality in the United States has:

increased due to decreasing tax rates for the wealthy and stagnating salaries for the middle class

The study of health care provided at Alpha House in New York City suggested that:

black women were considered better able to stand pain than white women.

Anthropologists such as Setha Low have demonstrated that class is largely invisible in the United States due to which of the following actions carried out by portions of the population?

voluntary isolation

Anthropological studies of art rely most on which of the human senses?

none of the above (relies on all senses)

In addition to the role of the media and voluntary isolation among portions of the population, which of the following also contributes to the invisibility of class and inequality in the United States?

consumer culture

The case of Lia Lee is significant for medical anthropologists because:

of the tensions of medical pluralism, as the family’s beliefs did not mesh with the physicians’.

as a result of efforts to regulate international migration, the __________ border has become one of the most heavily guarded in the world

U.S – Mexico

According to the author, what conditions led to the emergence of dependency theory?

Latin American scholars observed that the global economy was structured to extract resources from less developed nations and transfer them to industrialized nations

the "triangle trade" discussed in the text linked:

Africa, Europe and the Americas

Where is art known as "wood" and "mud" produced?

West Africa

people who participate in programs that offer a temporary right to work but limited long-term rights and privileges are called:

guest workers

People who have been forced to migrate because of violence, religious persecution, or disasters but stay within their own countries are referred to as:

internally displaced persons

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