Anthro 103

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1. Anthropology has long studied the marginalized and remote segments of human society. Recently, a lot of research has begun to look at the upper segments of society, which can help us understand how the other marginalized groups come into being and exist at all. What is this process called?
a.
studying up
c.
deep ethnography
b.
marginalization
d.
thick description

studying up

2. Archaeology, the study of cultures in the human past, focuses on what?
a.
human adaptation to the environment in the past
b.
human evolution from the fossil record
c.
any human material remains
d.
any human burial sites

any human material remains

3. Applying one’s own cultural standards of value, worth, and morality to another culture is called:
a. Ethnocentrism.
c. Cultural relativism.
b. Participant observation.
d. Ethnography.

Ethnocentrism.

4. Cultural anthropologists like to hang out with the people they are studying and ask lots of questions as the people work, celebrate, dance, or play games – sometimes joining in themselves. What is the term used for this research method?
a.
ethnology
c.
cultural anthropology
b.
participant observation
d.
cognitive anthropology

participant observation

5. What type of anthropologists explore all aspects of living human culture—from war and violence to love, sexuality, and child rearing—and look at the meanings that people from all over the world place on these things?
a.
Ethnologists
c.
holistic anthropologists
b.
Sociolinguists
d.
cultural anthropologists

cultural anthropologists

6. Human beings have long been migrant, moving themselves, their material goods, and even ideas from one part of the world to another. What makes this process, which is now called globalization, seem so different today than in the past?

a.
four-field approach
c.
Intensification
b.
increasing migration
d.
Ethnocentrism

Intensification

7. What comprises all of the inherited genetic factors that provide the framework for an organism’s physical form?
a.
Genotype
c.
Gene pool
b.
Race
d.
Phenotype

Genotype

8. Human beings are pretty much identical and share almost 99.9 percent of their DNA. Knowing this, we might understand the observable differences in body ratios—height versus width—that anthropologists have documented as a matter of ________.
a.
Race
c.
ethnicity
b.
Inheritance
d.
phenotype

phenotype

9. The current argument over whether to build a wall between Mexico and the United States reflects, in part, what long-standing ideology that has informed how race is constructed and managed in the United States?
a.
"Bring me your tired"
c.
Nationalism
b.
Integration
d.
Nativism

Nativism

10. In terms of dominant cultural notions about what kinds of love is morally correct and natural, the recent changes in the United States around same-sex marriage are related to which earlier civil rights legal issue?
a.
apartheid
c.
hypodescent
b.
racialization
d.
miscegenation

miscegenation

11. Despite the initial racist attitudes directed toward Irish, Jewish, and Italian immigrants, these groups eventually "became white" through (quizlet) (also pg 137 of text)
a.
greater accuracy in the census.
c.
the elimination of ethnic categories.
b.
Intermarriage and upward mobility.
d.
legal changes.

Intermarriage and upward mobility.

12. Patterns by which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions, policies, and systems are referred to as ________.
a.
discrimination
c.
institutional racism
b.
racialization
d.
racial ideology

institutional racism

13. When an individual acts on personal prejudiced beliefs and discriminates against someone based on imagined differences between them, this is referred to as what kind of racism?
a.
institutional racism
c.
benign racism
b.
individual racism
d.
racial profiling

individual racism

14. A set of ideas about a group of people, such as: "Latina women are sexually promiscuous," or "All Arabs are terrorists," can make it seem natural and normal to discriminate against these groups. What type or aspect of racism is this?
a.
group racism
c.
racist ideology
b.
institutional racism
d.
private racism

racist ideology

15. Some people from the Middle East have been considered "white" in the United States for some time, but since September 11, anyone with brown skin who seems foreign is now considered "different" and possibly an enemy. This is an example of ________.
a.
discrimination
c.
Racialization
b.
segregation
d.
individual racism

Racialization

16. In many countries, members of the dominant ethnic or racial group tend to favor other members of their own group, give them the benefit of any doubt, and take what they say more seriously. This is because the dominant group’s worldview and ways of talking, eating, worshipping, etc. are widely considered normal, natural, or ideal. In the United States, what do we call the invisible benefits of this normalization of the dominant racial group’s culture?
a.
white privilege
c.
reverse racism
b.
nepotism
d.
the "race card"

white privilege

17. What do we call the British Empire’s military, economic, and political control over Malaysia?
a.
Colonialism
c.
Nativism
b.
Fascism
d.
Globalism

Colonialism

18. The story of Shellcracker Haven and how the local white residents were gradually disenfranchised from their lives and work because of their class status is a strong reflection of the tendency to do what to others?
a.
Resist racism
c.
Racialize
b.
Colonize
d.
Stereotype

Stereotype

19. Sitting in your anthropology class helps you learn about culture through formal instruction. What informal learning process helps you learn culture from family, friends, and the media?
a.
unconscious instruction
c.
Relativism
b.
contestation
d.
Enculturation

Enculturation

20. Family gatherings that honor particular moments in our lives—weddings, special holidays, and so forth—are often sources of tension when different family members want to "change things up." As a facet of culture and how we learn it, this reminds us that culture is a shared experience. It also reminds us that culture is:
a.
static in that it remains identical, consistent, and uncontested over time.
b.
constantly contested, negotiated, and changing.
c.
genetically inherited.
d.
unique to humans.

constantly contested, negotiated, and changing.

21. When studying abroad, Shelby talks about the racial categories in the United States. Her new friends from Japan, Brazil, and Turkey all say her categories are incorrect. Each person has their own way of categorizing people by race. Shelby remembers from her anthropology class that racial categories are determined by:
a.
biological differences between groups
c.
cultural symbols
b.
genetic variations between groups
d.
mental maps of reality

mental maps of reality

22. Franz Boas (1858-1942) rejected unilineal cultural evolution (the notion that different cultures represent stages of development), instead suggesting that different cultures arise as the result of very different causes, and will vary widely. What do we call his approach?
a.
structural functionalism
c.
historical particularism
b.
cultural interpretivism
d.
unilineal cultural evolution

historical particularism

Norms are best described as:
a. Values held only by older members of a society.
c. Symbolic meanings about values and beliefs.
d. Behaviors present in large hierarchical societies but absent in small egalitarian societies.
e. Ideas people in a society share about the way things ought to be done.

e. Ideas people in a society share about the way things ought to be done.

24. Margaret Mead’s (1901-1979) fieldwork in Samoa was controversial in part because she examined sexual freedom, and considered sex to be a matter of ________.
a.
Biology
c.
Race
b.
Enculturation
d.
Structural functionalism

Enculturation

25. Clifford Geertz argued that every cultural action is more than the action itself. It is also a symbol of deeper meaning, subject to interpretation. What key idea in anthropology did this important theoretical idea help promote?
a.
Facial expression is a key aspect of understanding other cultures.
b.
Symbols are a crucial means of understanding other cultures.
c.
Balinese culture holds the key to how we might understand other cultures.
d.
Carefully coding field notes is the most effective way to understand other cultures.

Symbols are a crucial means of understanding other cultures.

26. In his research conducted in the Trobriand Islands, Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) employed an early form of what type of anthropological theory?
a.
structural functionalism
c.
interpretivism
b.
unilineal evolutionism
d.
historical particularism

structural functionalism

27. What do anthropologists call the uneven distribution of resources and privileges, often along lines of gender, racial or ethnic group, class, age, family, religion, sexuality, or legal status?
a.
Racism
c.
coercion
b.
Stratification
d.
hegemony

Stratification

28. Which of the following is defined as the ability to create consent and agreement within a population, sometimes unconsciously, by shaping what people think is normal, natural, and possible?
a.
Consumerism
c.
Materialism
b.
Coercion
d.
Hegemony

Hegemony

29. Which of the following industries attempts to create a desire for goods and services?
a.
Banking
c.
Advertising
b.
Manufacturing
d.
Higher education

Advertising

30. What does Benjamin Whorf ‘s research with the Hopi, a Native American group in the southwestern United States, suggest about language?

a.
The human brain is hardwired for organizing language in a universal manner.
b.
Language creates different ways of thinking.
c.
Language occurs independently of thought.
d.
Thought occurs independently of language.

Language creates different ways of thinking.

31. Which component of any language refers to names, ideas, and events that offer a kind of catalogue of what is spoken and can be compiled into something accessible to others?
a.
Phonology
c.
Lexicon
b.
Grammar
d.
Syntax

Lexicon

32. A historical linguist would be most likely to study:
a.
a nonstandard variation of a language that is particular to a specific region.
b.
the development of language over time, including its changes and variations.
c.
the way that linguistic variants alternate back and forth, depending on the context.
d.
the way that variation in language appears gradually over distance between places.

the development of language over time, including its changes and variations.

33. What has the effort to preserve the Native American Lakota language, spoken by about 50,000 people in the United States, led to?
a.
There is now a new, modern dialect of Lakota.
b.
It has resulted in the widespread adoption of Lakota terms in many parts of the country.
c.
There is a widespread integration of social media into the preservation effort.
d.
It has resulted in the loss of Lakota cultural capital due to online piracy.

There is a widespread integration of social media into the preservation effort.

34. Anthropologists have shown that chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates are able to communicate about things not immediately present and events in the past or future. What aspect of human language does this describe? (pg 97 of textbook)
a.
Displacement
c.
Complexity
b.
Productivity
d.
Innovation

Displacement

35. In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, signs posted in public view (such as for streets or restaurants) are required to show the words in French first, usually above English, and in larger type sizes. This reflects:
a.
the language continuum.
b.
that there are more French speakers in Canada than English speakers.
c.
the use of political power to control language use.
d.
an interest in welcoming both French and English speakers.

the use of political power to control language use.

36. A group of people who share an idea of cultural and ancestral connection and who see themselves as distinct from people in other groups are described as a(n) ________.
a.
society.
c.
cultural dominion.
b.
ethnic group.
d.
nation.

ethnic group.

37. What term is used to describe a political entity located within a geographic boundary with enforced borders whose population shares a sense of culture, ancestry, and destiny?
a.
Community
c.
State
b.
Nation-state
d.
Society

Nation-state

38. Most ethnic groups establish traits that set them apart from others and identify members of their own group. Anthropologists call these ________.
a.
culturally significant traits
c.
ethnic-making projects
b.
ethnic boundary markers
d.
social signifiers

ethnic boundary markers

39. A story that is told about the founding and history of a particular group to reinforce a common sense of identity is called ________.
a.
creation story
c.
origin myth
b.
folktale
d.
history

origin myth

40. Carlos Murphy is from an Irish Mexican family, and he rides with pride on the Sons of Erin float in the St. Patrick’s Day parade and drinks horchata with his Mexican relatives the next day. In these two different ethnic activities, Carlos is:
a.
demonstrating a rigid concept of self.
b.
applying situational negotiation of identity.
c.
employing rationalization of identity.
d.
using simulated nationalism.

applying situational negotiation of identity.

41. Chinese immigrants began migrating to the US in the 1800s and despite the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (repealed in 1943), they and their descendants help compose the cultural, economic, and political fabric of the US. Many Chinese American communities continue to practice many aspects of traditional and contemporary Chinese culture. What concept does this illustrate?
a.
Amalgamation
c.
Integration
b.
Biculturalism
d.
Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism

42. As European immigrant arrivals to the United States peaked in the mid-1900s, newcomers dispersed into cities and towns, often attempting to "blend in." This was in order to embrace their new lives, but it was also a way of trying to stay safe from prejudice and hatred. What term describes the result of this process of "blending in"?
a.
melting pot
c.
Enculturation
b.
discrimination
d.
Amalgamation

melting pot

43. What country only exists during the ninety minutes its team plays a soccer match?
a.
United Kingdom
c.
France
b.
England
d.
South Africa

England

44. Babylon, Mesopotamia, and the "cradle of civilization" are all terms of historical importance we implicitly link to the nation of Iraq. Although this creates the sense that Iraq is an ancient nation-state, Iraq:
a.
never existed at all.
c.
has only existed for 200 years.
b.
has only existed since World War I.
d.
has existed for at least 2,000 years.

has only existed since World War I.

45. Anthropological research reveals that most ethnic groups and nations are recent historical creations, our connection to people within these groups is relatively new, and our shared traditions are recently invented. In addition, most members will never meet each other. This allows us to observe that most nations today are ________.
a.
Achieved communities
c.
Multicultural
b.
Conglomerates
d.
Imagined communities

Imagined communities

46. Prior to 1800, the French were a scattered collection of groups that spoke different languages, celebrated different holidays and festivals, and practiced different religions. The development of schools, road systems, and a national language united them as French rather than as Gascons, Burgundians, and Parisians, which has resulted in what kind of social structure today?
a.
imagined community
c.
nation-state
b.
ethnic state
d.
citizen coalition

nation-state

47. The work of anthropologist Tone Bringa in Bosnia examines the underlying causes of the civil war in what was once called Yugoslavia. Similarly, scholar Mahmood Mamdami studied the Rwandan conflict. What characterized both cases?
a.
Multiculturalism
c.
Situational negotiation of identity
b.
Assimilation
d.
Genocide

Genocide

48. In 2014, Scots voted in a referendum whether or not to make their nation an independent country, separate from the United Kingdom. Although the referendum was defeated, what particular sentiment were the Scots expressing by seeking independence?
a.
a desire for ethnic cleansing
b.
nationalism
c.
the sentiment of being in diaspora
d.
rebellion

nationalism

49. As part of a territorial conflict in Bosnia, ethnic Croats expelled, imprisoned, or killed the Muslim people with whom they had lived peacefully for more than 500 years. What concept does this illustrate?
a.
Ethnic cleansing
c.
Fascism
b.
Patriotism
d.
Expulsion

Ethnic cleansing

50. What strategy did hunter-gatherer communities develop to enhance cooperation, generosity, and the sharing of resources?
a.
Compatibility
c.
Egalitarianism
b.
Hegemony
d.
Hierarchy

Egalitarianism

51. Small, kin-based groups that hunt and gather over a particular territory and constantly break up and reform in response to conflicts are referred to as what?
a.
Bands
c.
Movements
b.
Chiefdoms
d.
Tribes

Bands

52. Earlier anthropological analysis considered small-scale human groups in comparative isolation. We now understand that in the modern world, all bands, tribes, and chiefdoms must function how?
a.
as autonomous groups
b.
solely with the permission of the state government
c.
as distinctly homogenous societies
d.
within the influence of the state

within the influence of the state

53. The political structure of modern countries includes a central government that exercises complete political, military, and economic control of its territory. Modern countries are considered what kind of organization?
a.
Tribe
c.
Band
b.
State
d.
Chiefdom

State

54. In 1871, hundreds of principalities were united to form Germany. After defeat in World War I, Germany’s government was known as the Weimar Republic until the Nazis came to power in 1933. With the defeat of Nazi Germany, the country was divided into East and West during the Cold War, and finally reunited when the Soviet Union collapsed. Germany has existed in many forms, demonstrating what characteristic of states?
a.
Most were formed before World War I.
b.
They are uniquely constructed and constantly reshaped.
c.
They are only a collection of symbols.
d.
They remain the same over time.

They are uniquely constructed and constantly reshaped.

55. What can be accurately said about most of the states that exist in the world today?
a.
They emerged during society’s transition to an egalitarian lifeway.
b.
Most states began as hunter-gatherer societies.
c.
They all exist because of the tendency toward warfare.
d.
They did not exist prior to World War II.

They did not exist prior to World War II.

56. In 1989, millions of Chinese stood up to their government in the Tiananmen Square protests. These protests, unfortunately, resulted in martial law and possibly the deaths of numerous Chinese citizens. What would an anthropologist suggest about what the Tiananmen Square protestors were doing?
a.
exercising their agency
c.
expressing their individuality
b.
instigating militarization
d.
exercising their power

exercising their agency

57. Although the Nazi regime did use violence, the regime was also able to gain the cooperation of much of the populace who saw Nazi actions and programs as necessary and even reasonable. What is this kind of consensus an example of?
a.
Hypnotism
c.
Framing
`
b.
Hegemony
d.
Coercion

Hegemony

58. When a civil society prepares for war, this preparation includes production of weapons and the glorification of war. What is this process called?
a.
Arming
c.
Mobilization
b.
Fortification
d.
Militarization

Militarization

59. Even very powerful institutions do not completely dominate people’s lives and thinking. Individual and groups with relatively little power can contest powerful institutions, such as the state, because:
a.
individuals are not really affected by systems of power.
b.
systems of power, like the state, change constantly and quickly.
c.
established systems of power, like the state, are always weakening.
d.
systems of power, including the state, are never absolute.

systems of power, including the state, are never absolute.

60. What do we call the method by which social movements create shared meanings and definitions that motivate and justify collective action?
a.
cause célèbre
c.
rationalization
b.
framing process
d.
social rationale

framing process

61. In 2014, police in Ferguson, MO, shot and killed 18-year-old Michael Brown in an incident that evoked nationwide and international protest about issues of aggressive policing, police brutality, and anti-black racism. In the ensuing months, social media was employed to powerful effect using the hashtag #blacklivesmatter. The creation of the #blacklivesmatter hashtag helped galvanize support and is an example of what kind of action?
a.
social movement
c.
social demonstration
b.
social rationale
d.
framing process

framing process

62. The Occupy Wall Street movement was able to gain support by focusing on inequality with the motto "We are the 99 percent" and combining physical and digital elements of their protest. What is this is an example of?
a.
subversive action
c.
social rationale
b.
civil society organization
d.
framing process

framing process

63. To resist the power of state institutions, some societies make use of different systems to settle issues that might normally go to the state court system. What are these systems known as?
a.
alternative legal structures
c.
common law structures
b.
independent courts systems
d.
customary laws

alternative legal structures

64. What surprising discovery did Carolyn Nordstrom make in her study of war and violence in Mozambique?
a.
War is not something that can be prevented through political will.
b.
People want war in order to establish their autonomy.
c.
The political violence of war can be resisted and defeated in the attending of daily matters.
d.
The state does not actually start or condone war; people do.

c. The political violence of war can be resisted and defeated in the attending of daily matters.

65. What are we talking about when we refer to observable physical and biological differences between the male and female human reproduction systems?
a.
gender
c.
chromosomes
b.
sex
d.
dimorphism

sex

66. The visible expression of sexual dimorphism between male-sexed and female-sexed individuals is referred to as what?
a.
genotypical
c.
phenotypical
b.
gonadal
d.
hormonal

phenotypical

67. Why are cross-cultural studies important for our understanding of sex and gender?
a.
They allow us insight into an individual’s chromosomal makeup.
b.
They reinforce the idea that biology alone cannot predict the roles men and women play in a given culture.
c.
We can then predict an individual’s behavior, strength, and intelligence, as well as the roles of men and women in a given culture.
d.
They help reinforce the idea that gender and sex are the same in all cultures.

They reinforce the idea that biology alone cannot predict the roles men and women play in a given culture.

68. What do we call the process through which certain understandings of gender (i.e., what it means to be a man or a woman) becomes normative and seems natural to us?
a.
gender performance
c.
cultural construction of gender
b.
gender stratification
d.
gender hierarchy

cultural construction of gender

69. How do anthropologists describe the way individuals act out behaviors associated with masculine and feminine?
a.
gender stratification
c.
gender dimorphism
b.
gender performance
d.
gender bias

gender performance

70. According to C. J. Pascoe, what is a primary component of the so-called fag discourse in U.S. high schools?
a.
the enforcement of heterosexuality
b.
the enforcement of masculinity
c.
discussing gender roles
d.
constant use of bullying to enforce femininity

the enforcement of masculinity

71. What does anthropologist Matthew Gutmann’s research in Mexico indicate?
a.
All men strive to be "macho."
b.
Women only want to be with men who embrace machismo.
c.
The traits of machismo are found only in the upper classes.
d.
Masculine identity is in flux and negotiable.

Masculine identity is in flux and negotiable.

72. Female bodybuilders go to a great deal of effort to shape their physiques in a manner that is highly similar to their male bodybuilder counterparts. What do these female bodybuilders demonstrate about sexual dimorphism?
a.
Human males are always stronger than females due to biological differences.
b.
Females are actually stronger than males due to sexual dimorphism.
c.
Gender roles are determined by the different physical abilities of males and females.
d.
Male and female bodies are much more similar than different.

Male and female bodies are much more similar than different.

74. Anne Fausto-Sterling’s analysis of biological sexual identity identifies how many different sexes?
a.
Three
c.
six
b.
Four
d.
five

five

75. In India, what are individuals who are identified as "neither man nor woman" called?
a.
Berdache
c.
Two-Spirits
b.
Hijras
d.
transgender

Hijras

76. Home is often considered the domain of women, while men go to work. Although this idea has changed dramatically in many places in the past several decades, it remains a common theme. How does anthropologist Michele Rosaldo see male and female gender roles?
a.
Gender roles are rigid in all countries regardless of changes.
b.
Gender roles are often split between private and public spheres.
c.
Gender roles are unified across both private and public spheres.
d.
Gender roles are exclusively defined by gender performance.

Gender roles are often split between private and public spheres.

77. Who formed the group CO-MADRES during El Salvador’s civil war (1977-1992)?
a.
political activists protesting the rape of women
b.
mothers and relatives demanding information about missing individuals
c.
teachers who demanded a peaceful resolution to the war
d.
Nuns who worked for peace within the Catholic Church

mothers and relatives demanding information about missing individuals

78. Which of these best describes sexuality?
a.
desires, beliefs, and behaviors related to erotic physical contact and cultural ideas about these desires, beliefs, and behaviors
b.
the biological predispositions that cause desires, beliefs, and behaviors related to erotic physical contact
c.
cultural ideas that determine what kinds of physical desires and behaviors are considered normal
d.
desires, beliefs, and behaviors related to erotic physical contact for pleasure rather than procreation

desires, beliefs, and behaviors related to erotic physical contact and cultural ideas about these desires, beliefs, and behaviors

79. How did Margaret Mead’s work contribute to a greater understanding of human sexuality?
a.
Her work provided evidence that men and women are naturally sexually promiscuous.
b.
Her work challenged the assumptions that sexual practices should be private rather than public.
c.
Her work challenged the assumption that U.S. attitudes toward sexuality were universal traits fixed in human nature.
d.
Her work explored the commonalities between human sexual practices and the sexual practices of other primates.

Her work challenged the assumption that U.S. attitudes toward sexuality were universal traits fixed in human nature.

80. Why do contemporary anthropologists study sexuality?
a.
They study sexuality in order to provide a better understanding of the diverse expressions of sexuality worldwide.
b.
They study sexuality in order to better understand the individuals they want to study.
c.
Other researchers do not study sexuality due to the difficulty of watching people have sex.
d.
It is a unique exercise in participant observation.

They study sexuality in order to provide a better understanding of the diverse expressions of sexuality worldwide.

81. The stereotype that men have an excessive, sometimes abusive, sex drive is often blamed on testosterone. In light of this, what does physical anthropologist Helen Fisher believe is important to note about this neurochemical?
a.
It is only found in humans when they are highly aroused.
b.
Testosterone is found in much higher levels in women.
c.
Testosterone is found in all mammals.
d.
Testosterone is found in both men and women.

Testosterone is found in both men and women.

82. According to contemporary cultural anthropologists, why do humans in most cultures seem to engage in sexual activity?
a.
They do it mostly for pleasure.
b.
They do it mostly for procreation.
c.
They do it exclusively for pleasure.
d.
They do it exclusively for procreation.

They do it mostly for pleasure.

83. Which of the following statements about the mati of Suriname is correct?
a.
"Mati work" parallels European ideas of lesbianism
b.
Mati regard sexuality as a flexible behavior rather than a fixed identity.
c.
Mati marry men for children and economic stability while maintaining "visiting relationships" with female partners.
d.
"Mati work" is a practice that originated in the Netherlands and was transferred to Suriname during colonization.

Mati regard sexuality as a flexible behavior rather than a fixed identity.

84. Mapping the global scope of diverse hum
an sexual beliefs and behaviors, or ethnocartography, offers the chance for a deeper analysis of one’s own culture. What else does such work provide?
a.
a complete history of human sexuality
b.
a good understanding of the biological causes of sexuality
c.
a reexamination of what seems "normal"
d.
the ability to determine which sexual behavior should be considered immoral

a reexamination of what seems "normal"

85. Human beings have a libido—a degree of sexual and erotic drive—that varies widely. Which term refers to individuals with no erotic interest in others?
a.
Homosexuals
c.
asexuals
b.
Bisexuals
d.
heterosexuals

asexuals

86. The work of early sexologists such as Kinsey tended to reinforce the idea of heterosexuality. In spite of this, what was one of the surprising results that Kinsey and his research revealed about sexual behavior in the United States?
a.
Most people who were having sex used condoms.
b.
Fantasies and same-sex attraction were much more common than expected.
c.
Married women cheated with a higher frequency than married men.
d.
Most people did not consider marriage between a man and a woman desirable.

Fantasies and same-sex attraction were much more common than expected.

87. Cultural and governmental institutions define the age of consent, how marriage and divorce can be obtained, and reproductive rights such as abortion. In regulating these things, what are cultural and government institutions attempting to do?
a.
control family planning by using the full extent of legal government power
b.
limit the negative influence of practicing "sex for fun" in mainstream culture
c.
control sexuality by regulating who can do what with whom and when they can do it
d.
limit the spread of disease by regulating acceptable sexual practices

control sexuality by regulating who can do what with whom and when they can do it

88. Some studies have found that 61 percent of men believe women give consent non-verbally through body language, though only 10 percent of women say they give consent through body language cues. To which issue are these finds related?
a.
the safety risks involved in sexual behavior, such as sexually transmitted infections
b.
the worldwide problem of gender discrimination
c.
the criminalization of sex work in the United States
d.
the need for improved consent policies and social conventions advocating "only yes means yes"

d. the need for improved consent policies and social conventions advocating "only yes means yes"

89. Which of the following terms is defined as the system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to define their mutual expectations, rights, and responsibilities?

a.
family
c.
descent
b.
heredity
d.
kinship

kinship

90. The concept of kinship groups is often based on the idea that a nuclear family consists of a mother, a father, and their children. What kind of model is this?
a.
a nearly universal, cross-cultural understanding of kinship
b.
a Euro-American ideal
c.
a stable model that matches the lived experience of most Americans
d.
a model proven to be the best structure for society

a Euro-American ideal

91. For most individuals in descent groups in the United States, their relationship is based on consanguinity. What is the basis of this consanguineal relationship?
a.
size of group
c.
paternity
b.
blood
d.
maternity

blood

92. What do anthropologists call descent groups based on a claim to a founding ancestor but lacking genealogical documentation?
a.
Relations
c.
clans
b.
Marriages
d.
lineages

clans

93. Both matrilineal and patrilineal patterns of descent build kinship groups through either one genealogical line (the mother’s side) or the other (the father’s side). What anthropological concept does this reflect?
a.
Ambilineality
c.
Endogamy
b.
Unilineality
d.
Patrilineality

Unilineality

94. The parents of an upper-class family in Connecticut (US) send their two children to a private boarding school and, later, to an elite college. Both children marry other members of the upper class, who they met at school. Their parents encouraged what kind of an arranged marriage?
a.
companionate
c.
Endogamous
b.
exogamous
d.
Polygamous

Endogamous

95. Although some kinship relationships are established through biology or common descent, others are established through marriage. What do anthropologists call relationships established through marriage and/or alliance?
a.
Legal
c.
Exogamous
b.
Extramarital
d.
Affinal

Affinal

96. Which of the following types of marriage specifically involves the marital union of one woman to two or more men?
a.
Polyandry
c.
polyamory
b.
monogamy
d.
polygyny

Polyandry

97. What is true about the incest taboo forbidding sexual relations with close relatives such as siblings and parents?
a.
It is universal across all cultures in the world.
b.
It is very rare in ancient cultures.
c.
It is a direct response to concerns about biological degeneration and abnormality.
d.
It is not regulated by law in Western countries.

It is universal across all cultures in the world.

98. While the notion of a romantic marriage predominates thinking in the United States, what is another common reason for marriage prevalent in other countries?
a.
to ensure domestic bliss
b.
to stabilize the tax base
c.
to create a strategic alliance
d.
to ensure accurate paternal identification

to create a strategic alliance

99. All of us are born or adopted into a family. When we make a choice to leave this natal family and choose a mate in order to have children, what kind of family are we becoming part of?
a.
chosen family
c.
family of procreation
b.
family of orientation
d.
nuclear family

family of procreation

100. What is true about systems of class and inequality?
a.
They no longer exist in post-industrialized nation-states such as the United States.
b.
They create an unequal distribution of a society’s resources.
c.
They are a natural feature of human culture.
d.
They are most often exemplified by hunter-gatherer societies.

They create an unequal distribution of a society’s resources.

101. The increasing concentration of wealth into the hands of a smaller number of persons, in part due to globalization, is part of which accelerating process?
a.
Egalitarianism
c.
Social ranking
b.
Stratification
d.
Social prestige

Stratification

102. Egalitarian societies depend on sharing which of the following in order to ensure group success?
a.
Children
c.
Weaponry
b.
Resources
d.
Sexual partners

Resources

103. The advent of agriculture as a primary means of subsistence signaled a change in what aspect of human social structures?
a.
an increase in the number of egalitarian societies
b.
a decline in the number of egalitarian societies
c.
a rise in the amount of food sharing that took place between different groups
d.
an increase in the number of people that were overweight

a decline in the number of egalitarian societies

104. In a ranked society, what two characteristics are stratified?
a.
prestige and lineage
c.
prestige and status
b.
wealth and prestige
d.
wealth and status

prestige and status

105. Karl Marx examined social inequality by distinguishing between which two distinct classes of people?
a.
bourgeoisie and proletariat
c.
proletariat and impoverished
b.
bourgeoisie and elite
d.
elite and privileged

bourgeoisie and proletariat

106. According to Karl Marx, the bourgeoisie consisted of a capitalist class of individuals who owned what part of society?
a.
distribution channels
c.
means of control
b.
means of production
d.
factories

means of production

107. Your best friend, who has recently graduated with honors from Harvard University, arrives at a party you are hosting. Despite being a total stranger to all of the guests, your friend is surrounded almost constantly by others throughout the entire evening. How would a theorist like Max Weber analyze this situation?
a.
Your friend likely has a large ego and is attention seeking by nature.
b.
By attending an elite university, your friend has openly stated his dislike for the working class, drawing lots of attention.
c.
Your friend enjoys high prestige due primarily to the affiliation with a high-prestige university.
d.
Your friend enjoys a lot of wealth and privilege and thus draws others who seek that as well.

Your friend enjoys high prestige due primarily to the affiliation with a high-prestige university.

108. What do we call the movement, both upward and downward, of one’s class position in a society?
a.
social inertia
c.
social reproduction
b.
social achievement
d.
social mobility

social mobility

109. Pierre Bourdieu worked to understand the relationship between class, culture, and power by studying schools in France with the expectation of finding that social mobility was the result of meritocracy. What did he discover instead?
a.
Social isolation took place due to the high rate of parental involvement.
b.
Social reproduction tended to disappear after one generation of children had completed school.
c.
Social mobility did not affect the relationship between parent and child.
d.
Social relations and rates of mobility were reproduced across generations.

Social relations and rates of mobility were reproduced across generations.

110. Carmen’s parents enroll her in AP Honors French, where the content of the class is more academically demanding than the general French class. They also provide Carmen with a comfortable home in a safe neighborhood. And, they spend their summer vacation in France and hire a tutor to help Carmen study for the AP Honors French test. Carmen receives high marks and praise from her teachers. What would Pierre Bourdieu say is a major factor in Carmen’s success?
a.
status prestige
c.
cultural capital
b.
Habitus
d.
group ideology

cultural capital

111. The work of anthropologist Leith Mullings has examined the connections between class, race, and gender, which contributed to the development of which useful analytical framework?
a.
intersectionality
c.
theory of class
b.
interpretive anthropology
d.
systems of power

intersectionality

112. Aside from access to financial resources, anthropological research suggests that the following most influences an individual’s life chances:
a.
Intellectual ability and physical strength
b.
access to social resources such as education
c.
ambition to seize the means of production
d.
access to gainful employment

access to social resources such as education

113. What do we call the total value of what someone owns, including stocks, bonds, and real estate, minus any debt?
a.
Wealth
c.
Income
b.
Investments
d.
Capital

Wealth

114. The culture of poverty theory suggests that poverty is the result of an individual’s dysfunctional behaviors, attitudes, and values. Anthropologists have strongly challenged this idea, arguing that poverty is a structural problem. What do they say this results from?
a.
It results from uneven access to a college education.
b.
It results from partisan political infighting.
c.
It results from poor decisions around urban renewal in the 1960s and 1970s.
d.
It results from dysfunctional aspects of the entire economic system.

It results from dysfunctional aspects of the entire economic system.

115. According to the United Nations, what is the global distribution of wealth and income?
a.
Half of the planet’s wealth is held by 2 percent of the world population, and 75 percent of the world total income is received by 20 percent of the population.
b.
Seventy-five percent of the planet’s wealth is held by 2 percent of the world population, and half of the world total income is received by 20 percent of the population.
c.
Half of the planet’s income is received by 2 percent of the world population, and 75 percent of the planet’s wealth is held by 20 percent of the population.
d.
Twenty percent of the planet’s wealth is held by 75 percent of the world population, and 50 percent of the world total income is received by 2 percent of the population.

Half of the planet’s wealth is held by 2 percent of the world population, and 75 percent of the world total income is received by 20 percent of the population.

116. Groups of humans adapt to their environment in order to use the available resources to satisfy their needs and flourish. What do anthropologists call this cultural adaptation?
a.
the economy
c.
environmental anthropology
b.
capitalism
d.
civilization

the economy

117. Which of the following has the greatest carrying capacity?
a.
small, local farms
c.
industrial agriculture
b.
groups of food foragers
d.
pastoralists

industrial agriculture

118. Generalized reciprocity—the exchange of goods and services among those of relatively equal status—provides a means to share resources. What other significant function does it serve?
a.
It helps maintain social status.
b.
It provides for the poor.
c.
It counteracts the dangers of large-scale industrial agriculture.
d.
It helps build social ties.

It helps build social ties.

119. In the United States, what form of economic system is taxation?
a.
redistribution
c.
negative reciprocity
b.
balanced reciprocity
d.
market exchange

redistribution

120. As a result of the China-Europe trade imbalance, European nations sought to acquire needed resources in order to participate fully in the world economy of that time. The major advantage they had—advanced weaponry and strong military strategies—resulted in what lasting legacy?
a.
Slavery
c.
Disease
b.
Colonialism
d.
Religious domination

Colonialism

121. What major event set the stage for the end of European colonialism?
a.
the Haitian revolution
c.
the Battle of Algiers
b.
World War I
d.
World War II

World War II

122. Critics of modernization suggest that underdevelopment is the result of postcolonialism, and that poor countries today cannot participate in the global economy (and remain on the periphery) because the global economy is structured to extract and transfer___________ from them to developed nations?
a.
money
c.
resources/ raw materials
b.
people
d.
energy

resources/ raw materials

123. Henry Ford is known for the introduction of the assembly line and the Model T. As his manufacturing effort expanded, however, he also adopted an attitude that came to be known as Fordism. What was one of the central tenets in his system?
a.
Workers should earn higher wages and work shorter hours, creating a new pool of consumers with the income and leisure to purchase a car.
b.
Workers should earn lower wages and work shorter hours, since they were easily replaced on the assembly line.
c.
Workers should be drawn from a pool of immigrant labor, which was cheaper and willing to tolerate the grueling work of an assembly line.
d.
Workers could easily tolerate working on an assembly line, so they should be paid lower wages and work longer hours.

a. Workers should earn higher wages and work shorter hours, creating a new pool of consumers with the income and leisure to purchase a car.

124. What argument did Keynes advance about how capitalism works best?
a.
Government must reign in the excesses of capitalism.
b.
Government must be able to control the free market completely.
c.
Free markets must be able to implement the legal structures needed to succeed.
d.
All citizens must be able to decide what the free market can and cannot do.

Government must reign in the excesses of capitalism.

125. The position that the free market and free trade, rather than the state, are the main mechanisms for ensuring economic growth is associated with which theorist?
a.
John Keynes
c.
Karl Marx
b.
Adam Smith
d.
Henry Ford

Adam Smith

126. Which of these are requirements faced by governments receiving structural adjustment loans (SAPs) under neoliberal economic policies?
a.
maintain price supports on essential commodities
b.
increase spending on health and educational services
c.
implement regulations on banks and financial institutions
d.
privatize state-owned enterprises

privatize state-owned enterprises

127. Which of the following does the text identify as a success the global economy has achieved in the past sixty years?
a.
School enrollments have more than doubled across the globe.
b.
Infant mortality rates have dropped by more than 60 percent.
c.
A reduction in poverty has meant fewer than one million people across the globe go hungry each day.
d.
Life expectancy in the past century has risen by 50 percent to 78 years.

Infant mortality rates have dropped by more than 60 percent.

128. Currently, the world is consuming natural resources at double the rate required to maintain sustainable levels. What problem does this illustrate about the sustainability of the current global economy?
a.
The global population is not evenly distributed.
b.
The human ecological footprint is too large.
c.
Capitalism must be perfected.
d.
Technology is not advancing quick enough.

The human ecological footprint is too large.

129. In the past several decades, many companies have made effective use of flexible accumulation—the strategy used by transnational corporations to maximize profits. Following this, what is one of the reasons that a company like Wal-Mart has grown in both size and profit?
a.
It has established itself as a fair employer around the world.
b.
It has avoided offshoring until just recently.
c.
It has more than 7,000 factories overseas that manufacture products for the company.
d.
It has built stores in every nation on the planet.

It has more than 7,000 factories overseas that manufacture products for the company.

130. On what basis do people often make sense of the world, reach decisions, and organize their lives?
a.
their religious beliefs
b.
their society’s social organization
c.
their ability to falsify the religions of others
d.
a theoretical understanding of religious practices

their religious beliefs

131. Whether studying a small temple in a remote village or the most famous Catholic cathedral in Rome, anthropologists try to convey each religion’s sense of moral order, dynamic public expressions, and:
a.
Truthfulness
b.
appeal in order to convert new followers
c.
connection to all the major world religions
d.
interactions with other systems of meaning and power

interactions with other systems of meaning and power

132. The diversity of local religious expressions complicates anthropologists’ efforts to develop:
a.
a universal definition of spirituality
b.
an understanding of which religion is best for society
c.
a new, universal religion for the modern world
d.
a universal definition of religion

a universal definition of religion

133. Which of the following is a person who sacrifices his or her life for the sake of his or her religion?
a.
Saint
c.
Pilgrim
b.
Martyr
d.
Shaman

Martyr

134. In Japan, the second Monday of January is a national Coming of Age Day. Young people who have turned 20 years old in the past year wear traditional clothing, attend ceremonies in local government offices, and celebrate at parties afterwards. Coming of Age Day is an example of:
a.
a pilgrimage
c.
a religious practice
b.
imitative magic
d.
a rite of passage

a rite of passage

135. French sociologist Emile Durkheim developed the notion of a fundamental dichotomy between which of the following sets of ideas that has been used by anthropologists in examining religion?
a.
forbidden and allowed
c.
unclean and dirty
b.
evil and holy
d.
sacred and profane

sacred and profane

136. The upheaval brought about by the Industrial Revolution led to profound changes in the nature of production and labor as well as the displacement of people as they sought out ways to make a living in the face of these changes. When French sociologist Emile Durkheim observed all of this, what did he call it?
a.
Habitus
c.
anomie
b.
Communitas
d.
alienation

anomie

137. In many cultures, the first menstruation in women is seen as a powerful marker of womanhood and is frequently marked by ritual. In some cases, the young woman is separated from the larger social cohort and left in a state of isolation that may provide a time for reflection. According to anthropologist Victor Turner, what is this stage in the ritual process called?
a.
liminality
c.
communitas
b.
profane
d.
sacred

liminality

138. Your college experience leads eventually to your graduation, a ritual process that ushers you into the "real world" where you are expected to find a job and be a productive member of the larger society. In the model of ritual that Victor Turner describes, what does this entirety of your experience, including the graduation ceremony itself, help to promote?
a.
Individuation
c.
Separation
b.
Liminality
d.
Communitas

Communitas

139. The text describes the Muslim saint shrine of Husain Tekri and how people of many different faiths come to the shrine for healing rituals. The people traveling to the shrine are:
a.
seeking conversion
c.
experiencing communitas
b.
making a pilgrimage
d.
experiencing liminality

making a pilgrimage

28. Which of the following individuals believed that ideas can be just as powerful as economics in shaping society?
a.
Emile Durkheim
c.
Karl Marx
b.
Max Weber
d.
Victor Turner+

Max Weber

30. When Max Weber envisioned an evolution of rationalization in religion, what did he suggest it might result in at the end?
a.
rational religion based on legal codes of conduct
b.
rational religion based on persuasive prophets
c.
a purely secular society free of religion
d.
logical religion based on acceptance of magic and shamanistic beliefs

rational religion based on legal codes of conduct

140. Seo-yun is a mudang in South Korea. In her community, she acts as an intermediary between spirits or gods and the human world through rituals, songs, and ancestor worship. When she is not doing that, she lives a typical life. Which term best describes Seo-yun?
a.
Shaman
c.
Martyr
b.
Saint
d.
Communitas

Shaman

141. E. E. Evans-Pritchard conducted fieldwork among the Azande and rebuffed Max Weber’s earlier assertion that science and modernization would lead to the decline of magic. What was a key element of magic highlighted by Evans-Pritchard’s work?
a.
Magic is irrational.
c.
Magic is ritualistic.
b.
Magic is scientific.
d.
Magic is rational.

Magic is rational.

142. George Gmelch discovered that baseball players who use a particular ritual, such as touching the bill of their cap every time they are up to bat, believe what about good magic?
a.
Good magic is contagious.
b.
Good magic is always consistent.
c.
Good magic resides in sacred objects.
d.
Good magic is highly effective.

Good magic is contagious.

143. According to Talal Asad, how did the cross, the Torah, and the cow gain their symbolic power?
a.
through the actions and words of prophets
b.
through their material value, which gave them spiritual value
c.
through Western scholars seeking to define religion
d.
through complex historical and social developments

through complex historical and social developments

144. Football, a popular sport in the United States, has been linked to brain injuries. Why might anthropologists be interested in the study of brain injuries in football players?
a.
to assist in documenting a major health scandal
b.
to better understand the relationship between health and culture
c.
to advance the field of sports medicine
d.
to uncover hidden problems with football

to better understand the relationship between health and culture

145. While conventional wisdom attributes good health to good nutrition, exercise, sleep, proper sanitation, and avoiding smoking, medical anthropologists consider many other factors when looking at health. What is one critical aspect of health that is often overlooked?
a.
farming methods
c.
inequality
b.
evolutionary shifts
d.
genetic predisposition

inequality

146. What does the study of ethnomedicine focus on?
a.
the role of hospitals and doctors in the health-care system
b.
the study of religious ritual in health care
c.
the local use of natural substances in healing remedies and practices
d.
the comparative study of local systems of health and healing

the comparative study of local systems of health and healing

9. How do anthropologists define biomedicine?
a.
the intersection of multiple cultural approaches to healing
b.
a practice that seeks to apply the principles of the natural sciences
c.
the documentation and description of the local use of natural substances in healing remedies and practices
d.
the comparative study of local systems of health and healing

a practice that seeks to apply the principles of the natural sciences

12. How do medical anthropologists distinguish between disease and illness?
a.
as a pathological condition versus an imagined reality
b.
as a natural entity versus personal experience
c.
as a natural entity versus a condition defined by the state
d.
as a natural entity versus a psychologically treatable condition

as a natural entity versus personal experience

13. From the anthropological perspective, an individual patient’s experience of sickness is considered to be what? (pg 396 of textbook)
a.
universally defined
c.
a matter of personal interpretation
b.
defined by a doctor
d.
culturally defined

culturally defined

147. In Tibet, there are about 200 traditional healers known as amchi who provide health care. What is their system of health care based on?
a.
elimination of body and spirit as part of individual wellness
b.
complete separation of body and spirit in the individual
c.
achieving balance between body and spirit in the individual
d.
elevation of the spirit over the body in the individual

achieving balance between body and spirit in the individual

148. What is one important part of medical treatment that the biomedical model overlooks?
a.
the scientific means to diagnose a disease
b.
social experiences as a component of disease
c.
pharmacology as a means of understanding diseases
d.
recognizing that biology plays a crucial role in disease

social experiences as a component of disease

149. Anthropologists have recognized that Western biomedicine draws heavily on:
a.
universally held values
b.
the experience of the doctor in a foreign country
c.
Enlightenment values
d.
the willingness of the doctor to practice alternative medicine

Enlightenment values

150. Anthropologist and physician Paul Farmer found rural Haitian residents experiencing very high rates of malnutrition, dysentery, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Many of these residents were water refugees due to the construction of a hydroelectric dam that had flooded their valley. This problem underlines the difficulty of providing adequate health care in the face of ________.
a.
Globalization
c.
a highly corrupt government
b.
socioeconomic inequality

d.
rural development projects

socioeconomic inequality

151. What are illness narratives?
a.
stories based on a physician’s assessment of an illness
b.
the personal stories that people tell to explain their illness
c.
ethnographic studies of disease and illness
d.
narratives provided by anthropologists to physicians

the personal stories that people tell to explain their illness

152. From the perspective of a medical anthropologist, all medical systems are based in a particular local cultural reality and therefore constitute a form of what?
a.
Ethnomedicine
c.
biomedicine
b.
Ethnopharamacology
d.
medical pluralism

Ethnomedicine

153. We are taught that antibacterial soaps and cleaning products that completely eliminate germs on surfaces and food are essential to good health. Why is this approach now under scrutiny?
a.
We have a greater understanding of disease in other cultures.
b.
Research has unlocked all of human genetics.
c.
We are better educated about human pathogens.
d.
We have begun to understand human microbiomes.

We have begun to understand human microbiomes.

154. What is meant by a "health transition?"
a.
the significant, but uneven, improvements in human health made over the course of the twentieth century
b.
the shift from Western-based medicine to other forms of healing practice
c.
the change seen in how Western doctors are trained in other cultural practices
d.
the shift from non-Western medical practices to Western models of medical treatment

the significant, but uneven, improvements in human health made over the course of the twentieth century

155. The complete collection of microorganisms in the body’s ecosystem is referred to as what?
a.
Microsystem
c.
microbiome
b.
human ecosystem
d.
biodome

microbiome

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